click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Triglyceride

A triglyceride is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids. Triglycerides are the main constituents of body fat in humans and other vertebrates, as well as vegetable fat, they are present in the blood to enable the bidirectional transference of adipose fat and blood glucose from the liver, are a major component of human skin oils. There are many different types of triglyceride, with the main division between saturated and unsaturated types. Saturated fats are "saturated" with hydrogen — all available places where hydrogen atoms could be bonded to carbon atoms are occupied; these have a higher melting point and are more to be solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fats have double bonds between some of the carbon atoms, reducing the number of places where hydrogen atoms can bond to carbon atoms; these have a lower melting point and are more to be liquid at room temperature. Triglycerides are tri-esters consisting of a glycerol bound to three fatty acid molecules. Alcohols have a hydroxyl group.

Organic acids have a carboxyl group. Alcohols and organic acids join to form esters; the glycerol molecule has three hydroxyl groups and each fatty acid has a carboxyl group. In triglycerides, the hydroxyl groups of the glycerol join the carboxyl groups of the fatty acid to form ester bonds: HOCH2CHCH2OH + RCO2H + R′CO2H + R″CO2H → RCO2CH2CHCH2CO2R″ + 3H2OThe three fatty acids are different, as many kinds of triglycerides are known; the chain lengths of the fatty acids in occurring triglycerides vary, but most contain 16, 18, or 20 carbon atoms. Natural fatty acids found in plants and animals are composed of only numbers of carbon atoms, reflecting the pathway for their biosynthesis from the two-carbon building-block acetyl CoA. Bacteria, possess the ability to synthesise odd- and branched-chain fatty acids; as a result, ruminant animal fat contains odd-numbered fatty acids, such as 15, due to the action of bacteria in the rumen. Many fatty acids are unsaturated. Most natural fats contain a complex mixture of individual triglycerides.

Because of this, they melt over a broad range of temperatures. Cocoa butter is unusual in that it is composed of only a few triglycerides, derived from palmitic and stearic acids in the 1-, 2-, 3-positions of glycerol, respectively; the simplest triglycerides are those. Their names indicate the fatty acid: stearin derived from stearic acid, palmitin derived from palmitic acid, etc; these compounds can be obtained in three crystalline forms: α, β, β′, the three forms differing in their melting points. If the first and third chain R and R″ are different the central carbon atom is a chiral center, as a result the triglyceride is chiral; the pancreatic lipase acts at the ester bond, "releasing" the fatty acid. In triglyceride form, lipids cannot be absorbed by the duodenum. Fatty acids and some diglycerides are absorbed by the duodenum, once the triglycerides have been broken down. In the intestine, following the secretion of lipases and bile, triglycerides are split into monoacylglycerol and free fatty acids in a process called lipolysis.

They are subsequently moved to absorptive enterocyte cells lining the intestines. The triglycerides are rebuilt in the enterocytes from their fragments and packaged together with cholesterol and proteins to form chylomicrons; these are excreted from the cells and collected by the lymph system and transported to the large vessels near the heart before being mixed into the blood. Various tissues can capture the chylomicrons, releasing the triglycerides to be used as a source of energy. Liver cells can store triglycerides; when the body requires fatty acids as an energy source, the hormone glucagon signals the breakdown of the triglycerides by hormone-sensitive lipase to release free fatty acids. As the brain cannot utilize fatty acids as an energy source, the glycerol component of triglycerides can be converted into glucose, via gluconeogenesis by conversion into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, for brain fuel when it is broken down. Fat cells may be broken down for that reason if the brain's needs outweigh the body's.

Triglycerides cannot pass through cell membranes freely. Special enzymes on the walls of blood vessels called lipoprotein lipases must break down triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol. Fatty acids can be taken up by cells via the fatty acid transporter. Triglycerides, as major components of very-low-density lipoprotein and chylomicrons, play an important role in metabolism as energy sources and transporters of dietary fat, they contain more than twice as much energy as carbohydrates. In the human body, high levels of triglycerides in the bloodstream have been linked to atherosclerosis, heart disease and stroke. However, the relative negative impact of raised levels of triglycerides compared to that of LDL:HDL ratios is as yet unknown; the risk can be accounted for by a strong inverse relationship between triglyceride level and HDL-cholesterol level. But the risk is due to high triglyceride levels increasing the quantity of small, dense LDL particles; the National Cholesterol Education Program has set guidelines for triglyceride levels: These levels are tested after fasting 8 to 12 hours.

Triglyceride levels remain temporarily higher for a period after eating. T

Lee Rudofsky

Lee Philip Rudofsky is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas. Rudofsky received a Bachelor of Science and a Master of Public Administration from Cornell University, a Juris Doctor from Harvard Law School. After law school, Rudofsky served as a law clerk to Justice Robert J. Cordy of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court and to Judge Andrew Kleinfeld of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, he became an associate at Kirkland & Ellis, before serving as Deputy General Counsel to the Mitt Romney 2012 presidential campaign. In 2015, Rudofsky became Solicitor General of Arkansas, he left that post in 2018 to become senior director for global anti-corruption compliance at Walmart. On July 1, 2019, President Trump announced his intent to nominate Rudofsky to serve as a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas. Rudofsky was nominated to the seat vacated by Judge James Leon Holmes, who took senior status on March 31, 2018.

