In music, a sequence is the restatement of a motif or longer melodic passage at a higher or lower pitch in the same voice. It is one of the most common and simple methods of elaborating a melody in eighteenth and nineteenth century classical music, sometimes sequential passages combine more than one of the above characteristics. In the third and fourth bars of the “Air” from J. S, the non-diatonic sequence tends to modulate to a new tonality or to cause temporarily tonicisation. Although stereotypically associated with Baroque music, and especially the music of Antonio Vivaldi, the device of sequence epitomises both the goal-directed and the hierarchical nature of common-practice tonality. Whether dull or masterly, the emphasis is on the process rather than the material itself. Ritornellos and the amplification from melodies to Baroque lyrics are built from sequences. There are many types of sequences, each with a unique pattern, descending fifths sequences, known as circle of fifths sequences, are the most commonly used types of sequences, singular extended in some works of Claudio Monteverdi and Heinrich Schütz.
It usually consists of a series of chords whose bass or root notes follow a pattern of descending fifths, for example, if a descending fifths sequence in C major starts with the note C, the next note will be F, a perfect fifth below the first note. The next few notes will be B, E, A, D and so on, the ascending fifths sequence, contrary to the descending fifths sequence, consists of a pattern of ascending fifths. It is much less common than the descending fifths sequence, the descending 5-6 sequences, known as descending third sequences, consist of a series of chords whose root notes descend by a third each sequential repetition. The sequence is almost never unadorned as shown above, but is filled in with intervening chords. The standard way of filling in this descending thirds pattern is to interpolate a first inversion chord in between each of these descents by thirds. The result is a line that moves down continuously stepwise, resulting in a figured bass of 5-6, and therefore. An important subtype of the descending 5-6 sequence is the root position variant, known as the Pachelbel sequence, due to the use of this sequence in Pachelbels Canon.
The Pachelbel sequence changes the first inversion chords in the descending 5-6 sequence to root position chords, resulting in a pattern that moves down a fourth. The ascending 5-6 sequence, like the ascending sequence, adorns a stepwise ascent. It follows a root movement pattern of down a third followed by a movement up a fourth. This is often accomplished through an alternation of root position and first inversion chords, the figured bass is the same as the descending 5-6 sequence, but the bass itself follows an ascending pattern rather than a descending pattern
In music, an accidental is a note of a pitch that is not a member of the scale or mode indicated by the most recently applied key signature. In musical notation, the sharp and natural symbols, among others, in the measure where it appears, an accidental sign raises or lowers the immediately following note from its normal pitch, overriding sharps or flats in the key signature. A note is raised or lowered by a semitone, although microtonal music may use fractional accidental signs. One occasionally sees double sharps or flats, which raise or lower the note by a whole tone. Accidentals apply within the measure and octave in which appear, unless canceled by another accidental sign. If a note has an accidental and the note is repeated in a different octave within the same measure, the accidental does not apply to the same note of the different octave. The modern accidental signs derive from the two forms of the letter b used in Gregorian chant manuscripts to signify the two pitches of B, the only note that could be altered.
The round b became the sign, while the square b diverged into the sharp. Sometimes the black keys on a keyboard are called accidentals or sharps. In most cases, a sharp raises the pitch of a note one semitone while a flat lowers it a semitone, a natural is used to cancel the effect of a flat or sharp. This system of accidentals operates in conjunction with the key signature, whose effect continues throughout an entire piece, an accidental can be used to cancel a previous accidental or reinstate the flats or sharps of the key signature. Accidentals apply to subsequent notes on the staff position for the remainder of the measure where they occur, unless explicitly changed by another accidental. Once a barline is passed, the effect of the accidental ends, subsequent notes at the same staff position in the second or bars are not affected by the accidental carried through with the tied note. Though this convention is still in use particularly in music, it may be cumbersome in music that features frequent accidentals.
