click links in text for more info

Trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions are real functions which relate an angle of a right-angled triangle to ratios of two side lengths. They are used in all sciences that are related to geometry, such as navigation, solid mechanics, celestial mechanics and many others, they are among the simplest periodic functions, as such are widely used for studying periodic phenomena, through Fourier analysis. The most used trigonometric functions are the sine, the cosine, the tangent, their reciprocals are the cosecant, the secant, the cotangent, which are less used in modern mathematics. The oldest definitions of trigonometric functions, related to right-angle triangles, define them only for acute angles. For extending these definitions to functions whose domain is the whole projectively extended real line, one can use geometrical definitions using the standard unit circle. Modern definitions express trigonometric functions as infinite series or as solutions of differential equations; this allows extending the domain of the sine and the cosine functions to the whole complex plane, the domain of the other trigonometric functions to the complex plane from which some isolated points are removed.

In this section, the same upper-case letter denotes a vertex of a triangle and the measure of the corresponding angle. Given an acute angle A = θ of a right-angled triangle, the hypotenuse h is the side that connects the two acute angles; the side b adjacent to θ is the side of the triangle. The third side θ is said opposite to θ. If the angle θ is given all sides of the right-angled triangle are well defined up to a scaling factor; this means that the ratio of any two side lengths depends only on θ. These six ratios define thus six functions of θ. More the six trigonometric functions are: sine sin ⁡ θ = a h = o p p o s i t e h y p o t e n u s e cosine cos ⁡ θ = b h = a d j a c e n t h y p o t e n u s e tangent tan ⁡ θ = a b = o p p o s i t e a d j a c e n t cosecant csc ⁡ θ = h a = h y p o t e n u s e o p p o s i t e secant sec ⁡ θ = h b = h y p o t e n u s e a d j a c e n t cotangent cot ⁡ θ = b a = a d j a c e n t o p p o s i t e In a right angled triangle, the sum of the two acute angles is a right angle, 90° or π 2 radians.

In geometric applications, the argument of a trigonometric function is the measure of an angle. For this purpose, any angular unit is convenient, angles are most measured in degrees; when using trigonometric function in calculus, their argument is not an angle, but rather a real number. In this case, it is more suitable to express the argument of the trigonometric as the length of the arc of the unit circle delimited by an angle with the center of the circle as vertex. Therefore, one uses the radian as angular unit: a radian is the angle that delimits an arc of length 1 on the unit circle. A complete turn is thus an angle of 2π radians. A great advantage of radians is that many formulas are much simpler when using them all formulas relative to derivatives and integrals; this is thus a general convention that, when the angular unit is not explicitl


NetBIOS is an acronym for Network Basic Input/Output System. It provides services related to the session layer of the OSI model allowing applications on separate computers to communicate over a local area network; as an API, NetBIOS is not a networking protocol. Older operating systems ran NetBIOS over IEEE 802.2 and IPX/SPX using the NetBIOS Frames and NetBIOS over IPX/SPX protocols, respectively. In modern networks, NetBIOS runs over TCP/IP via the NetBIOS over TCP/IP protocol; this results in each computer in the network having both an IP address and a NetBIOS name corresponding to a host name. NetBIOS is a non-routable OSI Session Layer 5 Protocol and a service that allows applications on computers to communicate with one another over a local area network. NetBIOS was developed in 1983 by Sytek Inc. as an API for software communication over IBM PC Network LAN technology. On PC-Network, as an API alone, NetBIOS relied on proprietary Sytek networking protocols for communication over the wire.

Despite supporting a maximum of 80 PCs in a LAN, NetBIOS became an industry standard. In 1985, IBM went forward with the token ring network scheme and a NetBIOS emulator was produced to allow NetBIOS-aware applications from the PC-Network era to work over this new design; this emulator, named NetBIOS Extended User Interface, expanded the base NetBIOS API with, among other things, the ability to deal with the greater node capacity of token ring. A new networking protocol, NBF, was produced to allow NetBEUI to provide its services over token ring – at the IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control layer. In 1985, Microsoft created a NetBIOS implementation for its MS-Net networking technology; as in the case of IBM's token ring, the services of Microsoft's NetBIOS implementation were provided over the IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control layer by the NBF protocol. Until Microsoft adopted Domain Name System resolution of hostnames Microsoft operating systems used NetBIOS to resolve names in Windows client-server networks.

