Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. The term Amerindian is used in Quebec, the Guianas, Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaska Natives. Application of the term Indian originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for Asia, the Americas came to be known as the West Indies, a name still used to refer to the islands of the Caribbean Sea. This led to the blanket term Indies and Indians for the indigenous inhabitants, although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time, although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms and empires.
Many parts of the Americas are still populated by peoples, some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Chile, Greenland, Mexico. At least a different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages, many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization, and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects, some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world with human habitation. During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America.
Alaska was a glacial refugium because it had low snowfall, allowing a small population to exist, the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single population, one that developed in isolation. The isolation of these peoples in Beringia might have lasted 10–20,000 years, around 16,500 years ago, the glaciers began melting, allowing people to move south and east into Canada and beyond. These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran Ice Sheets. Another route proposed involves migration - either on foot or using primitive boats - along the Pacific Northwest coast to the south, archeological evidence of the latter would have been covered by the sea level rise of more than 120 meters since the last ice age
The region is known for supporting extensive cattle ranching and dry farming. The Canadian portion of the Plains is known as the Prairies, some geographers include some territory of northern Mexico in the Plains, but many stop at the Rio Grande. The term Great Plains is used in the United States to describe a sub-section of the even more vast Interior Plains physiographic division and it has currency as a region of human geography, referring to the Plains Indians or the Plains States. There is no region referred to as the Great Plains in The Atlas of Canada, in terms of human geography, the term prairie is more commonly used in Canada, and the region is known as the Prairie Provinces or simply the Prairies. The region is about 500 mi east to west and 2,000 mi north to south, much of the region was home to American bison herds until they were hunted to near extinction during the mid/late 19th century. It has an area of approximately 500,000 sq mi, current thinking regarding the geographic boundaries of the Great Plains is shown by this map at the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska–Lincoln.
The term Great Plains, for the region west of about the 96th or 98th meridian, nevin Fennemans 1916 study, Physiographic Subdivision of the United States, brought the term Great Plains into more widespread usage. Before that the region was almost invariably called the High Plains, today the term High Plains is used for a subregion of the Great Plains. The Great Plains are the westernmost portion of the vast North American Interior Plains, during the Cretaceous Period, the Great Plains were covered by a shallow inland sea called the Western Interior Seaway. However, during the Late Cretaceous to the Paleocene, the seaway had begun to recede, leaving thick marine deposits. During the Cenozoic era, specifically about 25 million years ago during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, existing forest biomes declined and grasslands became much more widespread. The grasslands provided a new niche for mammals, including many ungulates and glires, the spread of grasslands and the development of grazers have been strongly linked.
The vast majority of animals became extinct in North America at the end of the Pleistocene. In general, the Great Plains have a variety of weather through the year, with very cold and harsh winters and very hot. Wind speeds are very high, especially in winter. Grasslands are among the least protected biomes, humans have converted much of the prairies for agricultural purposes or to create pastures. The Great Plains have dust storms mostly every year or so, the 100th meridian roughly corresponds with the line that divides the Great Plains into an area that receive 20 in or more of rainfall per year and an area that receives less than 20 in. The region is subjected to extended periods of drought, high winds in the region may generate devastating dust storms
Las Animas County, Colorado
Las Animas County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,507, the county takes its name from the Mexican Spanish name of the Purgatoire River, originally called El Río de las Ánimas Perdidas en Purgatorio, which means River of the Lost Souls in Purgatory. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,775 square miles. It is the largest county by area in Colorado, comanche National Grassland Lake Dorothey State Wildlife Area James M. The population density was 3 people per square mile, there were 7,629 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile. 41. 45% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,29. 70% of all households were made up of individuals and 14. 30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was out with 24. 20% under the age of 18,7. 90% from 18 to 24,24. 00% from 25 to 44,25. 90% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 41 years, for every 100 females there were 95.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.70 males, the median income for a household in the county was $28,273, and the median income for a family was $34,072. Males had an income of $27,182 versus $20,891 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,829, about 14. 00% of families and 17. 30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20. 00% of those under age 18 and 17. 20% of those age 65 or over
A rock shelter is a shallow cave-like opening at the base of a bluff or cliff. In arid areas, wind erosion can be an important factor in rockhouse formation, erosion from moving water is seldom a significant factor. Many rock shelters are found under waterfalls, Rock shelter formation types Rock shelters are often important archaeologically. Because rock shelters form natural shelters from the weather, prehistoric humans often used them as living-places, and left behind debris, tools, in mountainous areas the shelters can be important for mountaineers. In western Connecticut and eastern New York, many shelters are known by the colloquialism leatherman caves. Sandstone can be used as shingles for roof tops when possible, the Cumberland stitchwort is an endangered species of plant which is found only in rock shelters in Kentucky and Tennessee. Gatecliff Rockshelter Kinlock Shelter Mesa Verde Overhang Roc-aux-Sorciers Shelter Rock Walnut Canyon
Trinidad is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat and the most populous city of Las Animas County, United States. The population was 9,096 as of the 2010 census, the estimate as of 2012 was 8,771. Trinidad lies 21 miles north of Raton, New Mexico and 195 miles south of Denver, Trinidad is situated upon the historic Santa Fe Trail. Trinidad was first explored by Spanish and Mexican traders, who liked its proximity to the Santa Fe Trail and it was founded in 1862 soon after coal was discovered in the region. This led to an influx of immigrants, eager to capitalize on this important natural resource, by the late 1860s, the town had about 1,200 residents. Trinidad was officially incorporated in 1876, just a few months before Colorado became a state, an important milestone for the town occurred in 1878, when the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway reached Trinidad, making it easier for goods to be shipped from distant locations. In the 1880s, Trinidad became home to a number of people, including Bat Masterson.