As a result, a system of note-for-note accidentals has been adopted. Accidentals are not repeated for repeated notes unless one or more different pitches intervene, if a sharp or flat pitch is followed directly by its natural form, a natural is used. Cautionary accidentals or naturals may be used to clarify ambiguities, because seven of the twelve notes of the chromatic equal-tempered scale are naturals this system can significantly reduce the number of naturals required in a notated passage. Thus, the effect of the accidental must be understood in relation to the meaning of the notes staff position
In music, harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing. Usually, this means simultaneously occurring frequencies, pitches, or chords, the study of harmony involves chords and their construction and chord progressions and the principles of connection that govern them. Harmony is often said to refer to the aspect of music, as distinguished from melodic line. In popular and jazz harmony, chords are named by their root plus various terms, in many types of music, notably baroque, romantic and jazz, chords are often augmented with tensions. A tension is an additional member that creates a relatively dissonant interval in relation to the bass. Typically, in the common practice period a dissonant chord resolves to a consonant chord. Harmonization usually sounds pleasant to the ear when there is a balance between the consonant and dissonant sounds, in simple words, that occurs when there is a balance between tense and relaxed moments.
The term harmony derives from the Greek ἁρμονία, meaning joint, concord, from the verb ἁρμόζω, to fit together, the term was often used for the whole field of music, while music referred to the arts in general. In Ancient Greece, the term defined the combination of contrasted elements, in the Middle Ages the term was used to describe two pitches sounding in combination, and in the Renaissance the concept was expanded to denote three pitches sounding together. Aristoxenus wrote a work entitled Harmonika Stoicheia, which is thought the first work in European history written on the subject of harmony, the underlying principle behind these texts is that harmony sanctions harmoniousness by conforming to certain pre-established compositional principles. Current dictionary definitions, while attempting to give concise descriptions, often highlight the ambiguity of the term in modern use, ambiguities tend to arise from either aesthetic considerations or from the point of view of musical texture (distinguishing between harmonic and contrapuntal.
The view that modern tonal harmony in Western music began in about 1600 is commonplace in music theory and this is usually accounted for by the replacement of horizontal writing, common in the music of the Renaissance, with a new emphasis on the vertical element of composed music. Modern theorists, tend to see this as an unsatisfactory generalisation, as Carl Dahlhaus puts it, It was not that counterpoint was supplanted by harmony but that an older type both of counterpoint and of vertical technique was succeeded by a newer type. And harmony comprises not only the structure of chords but their movement, like music as a whole, harmony is a process. Descriptions and definitions of harmony and harmonic practice may show bias towards European musical traditions, pitch simultaneity in particular is rarely a major consideration. Nevertheless, emphasis on the precomposed in European art music and the written theory surrounding it shows considerable cultural bias, the conception of musics that live in oral traditions as something composed with the use of improvisatory techniques separates them from the higher-standing works that use notation.
Yet the evolution of harmonic practice and language itself, in Western art music, is and was facilitated by this process of prior composition, some traditions of Western music performance and theory have specific rules of harmony. This model provides that the seventh and ninth are not dissonant
In music, ornaments or embellishments are musical flourishes that are not necessary to carry the overall line of the melody, but serve instead to decorate or ornament that line. Many ornaments are performed as fast notes around a central note, the amount of ornamentation in a piece of music can vary from quite extensive to relatively little or even none. The word agrément is used specifically to indicate the French Baroque style of ornamentation, in the baroque period, it was common for performers to improvise ornamentation on a given melodic line. A singer performing a da capo aria, for instance, would sing the melody relatively unornamented the first time, improvised ornamentation continues to be part of the Irish musical tradition, particularly in sean-nós singing but throughout the wider tradition as performed by the best players. Ornamentation may be indicated by the composer, a number of standard ornaments are indicated with standard symbols in music notation, while other ornamentations may be appended to the score in small notes, or simply written out normally.