In 1986, Novell released Advanced Novell NetWare 2.0 featuring the company's own NetBIOS emulator. Its services were encapsulated within NetWare's IPX/SPX protocol using the NetBIOS over IPX/SPX protocol. In 1987, a method of encapsulating NetBIOS in TCP and UDP packets, NetBIOS over TCP/IP, was published, it was described in RFC 1001 and RFC 1002. The NBT protocol was developed in order to "allow an implementation to be built on any type of system where the TCP/IP protocol suite is available," and to "allow NetBIOS interoperation in the Internet." After the PS/2 computer hit the market in 1987, IBM released the PC LAN Support Program, which included a driver for NetBIOS. Worth noting is the popular confusion between the names NetBIOS and NetBEUI. NetBEUI originated as the moniker for IBM's enhanced 1985 NetBIOS emulator for token ring; the name NetBEUI should have died there, considering that at the time, the NetBIOS implementations by other companies were known as NetBIOS regardless of whether they incorporated the API extensions found in that emulator.

For MS-Net, Microsoft elected to name its implementation of the NBF protocol "NetBEUI" – naming its implementation of the transport protocol after IBM's second version of the API. Today, Microsoft file and printer sharing over Ethernet continues to be called NetBEUI, with the name NetBIOS used only in reference to file and printer sharing over TCP/IP. In truth, the former is the NetBIOS Frames protocol, the latter is NetBIOS over TCP/IP. Since its original publishing in a technical reference book from IBM, the NetBIOS API specification has become a de facto standard. NetBIOS provides three distinct services: Name service for name resolution. Datagram distribution service for connectionless communication. Session service for connection-oriented communication. In order to start sessions or distribute datagrams, an application must register its NetBIOS name using the name service. NetBIOS names vary based on the particular implementation; the 16th octet, called the NetBIOS Suffix, designates the type of resource, can be used to tell other applications what type of services the system offers.

In NBT, the name service operates on UDP port 137. The name service primitives offered by NetBIOS are: Add name – registers a NetBIOS name. Add group name – registers a NetBIOS "group" name. Delete name – un-registers a NetBIOS name or group name. Find name – looks up a NetBIOS name on the network. NetBIOS name resolution is not supported by Microsoft for Internet Protocol Version 6. Datagram mode is connectionless. In NBT, the datagram service runs on UDP port 138; the datagram service primitives offered by NetBIOS are: Send Datagram – send a datagram to a remote NetBIOS name. Send Broadcast Datagram – send a datagram to all NetBIOS names on the network. Receive Datagram – wait for a packet to arrive from a Send Datagram operation. Receive Broadca


Nidularia is a genus of nine species of fungi in the family Agaricaceae. Their fruit bodies resemble tiny egg-filled bird nests; the name comes from the Latin nidus meaning nest. The related genus Mycocalia was segregated from Nidularia in 1961 based on differences in the microscopic structure of the peridium; the name Nidularia first appeared in the scientific literature in 1790 when Pierre Bulliard published N. vernicosa and N. laevis. This name, was not validly published, as it predated the starting point for naming of gasteroid fungi, it lacked a generic description. Jean Bulliard gave a generic description in 1791. N. striata and N. vernicosa are now placed in Cyathus. Bulliard's concept of Nidularia is synonymous with Cyathus. Nidularia was again circumscribed in 1817 by Swedish mycologist Elias Magnus Fries and his student Johann Nordholm. N. radicata, N. confluens, N. deformis, N. denudata. Nidularia farcta was given as the type species. N. denudata is now the type species of Mycocalia. Granularia, a genus erected by Albrecht Wilhelm Roth in 1791 to contain Granularia pisiformis, is synonymous with Nidularia.

In 1961, J. T. Palmer separated Nidularia section Sorosia as a distinct genus, combining Nidularia denudata, N. castanea, N. fusispora, N. reticulata, adding the new species Mycocalia minutissima. In these species, the peridium comprises hyaline, septate hyphae with clamp connections. In contrast, the peridium of Nidularia have tinted, spiny, aseptate hyphae that continue into long threads; the peridium of Mycocalia species is thin and short-lasting, while in Nidularia it is somewhat darker in color and more robust. Classified in the family Nidulariaceae, along with other bird's nest fungi genera, molecular phylogenetic analysis has shown that these fungi belong in the family Agaricaceae. Fruit bodies of species in this genus grow together in large groups, have dimensions that are 0.5–6 mm in diameter by 0.5–3 mm tall. They may be somewhat irregular in shape, or have a well-formed cup, thin and fragile; the peridium has a tomentose surface composed of irregular, spiny hyphae over a more compact wall that breaks down to expose may brown peridioles within.