By 1900, the population of Trinidad had grown to 7,500 and it was now home to two English-language newspapers, and one that was published in Spanish. In the early 1900s, Trinidad became nationally known for having the first woman editor of a newspaper. Her expertise was in baseball, and in 1908, she was the only sportswriter to cover the World Series. During the same period of time, Trinidad was home to a popular baseball team that was briefly coached by Damon Runyon. In the photograph to the right it is believed that Ina Eloise Young is sitting in the center of the front row, above the white dog and this was a good location to keep a box score and report on the game. Although there is no byline, Ina Eloise Young, as sporting editor, Damon Runyon is possibly standing on the far left with the other dignitaries in the front-center of the photograph. This event illustrates the popularity of baseball in Colorado at the time and shows Ina Eloise Young, on August 7,1902, the Bowen Town coal mine, six miles north of Trinidad, experienced a horrific gas explosion, killing 13 miners.
At the time it was one of the worst mining disasters in the state, at one point in late 1903, an estimated 3,000 miners, members of the United Mine Workers of America, went out on strike. In,1904, Trinidad experienced several disasters, in mid-January, a fire destroyed two blocks of the business section of the town, causing more than seventy-five thousands dollars in damages. On April 20,1914 just eighteen miles north of town was the site of the Ludlow Massacre, Trinidad was dubbed the Sex Change Capital of the World, because a local doctor had an international reputation for performing sex reassignment surgery. In the 1960s, Dr. Stanley Biber, a surgeon returning from Korea
Outline of Colorado prehistory
The types of lifestyles ranged from nomadic hunter-gatherers, semi-permanent village dwellers and people who lived in pueblos. Paleo-Indian period – the first people who entered, and subsequently inhabited, pre-Clovis – Paleo-Indian hunting, before the use of Clovis points. Lamb Spring in Littleton, with bones dated 14,140 to 12,140 years ago. Other examples include Dutton and Selby in the far edge of Colorado. Clovis culture – the oldest Paleo-Indian division, marked by the use of Clovis points, Dutton the Drake Clovis Cache site are examples of Clovis sites in Colorado. The Dent Site was the first site to provide evidence that men and mammoth co-existed, Folsom tradition – as megafauna, like the mammoth, became extinct man adapted by hunting smaller animals with the smaller Folsom projectile point. Examples are the Lindenmeier Site, dated 10,600 to 10,720 B. P. and the Jones-Miller Bison Kill Sites. Plano cultures Cody complex – a Plano culture that used unfluted projectile points and other tools like the Folsom, olsen-Chubbuck Bison Kill Site, Jurgens Site and Lamb Spring are Cody complex sites.
Goshen complex / Plainview complex – at the Phillips-Williams Fork Reservoir Site, Hell Gap complex – Plano culture from 10,060 to 9,600 before present, distinguished by the long stemmed and unfluted Hell Gap points. Jones-Miller Bison Kill Site is the only Hell Gap location in Colorado, other Paleo-Indian sites – Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, Picture Canyon, Phillips-Williams Fork Reservoir Site and Roxborough State Park Archaeological District. Archaic period – people were hunters of small game, such as deer and rabbits, late in the Archaic period, about 200-500 A. D. corn was introduced into the diet and pottery-making became an occupation for storing and caring food. Apex complex – a Middle Archaic period was dated from about 3000 to 500 BC, Archaic–Early Basketmaker Era – cultural period from 7000 -1500 BC of ancestors to the Ancient Pueblo People, who used baskets to gather and store wild seeds, grasses and fruit. They moved seasonally to gather food and hunt, using spears with small points and darts.