Frequently, a composer will have his or her own vocabulary of ornaments, which will be explained in a preface, much like a code. A grace note is a written in smaller type, with or without a slash through it. In Spain, melodies ornamented upon repetition were called diferencias, and can be traced back to 1538, a trill, known as a shake, is a rapid alternation between an indicated note and the one above. Sometimes it is expected that the trill will end with a turn, such variations are often marked with a few grace notes following the note that bears the trill indication. The trill is indicated by either a tr or a tr~~, with the ~ representing the length of the trill, in Baroque music, the trill is sometimes indicated with a + sign above or below the note. Play There is a single tone trill variously called trillo or tremolo in late Renaissance, the mordent is thought of as a rapid alternation between an indicated note, the note above or below, and the indicated note again. This article as a whole addresses an approximate nineteenth-century standard, in the Baroque period, a Mordant was what came to be called an inverted mordent and what is now often called a lower mordent.
In the 19th century, the name mordent was generally applied to what is now called the upper mordent. Mordents of all sorts might typically, in some periods, begin with an extra inessential note, the same applies to trills, which in Baroque and Classical times would standardly begin with the added, upper note. A lower inessential note may or may not be raised to make it just one semitone lower than the principal note. A turn is a figure consisting of the note above the one indicated, the note itself, the note below the one indicated. It is marked by a mirrored S-shape lying on its side above the staff, the details of its execution depend partly on the exact placement of the turn mark. The following turns, might be executed like this, Play The exact speed at which the notes of a turn are executed can vary, the question of how a turn is best executed is largely one of context and taste
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach
His second name was given in honor of his godfather Georg Philipp Telemann, a friend of Johann Sebastian Bach. C. P. E. Bach was a composer working at a time of transition between his fathers baroque style and the classical and romantic styles that followed it. His personal approach, an expressive and often turbulent one known as empfindsamer Stil or sensitive style, applied the principles of rhetoric, Bachs dynamism stands in deliberate contrast to the more mannered galant style then in vogue. To distinguish him from his brother Johann Christian, the London Bach, Bach was known as the Berlin Bach during his residence in that city, and as the Hamburg Bach when he succeeded Telemann as Kapellmeister there. He was known simply as Emanuel to his contemporaries, C. P. E. Bach was born on 8 March 1714 in Weimar to Johann Sebastian Bach and his first wife, Maria Barbara. He was the third son. The composer Georg Philipp Telemann was his godfather, when he was ten years old, he entered the St. Thomas School at Leipzig, where his father had become cantor in 1723.
He was one of four Bach children to professional musicians. In an age of patronage and son alike knew that a university education helped prevent a professional musician from being treated as a servant. Carl, like his brothers, pursued advanced studies in jurisprudence at the University of Leipzig in 1731, in 1738, at the age of 24, he obtained his degree but never practiced law, instead turning his attention immediately to music. Upon Fredericks accession in 1740, Bach became a member of the royal orchestra and he was by this time one of the foremost clavier players in Europe, and his compositions, which date from 1731, include about thirty sonatas and concert pieces for harpsichord and clavichord. In Berlin, Bach continued to write pieces for solo keyboard, including a series of character pieces. His reputation was established by the two sets of sonatas which he published with dedications to Frederick the Great and to Charles Eugene, Duke of Württemberg. In 1746, he was promoted to the post of chamber musician and served the king alongside colleagues like Carl Heinrich Graun, Johann Joachim Quantz, the composer who most influenced Bachs maturing style was unquestionably his father.