Unlike other bird's-nest genera classified in the family Nidulariaceae, the peridioles of the Nidularia are not connected to the fruit body by a funicular cord, but rather lay clumped together in a gelatinous matrix. There may be over 100 peridioles embedded in the matrix. In Nidularia pulvinata, they have an average size of 1.1 mm diameter by 0.5 mm thickness, with an average mass of 0.2 grams. This species has an estimated 7 million spores per peridiole. Spores are elliptical in shape and with dimensions of 5–10.5 by 4–5.5 µm. Nidularia griseolazulina, has larger spores than typical, measuring 14–18 by 10–14 µm. Nidularia species are saprophytic, grow on rotting wood; the thin, fragile peridium is ruptured by falling raindrops, after which the impact of additional raindrops spreads the internal matrix and dislodges the peridioles within. The splash mechanism of Nidularia pulvinata discharges periodioles horizonally at speeds ranging from 0.3 to 3.0 meters per second, with ejection distances averaging 8 mm.

As of January 2016, Index Fungorum accepts nine species of Nidularia: Nidularia bonaerensis Speg. 1880 Nidularia campoi Speg. 1921 – South America Nidularia castanea Sacc. & D. Sacc. 1905 Nidularia deformis Fr. 1817 Nidularia griseolazulina Lindsey & Gilb. 1975 – United States Nidularia heribaudii Har. & Pat. 1904 Nidularia heterospora Sosin 1960 Nidularia microspora Velen. 1939 Nidularia pulvinata Fr. 1823 List of Agaricales genera List of Agaricaceae genera

Kristína Royová

Kristína Royová was a Slovak Protestant activist, revivalist and poet. She was founder of the Blue Cross and diaconical centre in Stará Turá, her literary works were translated into 36 languages. During the reign of communist party in former Czechoslovakia, Christian literature written by her was among those confiscated by state security service ŠtB and at the same time she was blacklisted on the socialist era school curricula, she is now considered to be the Slovak author with the most translated literary works and some literary critics regard her for being a "Slovak Kierkegaard". Parents of Kristína Royová were descendants of two prominent Lutheran families. Father August Roy, close friend of J. M. Hurban, was member of Slavic society, co-founder of Matica Slovak gymnasiums. Mother was from house of Holuby, her brother Jozef Ľudovít Holuby was prominent Slovak botanist, church historian and archaeologist and her other brother Karol Holuby was executed close to present-day Šulekovo village in the revolutionary year of 1848.

The childhood of Kristína Royová was associated with Lutheran parish in Stará Turá, where local chaplains were at the same time her teachers. Still, the overall education she received had not fulfilled her vast intellectual potential; the great contribution to development of her skills was a one-year study at higher secondary school in Bratislava where she managed to master the German language. 1882 / 1884 - Tri obrázky, narratives 1893 - Bez Boha na svete 1898 - Božie charaktery 1898 - Splnená túžba 1901 - Bludári 1901 - Dôležitá pravda 1901 - Istota a neistota 1901 - Lotova žena 1901 - Pekný začiatok-smutný koniec 1901 - Nebolo miesta 1901 - Podivné hodiny 1901 - Za živa do priepasti 1901 - Stroskotaná loď 1903 - Sluha 1903 - Šťastie 1903 - Za vysokú cenu 1904 - Ako zbohatnúť 1904 - Divné milosrdenstvo 1904 - Šťastní ľudia 1904 - Divní rozsievači 1904 - Dieťa hausírerov 1906 - Vo vyhnanstve 1907 - Šťastlivé Vianoce 1909 - Ako kvapôčka putovala 1909 - V slnečnej krajine 1909 - Opilcove dieťa 1910 - Ako prišli lastovičky domov 1910 - Ako zomrel slávičok 1910 - Nemoc a pomoc 1910 - Tarsenský 1912 - Za presvedčenie čili z Mezopotámie do Kanaánu 1913 - Stratení 1915 - Pošta 1917 - Pozdrav zo Starej Turej 1920 - Druhá žena 1920 - Zpráva z roku 1919 1920 - Otcovrah 1921 - Keď nikde nebolo pomoci 1921 - Štyri rozprávočky pre veľké a malé deti 1921 - V pevnej ruke 1922 - Ztratení 1922 - Traja kamaráti 1922 - Zachránená 1924 - Výstražný sen 1924 - Poslednia cesta 1924 - Kde bol jeho otec?