On July 8, 2019, his nomination was sent to the United States Senate. Senator Tom Cotton recommended his nomination. On July 31, 2019, a hearing on his nomination was held before the Senate Judiciary Committee. On October 17, 2019, his nomination was reported out of committee by a 12–10 vote. On November 6, 2019, the Senate voted 51 -- 41. On November 7, 2019, his nomination was confirmed by a vote of 51–41, he received his judicial commission on November 8, 2019. He has been a member of the Federalist Society since 2002. Lee Rudofsky at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center

Morris D. Busby

Morris Dempson Busby is an American career diplomat who served as United States Ambassador to Colombia from 1991 to 1994. Before being appointed as the United States Ambassador to Colombia, Busby served as coordinator for counter-terrorism with the rank of Ambassador at the Department of State in Washington, D. C.. Prior to this, he served at the Department of State as a special envoy for Central America, 1988–1989. Busby served as deputy chief of mission at the United States Embassy in Mexico City, 1984–1987. On May 15, 1991 President George H. W. Bush nominated Busby to be United States Ambassador to Colombia. On July 30, 1991, the U. S. Senate made the confirmation. During his tenure, on December 2, 1993 the leader of the Medellín Cartel, Pablo Escobar was shot and killed by Colombian National Police. After Escobar's death, Busby announced on national television: "Pablo Escobar's death and the dismantling of the Medellin cartel are great successes for Colombia, but now they should continue with the Cali Cartel.".

After being Ambassador, in 1995 he has served as President of BGI, Inc. an international consulting firm. Busby became Director of Morpho Detection, Inc. since March 1998. Appearances on C-SPAN

Achduart

Achduart is a small hamlet in Coigach, in Wester Ross in northwestern Scotland, now within the Highland council area. It is situated at the end of a minor road. A footpath continues on to the hamlet of Culnacraig along the coast past Ben More Coigach to Strathcanaird. Achduart has accommodation facilities for tourists, who come for its proximity to the ocean as well as its seclusion and remoteness. There is a Scottish Youth Hostels Association hostel in a short distance to the north; the name of Achduart comes from the Gaelic for "the field at the black headland". Achduart was part of the Estate of Coigach, belonging to the Countess of Cromartie; the dominant geographical feature in the area is Cairn Conmheall. Kenny John Macleod -fiddler Coigach Genealogy

William C. Harris (historian)

William C. Harris is Professor Emeritus of History at North Carolina State University. In 2012, he was co-winner of the 2012 Lincoln Prize, he began graduate school in 1958 at the University of Alabama. Harris served in the U. S. Air Force before graduate school, he is on the Advisory Council of Ford's Theatre and serves on the Board of Advisors for Knox College's Lincoln Studies Center. Harris's With charity for all: Lincoln and the restoration of the Union came in second place for the Lincoln Prize in 1998, he received the Lincoln Diploma of Honor from the Lincoln Memorial University in 2003. In 2008, Harris's writing was awarded Henry Adams Prize offered by the Society for History in the Federal Government with his book Lincoln's Rise to the Presidency Most notably, Harris was awarded the Gilder Lehrman Lincoln Prize in 2012. Presidential Reconstruction in Mississippi. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University. OCLC 647759 The day of the carpetbagger: Republican Reconstruction in Mississippi. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979.

ISBN 9780807103661. OCLC 3915482 William Woods Holden: firebrand of North Carolina politics. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1987. ISBN 9780807113257. OCLC 15109349 With charity for all: Lincoln and the restoration of the Union. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, 1997. ISBN 9780813109718. OCLC 35574529 Lincoln's last months. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2004. ISBN 9780674011991. OCLC 52858521 Lincoln's rise to the presidency. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 2007. ISBN 9780700615209. OCLC 77270665 Lincoln and the Border States: preserving the Union. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 2011. ISBN 9780700618040. OCLC 714731538 Lincoln and the Union governors. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2013. ISBN 9780809332885. OCLC 832706403

Damart

Damart is a French company which specialises in clothing. Established in 1953 the brand became a household name in France and the UK. Although the brand specialises in a material called Thermolactyl, known for its insulation qualities, the label has expanded to include fashion items for the senior's market. Damart is the most well known brand of a company, now called Damartex, which originated in France in 1953, it was founded by the Despature brothers and manufactured thermal clothing using Thermolactyl fibre. Today the Damartex group employs around 4,000 people worldwide, with around 650 of these in the UK. In 1976, Damart went public being listed on the Paris Stock Exchange. In 2003 Damart celebrated its 50th anniversary, with 130 stores across Europe and an active customer base of 10 million. In the UK, Damart has three offices. Two of these are located in West Yorkshire, one in Bingley, one in Steeton. There is one located in Earby. Earby shut in 2009 and all mailings are done from Steeton. Damart has closed its physical UK retail stores, with the exception of its store in Bingley, now operates as a mail order, telephone order and online retailer.

Many of Coronation Street's stars wear items from Damart's range when filming in order to keep out the cold conditions presented by the streets of Weatherfield. Damart has provided items for the wardrobe of some of the soap's characters over the years including Maggie Jones and Anne Kirkbride. In 2002, Damart entered into partnership with the Breast Cancer Campaign and has since raised £82,000 for breast cancer awareness through sales of its limited edition pink vest; the Pink Vest campaign has seen a publicity contribution from a number of stars over the years, the most recent being Alison King, Coronation Street's Carla Connor. In 2005 Damart caused a stir by sending a promotional offer to many of its elderly customers, disguised as a red final reminder letter; the letter was entitled'Final reminder from Damart's financial director' and had'Account Settlement' pasted across the page. Damartex headquarters is in France; the company has a presence in the USA, Australia and Switzerland. Official website UK Website