He drew creative inspiration from his godfather Georg Philipp Telemann, working in Hamburg, Bachs interest in all types of art led to influence from poets and philosophers such as Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, Moses Mendelssohn and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. Bachs work itself influenced the work of, among others, Mozart, but his main work was concentrated on the clavier, for which he composed, at this time, nearly two hundred sonatas and other solos, including the set Mit veränderten Reprisen. Both Haydn and Beethoven swore by it, by 1780, the book was in its third edition and laid the foundation for the keyboard methods of Clementi and Cramer. The essay lays out the fingering for each chord and some chord sequences, Bachs techniques continue to be employed today
Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750. This era followed the Renaissance music era, and was followed in turn by the Classical era, Baroque music forms a major portion of the classical music canon, being widely studied and listened to. The Baroque period saw the creation of tonality, an approach to writing music in which a song or piece is written in a particular key, during the Baroque era, professional musicians were expected to be accomplished improvisers of both solo melodic lines and accompaniment parts. A characteristic Baroque form was the dance suite, while the pieces in a dance suite were inspired by actual dance music, dance suites were designed for listening, not for accompanying dancers. During the period and performers used more elaborate ornamentation, made changes in musical notation. Many musical terms and concepts from this era, such as toccata, dense, complex polyphonic music, in which multiple independent melody lines were performed simultaneously, was an important part of many Baroque choral and instrumental works.
The word baroque comes from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning misshapen pearl, the term Baroque is generally used by music historians to describe a broad range of styles from a wide geographic region, mostly in Europe, composed over a period of approximately 150 years. The systematic application by historians of the baroque to music of this period is a relatively recent development. In 1919, Curt Sachs became the first to apply the five characteristics of Heinrich Wölfflins theory of the Baroque systematically to music, all of these efforts resulted in appreciable disagreement about time boundaries of the period, especially concerning when it began. In English the term acquired currency only in the 1940s, in the writings of Bukofzer, the term has become widely used and accepted for this broad range of music. It may be helpful to distinguish the Baroque from both the preceding and following periods of musical history, the Baroque period is divided into three major phases, early and late.
Although they overlap in time, they are dated from 1580 to 1630, from 1630 to 1680. In reference to music, they based their ideals on a perception of Classical musical drama that valued discourse, the early realizations of these ideas, including Jacopo Peris Dafne and LEuridice, marked the beginning of opera, which were a catalyst for Baroque music. Concerning music theory, the widespread use of figured bass represents the developing importance of harmony as the linear underpinnings of polyphony. Harmony is the end result of counterpoint, and figured bass is a representation of those harmonies commonly employed in musical performance. With figured bass, accidentals or symbols were placed above the bassline that was read by keyboard instrument players such as players or pipe organists. The numbers, accidentals or symbols indicated to the player what intervals she should play above each bass note. The keyboard player would improvise a chord voicing for each bass note and this led to the idea that certain sequences of chords, rather than just notes, could provide a sense of closure at the end of a piece—one of the fundamental ideas that became known as tonality
The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor clefs, and occasionally the treble. Appearing in its form in the 19th century, the bassoon figures prominently in orchestral, concert band. The bassoon is an instrument known for its distinctive tone color, wide range, variety of character. Listeners often compare its warm, reedy timbre to that of a baritone voice. Someone who plays the bassoon is called a bassoonist, the word bassoon comes from French basson and from Italian bassone. However, the Italian name for the instrument is fagotto. B♭1–C5 The range of the bassoon begins at B♭1 and extends upward over three octaves, roughly to the G above the treble staff, higher notes are possible but difficult to produce, and rarely called for and concert band parts rarely go higher than C5 or D5. Even Stravinskys famously difficult opening solo in The Rite of Spring only ascends to D5, a1 is possible with a special extension to the instrument—see Extended techniques below.
The bassoon disassembles into six pieces, including the reed. Bassoons are double reed instruments like the oboe and the English horn, a modern beginners bassoon is generally made of maple, with medium-hardness types such as sycamore maple and sugar maple preferred. Both bore and tone holes are precision-machined, and each instrument is finished by hand for proper tuning and this ensures coverage by the fingers of the average adult hand. Wooden instruments are lined with hard rubber along the interior of the wing and boot joints to prevent damage from moisture, the end of the bell is usually fitted with a ring, either of metal, plastic or ivory. The joints between sections consist of a tenon fitting into a socket, the tenons are wrapped in either cork or string as a seal against air leaks. The bocal connects the reed to the rest of the instrument and is inserted into a socket at the top of the wing joint, bocals come in many different lengths and styles, depending on the desired tuning and playing characteristics.