Mount Albion complex – early Archaic culture, distinguished by the Mount Albion corner-notched projectile, examples are, LoDaisKa Site, Magic Mountain Site, and Franktown Cave. Oshara Tradition – was an Archaic culture dated from 5,440 B. C. to A. D.460 that is believed to be a predecessor to the Basketmaker culture of the Ancient Pueblo People. Six phases spanned a period from early Archaic period to the introduction of cultivation, Post-Archaic and gathers Apishapa culture – prehistoric culture from A. D. 1000-1400, named for an archaeological site in the Lower Apishapa canyon in Colorado. There are at least 68 Apishapa sites on the Chaquaqua Plateau in southeastern Colorado, some sites where Apishapa archaeological evidence has been found include Franktown Cave, Picture Canyon and Trinchera Cave Archeological District. Dismal River culture – first seen in the Dismal River area of Nebraska, dated between 1650-1750 A. D. it is different than other prehistoric Central Plains and Woodland traditions of the western Plains
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Interstate 25 is a major Interstate Highway in the western United States. It is primarily a north–south highway, I-25 stretches from Interstate 10 at Las Cruces, New Mexico, to Interstate 90 in Buffalo, Wyoming. Interstate 25 is the main north–south expressway through Wyoming, the I-25 corridor is mainly rural, especially in Wyoming, excluding the Albuquerque, Colorado Springs, and the Denver areas. The part of I-25 in Colorado passes just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains and that stretch was recently involved in a large-scale renovation named the Transportation Expansion Project in Denver, and the COSMIX. Major highway work for the T-REX project ended on August 22,2006, the COSMIX project was completed in December 2007. Several other smaller improvement projects for I-25 are still ongoing within Colorado, I-25 begins at Interstate 10s exit 144 in Las Cruces, just south of the New Mexico State University campus. I-25 is concurrent with U. S. Route 85 at this point, three exits provide access to the city, including one for U. S.
Route 70. When I-25 reaches Truth or Consequences, it is parallel to Elephant Butte Lake State Park, from Las Cruces to Santa Fe I-25 follows the route of El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro. As I-25 nears Albuquerque, it has interchanges with highways such as U. S. Route 380, further north, State Road 6, former U. S. Route 66, meets up with I-25 in Los Lunas. Through Albuquerque I-25 is named the Pan American Freeway and there are frequent exits to city streets, a major interchange with Interstate 40 is named the Big I. It was given a mention by the United States Department of Transportation. Leaving Albuquerque to the north, I-25 curves to the northeast as it approaches Santa Fe, continuing northbound at Santa Fe, I-25 heads southeast for approximately 45 miles traveling through the Santa Fe National Forest and crossing Glorieta Pass. It turns north again at Blanchard toward Las Vegas, the highway maintains a north and northeast orientation as it leaves New Mexico traversing Raton Pass and enters Colorado.
From Santa Fe to Trinidad, Colorado I-25 approximates part of the route of the Santa Fe Trail, for its entire length in the state, I-25 shares its alignment with US-85, although US-85 is unsigned. Interstate 25 has many nicknames through the larger cities. In Denver it is called the Valley Highway, as the highway parallels the course of the South Platte River throughout the area and is often sunken below ground level. The section in El Paso County is named the Ronald Reagan Highway, I-25 enters Colorado 14 miles south of the city of Trinidad. It is the main route through Colorado with a length of 300 miles
Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
Pottery is the craft of making ceramic material into pots or potterywares using mud. Major types of potterywares include earthenware and porcelain, the place where such wares are made by a potter is called a pottery. Early Neolithic pottery have found in places such as Jomon Japan. A clay body can be decorated before or after firing, prior to shaping processes. Kneading helps to ensure an even moisture content throughout the body, air trapped within the clay body needs to be removed. This is called de-airing and can be accomplished either by a called a vacuum pug or manually by wedging. Wedging can produce an even moisture content. Once a clay body has been kneaded and de-aired or wedged, after shaping, it is dried and fired. Clay ware takes on varying physical characteristics during the making of pottery, at sufficient moisture content, bodies at this stage are in their most plastic form. Leather-hard refers to a body that has been dried partially. At this stage the clay object has approximately 15% moisture content, clay bodies at this stage are very firm and only slightly pliable.