1925 - Na rozhraní 1926 - Prišiel domov 1926 - Za vysokú cenu 1927 - Susedia 1927 - Ako trpaslík zabil obra 1927 - Blízko ešte neni vnútri 1928 - Staniša 1929 - Za svetlom a so svetlom. Rozpomienky Kristíny Royovej 1930 - Navrátený raj 1930 - Abigail 1931 - Keď život začínal. Slnečné dieťa 1935 - Tuláci Kúzlo otčiny, narrative V okruží panslavizmu, narrative Pod práporom lásky, narrative Kaczmarczyk, Stanislav, Život a dílo Kristíny Royové, Český Těšín: Slezská církev evang. a. v. Potúček, Juraj.

Alkmaar Noord railway station

Alkmaar Noord railway station is a suburban railway station in the town of Alkmaar, Netherlands. The station is located on the Den Helder -- Amsterdam railway; the train services are operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen. The station is served by the following service: 2x per hour Intercity services Schagen - Alkmaar - Amsterdam - Utrecht - Eindhoven - Maastricht 2x per hour Intercity services Den Helder - Alkmaar - Amsterdam - Utrecht - Arnhem - Nijmegen 2x per hour Local services Hoorn - Alkmaar - Uitgeest - Haarlem - Amsterdam The following bus services are operated by Connexxion and call at the station. 3 - Daalmeer - De Mare - Noord Station - Station 4 - Daalmeer - Koedijk - De Mare - Vroonermeer - Noord Station - Station - Centre - MCA Hospital - Overdie 8 - Station - Noord Station - Beverkoog NS website Dutch public transport travel planner

Steve Higgins

Steve Higgins is an American writer, announcer and comedian. He serves as the announcer of The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon and as a writer and producer of Saturday Night Live. Prior to The Tonight Show, Higgins was the announcer for Late Night with Jimmy Fallon from 2009 to 2014. Higgins was born on August 13, 1963 in Des Moines, Iowa, to Marian and Harold Higgins, who managed the custodial operations in West Des Moines schools, he was one of five children, including his brothers Alan. During the 1970s, Higgins became popular in the Iowa lounge scene for eating scraps of carpet onstage. For a brief period of time, he rose to sufficient notoriety that people brought scraps of their own home carpets to his performances, in hope that he would consume theirs onstage. Interest waned quickly and Higgins moved on to more traditional standup routines. Higgins formed the comedy troupe Don't Quit Your Day Job, with brothers David and Alan, Dave Gruber Allen, they performed at notable places in Iowa including the Hotel Kirkwood, Corky's, the Spaghetti Works.

They moved to California where they started performing in Los Angeles and soon got their big break on the Comedy Central sketch comedy series The Higgins Boys and Gruber. In 1989, Higgins performed at The Vic Theatre in Chicago for HBO's One Night Stand television series, along with his brother Dave, Gruber. Alongside Nick Bakay, Higgins performed in 1993 at the Girly Magazine Party show at Theatre/Theater in Hollywood, Los Angeles, they played "a sleazoid male chauvinist comedy duo who exchange off-color ethnic jokes and prance around in suits and ties like Steve Martin on PCP". His brother, performed in the show and in a separate act. Higgins was praised for his ability of knowing "when to go over the top and when to rein it in", how he was able to be "acutely tuned in to the comings and goings around them and know how to play off each other". Soon after, Higgins went on to become a writer for the short-lived MTV programs Trashed and The Jon Stewart Show. From 1995 to 1997, Higgins was the co-head writer of Saturday Night Live.

Since 1997, he has served on the writing staff of the show, since 1996, he has served as a producer of the show. In 2000 he played the inspirational AV teacher in the last episode of Geeks, he has been nominated for several Emmy Awards, including Outstanding Variety, Music or Comedy Series and Outstanding Writing for a Variety, Music or Comedy Program in 2008, for his work on Saturday Night Live and as a writer. In a 2012 interview with The A. V. Club, former Saturday Night Live writer Michael Schur revealed that Higgins was the inspiration for the Parks and Recreation character Andy Dwyer after Higgins would playfully fight with him when they worked together at SNL. From 2009 to 2014, Higgins served as announcer on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon; when Jimmy Fallon was selected by NBC to succeed Jay Leno, Higgins was brought on as announcer for The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon. Since 2013, Higgins voiced Mr. Awesome in the Hulu original series The Awesomes, he voiced the character "the Edible Blargmonger" in the 2014 animated special Elf: Buddy's Musical Christmas.

In 2017, he won an Emmy for his work on SNL. In July 2015, while Jimmy Fallon was recovering from surgery after suffering a serious injury to his finger, Higgins was hospitalized for Lyme disease, he returned to the Tonight Show recovered and on the same night as Fallon's return. Late Night with Jimmy Fallon profile Steve Higgins on IMDb