Folded upon itself, the bassoon stands 1.34 m tall, there are short-reach bassoons made for the benefit of young or petite players. The origins of the dulcian are obscure, but by the century it was available in as many as eight different sizes. Otherwise, dulcian technique was rather primitive, with eight finger holes, the dulcian came to be known as fagotto in Italy. However, the etymology that equates fagotto with bundle of sticks is somewhat misleading
The French horn is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. The double horn in F/B♭ is the horn most often used by players in professional orchestras, a musician who plays any kind of horn is generally referred to as a horn player. Most horns have lever-operated rotary valves, but some, especially older horns, use piston valves, the backward-facing orientation of the bell relates to the perceived desirability to create a subdued sound, in concert situations, in contrast to the more piercing quality of the trumpet. A horn without valves is known as a horn, changing pitch along the natural harmonics of the instrument. Pitch may be controlled by the position of the hand in the bell, the pitch of any note can easily be raised or lowered by adjusting the hand position in the bell. Three valves control the flow of air in the single horn, the more common double horn has a fourth valve, usually operated by the thumb, which routes the air to one set of tubing tuned to F or another tuned to B♭.
Triple horns with five valves are made, tuned in F, B♭. Also common are descant doubles, which typically provide B♭ and alto F branches and this configuration provides a high-range horn while avoiding the additional complexity and weight of a triple. A crucial element in playing the horn deals with the mouthpiece, when playing higher notes, the majority of players exert a small degree of additional pressure on the lips using the mouthpiece. It is the goal of all serious brass musicians to develop their technique such that additional mouthpiece pressure is avoided altogether, or at the very least, the name French horn is found only in English, first coming into use in the late 17th century. At that time, French makers were preeminent in the manufacture of hunting horns, as a result, these instruments were often called, even in English, by their French names, trompe de chasse or cor de chasse. The International Horn Society has recommended since 1971 that the instrument be simply called the horn, there is a more specific use of French horn to describe a particular horn type, differentiated from the German horn and Vienna horn.
In this sense, French horn refers to an instrument with three Périnet valves. It retains the narrow bell-throat and mouthpipe crooks of the orchestral hand horn of the late 18th century, and most often has an ascending third valve. This is a whole-tone valve arranged so that with the valve in the up position the valve loop is engaged, the horn is the third-highest-sounding instrument in the brass family, below the trumpet and the cornet. Horns are mostly tuned in B♭ or F, or a combination of both, in some traditions, novice players use a single horn in F, while others prefer the B♭ horn. The F horn is used more commonly than the B♭ horn, sound is produced by vibrating the players lips into the mouthpiece of the instrument. Different partials in the series can be played by adjusting the air pressure and lip tension
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical and secular music. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period, Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo and rhythms for a piece of music. This can leave less room for such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation. The term classical music did not appear until the early 19th century, the earliest reference to classical music recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836. This score typically determines details of rhythm, and, the written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them, J. S. The use of written notation preserves a record of the works, Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced.
That said, the score does not provide complete and exact instructions on how to perform a historical work, even if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, we do not know exactly how fast the piece should be played. Bach was particularly noted for his complex improvisations, during the Classical era, the composer-performer Mozart was noted for his ability to improvise melodies in different styles. During the Classical era, some virtuoso soloists would improvise the cadenza sections of a concerto, during the Romantic era, Beethoven would improvise at the piano. The instruments currently used in most classical music were largely invented before the mid-19th century and they consist of the instruments found in an orchestra or in a concert band, together with several other solo instruments. The symphony orchestra is the most widely known medium for music and includes members of the string, brass. The concert band consists of members of the woodwind, brass and it generally has a larger variety and number of woodwind and brass instruments than the orchestra but does not have a string section.