Trimming and handle attachment often occurs at the leather-hard state, bone-dry refers to clay bodies when they reach a moisture content at or near 0%. It is now ready to be bisque fired, bisque refers to the clay after the object is shaped to the desired form and fired in the kiln for the first time, known as bisque fired or biscuit fired. This firing changes the body in several ways. Mineral components of the body will undergo chemical changes that will change the colour of the clay. Glaze fired is the stage of some pottery making. A glaze may be applied to the form and the object can be decorated in several ways. After this the object is glazed fired, which causes the material to melt
Big Bend National Park
Big Bend National Park is a U. S. national park located in Southern Texas, bordering Mexico. It has national significance as the largest protected area of Chihuahuan Desert topography and it contains more than 1,200 species of plants, more than 450 species of birds,56 species of reptiles, and 75 species of mammals. The national park covers 801,163 acres, a variety of Cretaceous and Cenozoic fossil organisms exist in abundance, and the park has artifacts estimated to be 9,000 years old. Historic buildings and landscapes offer graphic illustration of life along the border in the 19th century. For more than 1,000 miles, the Rio Grande/Río Bravo forms the boundary between Mexico and the United States, and Big Bend National Park administers approximately 118 miles along that boundary. The park was named after the area, which is bounded by a bend in the river. Because the Rio Grande serves as a boundary, the park faces unusual constraints while administering and enforcing park rules, regulations. In accordance with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the territory extends only to the center of the deepest river channel as the river flowed in 1848.
The rest of the south of that channel, and the river. The park is bordered by the areas of Parque Nacional Cañon de Santa Elena. The park exhibits dramatic contrasts and its climate may be characterized as one of extremes and hot late spring and summer days often exceed 100 °F in the lower elevations. Winters are normally mild but subfreezing temperatures occasionally occur and these variations contribute to an exceptional diversity in plant and animal habitats. Some species in the park, such as the Chisos oak, are nowhere else in the United States. The 118 mi of river that form the park boundary include the spectacular canyons of Santa Elena, Mariscal. The Rio Grande, which meanders through this portion of the Chihuahuan Desert, has cut deep canyons with nearly vertical walls through three uplifts made primarily of limestone. Throughout the open areas, the highly productive Rio Grande riparian zone includes numerous plant and animal species. The vegetative belt extends into the desert along creeks and arroyos, South of the border lie the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Coahuila and newly protected areas for flora and fauna, which are regions known as the Maderas del Carmen and the Cañón de Santa Elena.
In addition, the association recognized the park as having the darkest measured skies in the lower 48 United States
The Canadian River is the longest tributary of the Arkansas River. It is about 906 miles long, starting in Colorado and traveling through New Mexico, the Texas Panhandle, the drainage area is about 47,700 square miles. The Canadian is sometimes referred to as the South Canadian River to differentiate it from the North Canadian River that flows into it and it is unclear why the river is called the Canadian. Fremonts route map of 1845, the name is listed as Goo-al-pah or Canadian River from the Comanche. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, Spanish explorers in the 17th and 18th centuries called it the Rio Buenaventura, the upper part was called Rio Colorado by the Spanish. The name could be of Spanish origin from the word cañada, as the Canadian River formed a canyon in northern New Mexico. A few historical records document this explanation, edward Hale, writing in 1929, considered the French origin of the name most probable. The first European to explore the Canadian River was Juan de Oñate, the Spanish Governor of New Mexico, Spanish traders and hunters were soon actively working in this area.
French voyageurs were active along the lower Canadian, bénard de la Harpe explored between the mouth of the river and the Kiamichi Mountains in 1715. Pierre and Paul Mallet followed the length of the river in 1740. The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 resulted in all of the land east of the New Mexico border being acquired by the United States. In 1818, the Quapaw tribe ceded all its land north of the Canadian to the United States, in 1825, the Osage ceded their claims to land along the river. The Canadian was designated as the boundary between the Creek-Seminole lands on the side and the Choctaw on the south side. Major Stephen H. Long led an expedition up the Canadian River in 1821 and he proclaimed the land along the river as, the Great American Desert. Despite this assessment, trading posts were established along the river, camp Holmes was established by Colonel Henry Dodges Dragoons in 1834. Captain Nathan Boone led a dragoon troop up the river to the 100th Meridian, the Treaty of Doaks Stand in 1820, made the Canadian River the northern boundary of the Choctaw Nation.
Early immigrants to California followed the bank of the Canadian to Santa Fe. In 1845 the river was explored by Lieutenants James William Abert and their journey was chronicled in the Journal of Lieutenant J. W. Abert from Bent’s Fort to St. Louis, first published in 1846