However, many bands use a double bass. Many of the used to perform medieval music still exist. Medieval instruments included the flute, the recorder and plucked string instruments like the lute. As well, early versions of the organ, Medieval instruments in Europe had most commonly been used singly, often self accompanied with a drone note, or occasionally in parts. From at least as early as the 13th century through the 15th century there was a division of instruments into haut, during the earlier medieval period, the vocal music from the liturgical genre, predominantly Gregorian chant, was monophonic, using a single, unaccompanied vocal melody line. Polyphonic vocal genres, which used multiple independent vocal melodies, began to develop during the medieval era, becoming prevalent by the 13th
The embouchure is the use of facial muscles and the shaping of the lips to the mouthpiece of woodwind instruments or the mouthpiece of the brass instruments. The word is of French origin and is related to the root bouche, the proper embouchure allows the instrumentalist to play the instrument at its full range with a full, clear tone and without strain or damage to ones muscles. While performing on an instrument, the sound is produced by the player buzzing his or her lips into a mouthpiece. Pitches are changed in part through altering the amount of muscular contraction in the lip formation, the performers use of the air, tightening of cheek and jaw muscles, as well as tongue manipulation can affect how the embouchure works. Even today, many brass pedagogues take an approach to teaching how a brass players embouchure should function. Many of these authors disagree with each other regarding which technique is correct, research suggests efficient brass embouchures depend on the player using the method that suits that players particular anatomy.
In 1962, Philip Farkas hypothesized that the air stream traveling through the lip aperture should be directed straight down the shank of the mouthpiece and he believed that it would be illogical to violently deflect the air stream downward at the point of where the air moves past the lips. In this text, Farkas recommends that the lower jaw be protruded so that the upper and lower teeth are aligned, in 1970, Farkas published a second text which contradicted his earlier writing. Out of 40 subjects, Farkas showed that 39 subjects directed the air downward to varying degrees, the lower jaw position seen in these photographs show more variation from his earlier text as well. This supports what was written by trombonist and brass pedagogue Donald S. Reinhardt in 1942. According to this text, players who place the mouthpiece higher on the lips, so that more upper lip is inside the mouthpiece. Performers who place the lower, so that more lower lip is inside the mouthpiece. In order for the performer to be successful, the air stream direction, lloyd Leno confirmed the existence of both upstream and downstream embouchures.
More controversial was Reinhardts description and recommendations regarding a phenomenon he termed a pivot, whether the player uses one general pivot direction or the other, and the degree to which the motion is performed, depends on the performers anatomical features and stage of development. The placement of the mouthpiece upon the lips doesnt change, but rather the relationship of the rim, research supports Reinhardts claim that this motion exists and might be advisable for brass performers to adopt. Froelich noted that the symphonic trombonists used the least amount of direct and shear forces and recommends this model be followed. Other research notes that virtually all brass performers rely upon the upward and downward embouchure motion, other authors and pedagogues remain skeptical about the necessity of this motion, but scientific evidence supporting this view has not been sufficiently developed at this time to support this view. Some noted brass pedagogues prefer to instruct the use of the embouchure from an analytical point of view
The guitar is a musical instrument classified as a fretted string instrument with anywhere from four to 18 strings, usually having six. The sound is projected either acoustically, using a wooden or plastic and wood box, or through electrical amplifier. It is typically played by strumming or plucking the strings with the fingers, the guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning. There are three types of modern acoustic guitar, the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, and the archtop guitar. The tone of a guitar is produced by the strings vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar. The term finger-picking can refer to a tradition of folk, bluegrass. The acoustic bass guitar is an instrument that is one octave below a regular guitar. Early amplified guitars employed a body, but a solid wood body was eventually found more suitable during the 1960s and 1970s.
As with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars. The electric guitar has had a influence on popular culture. The guitar is used in a variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as an instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, soul. The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and, later, in the Americas. The modern word guitar, and its antecedents, has applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times. Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar, at least two instruments called guitars were in use in Spain by 1200, the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca. The guitarra morisca had a back, wide fingerboard. The guitarra Latina had a sound hole and a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers moresca or morisca and latina had been dropped, and it had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a sharply cut waist