Tambor de Mina
Tambor de Mina is an Afro-Brazilian religious tradition, practiced in Brazilian states of Maranhão, Piauí, Pará and the Amazônia. Tambor means drum in Portuguese, refers to the importance of the rhythmic element to worship. Mina derives from the name São Jorge da Mina, now known as Elmina Castle, refers to a designation given to African slaves, although the name did not refer to slaves who had passed through the fortress/port of São Jorge da Mina itself, but rather to "different ethnicities over time and place". For example,'Mina-Popo' was the designation for people from Little Popo Akan speakers who had migrated from west of the Volta River, "Mina-Nago" and "Mina-Congo" were other designations sometimes found in Brazil. Slavery in Maranhão was concentrated in the Itapecuru Valley, the Baixada Maranhense, São Luís, the capital of the Brazilian state of Maranhao. Cotton and sugar cane plantations contributed to the development of larger cities. Colonial houses were built with slave labor with their unique design influenced by the harmony and choreography of songs originating from ancient Africa.
Tambor of Mina worships vodums, orixás, entities who are called gentis or caboclos. Voduns, gods of the fon or jeje people, deified human ancestors; some young voduns called toquém or toquenos fulfill the function of guides, helpers of the other voduns. Tobóssis are infantile feminine deities, considered daughters of voduns; the voduns are grouped in 5 families: Davice. Each family occupies a specific part of the house and has its own songs and activities. There are 15 tobossis in Casa das Minas; the title of Tói means that the title of Nochê means that vodum is a female. Avievodum is the Supreme God, Legba is not considered a messenger, being identified as an evil spirit by the Casa das Minas, although he plays an important role in other temples. Tambor de Mina is a mixture of Dahomey Religion, Yoruba Religion, Fanti-Ashanti, Agrono or Cambinda, Indigenous American and European traditions, it is said that the encantados are entities of people who did not die, but disappeared mysteriously, becoming invisible or turning into animals or plants, living in a magical kingdom called Encantaria.
The encantados are present in diverse Amazon beliefs and they are organized in families in the Tambor de Mina: Lençol. They are invoked in religious ceremonies and the priest or priestess goes into trance; because of this cultural richness and syncretism present in the cult, these elements coexist in a harmonious way, being impossible to separate popular Catholicism, local folklore and the Encantaria, the Cure or Pajelança from the Tambor de Mina. It is said that the pantheon of encantados shared by the two religions "navigate in the two waters", being the Tambor de Mina classified as "sea water line" and the Cura/Pajelança as "fresh water line". In the temples of Tambor de Mina it is common to hold feasts and parties of the popular culture of Maranhão that are sometimes requested by spiritual entities that like them, such as the Feast of the Divine Holy Spirit, Bumba-meu-boi, Tambor de Crioula and others. Terecô is the denomination of one of the Afro-Brazilian religions of the city of Codó in Maranhão and Teresina in Piauí, derived from Tambor de Mina.
There are two main models of Tambor de Mina in Maranhão: jeje and Nagô. The former seems to be the oldest and settled around the Casa Grande das Minas Jeje, better known as Casa das Minas, the oldest temple, which must have been founded in São Luís in the 1840s; the other, contemporary and which continues to this day, has settled around the Casa de Nagô. Casa das Minas and Casa de Nagô are located in the same neighbourhood; the Casa das Minas is unique, it does not have houses that are affiliated to it, therefore no other follow its style. It was founded by an African woman named Maria Jesuina, who came to Brazil as a slave and, according to Pierre Verger, was the Queen Nã Agontimé, Wife of King Agonglô of Dahomey and mother of King Guezô; the most famous priestess of the temple was Mother Andressa Maria, considered the last princess of Fon direct lineage that headed the Casa das Minas. She was born in 1854 and died in 1954, at the age of 100. In this house, the songs are in language jeje and only are worshipped deities called voduns, but although it does not have affiliated houses, the cult model of the Tambor de Mina is i
Umbanda is a syncretic Afro-Brazilian religion that blends African traditions with Roman Catholicism and Indigenous American beliefs. Although some of its beliefs and most of its practices existed in the late 19th century in all Brazil, it is assumed that Umbanda originated in Niterói and surrounding areas in the early 20th century due to the work of a psychic, Zélio Fernandino de Moraes, who practiced Umbanda among the poor Afro-Brazilians slave descendants. Since Umbanda has spread across southern Brazil and neighboring countries like Argentina and Uruguay. Umbanda has each one with a different set of beliefs and practices; some common beliefs are the existence of a Supreme Creator known as Olodumare. Other common beliefs are the existence of deities called Orixás, most of them syncretized with Catholic saints that act as divine energy and forces of nature. Umbanda practitioners believe in a supreme creator god; the opposite side of the Umbanda, i.e. black magic – the practices that intended to cause evil doings, became known as Quimbanda.
Umbanda is juxtaposed with Quimbanda which now reclaims its identity as a separate religion and distinct from Umbanda. One hundred years after its establishment, Umbanda divided itself into several branches with different beliefs and practices; some of these branches are Umbanda d'Angola, Umbanda Jejê, Umbanda Ketu, Umbanda Esotérica. The three major beliefs claimed by Umbandists are: The Pantheon, the Spirits' World, the Reincarnation. Umbanda has one supreme god known as Olorum and many divine intermediary deities called Orixás. Orixàs and spirits are organized in a complex hierarchy of legions, sub-phalanges and protectors; the exact order of the hierarchy varies by region and practitioner, but a agreed upon structure are the Seven Lines, or Sete Linhas da Umbanda. The first line is the top associated with Oxalà, the bottom is always the Linha das Almas, or Line of Dead Souls; the other patrons associated with the lines are listed in 2-6 below. The lines are divided up further into a multitude of spiritual beings.
Main Orixás Oxalá Iemanjá Xangô Oxúm Ogúm Oxóssi Ibeji Omulu/Obaluayê Iansã Nanã Oxumaré Exu Most followers of Umbanda believe that there are three distinct levels of spirits. 1. Pure Spirits This level includes the spirits known as the angels, archangels and seraphim, spirits that reached spiritual perfection. 2. Good Spirits This level includes the spirits that possess mediums or initiates during the Umbanda ceremonies and act as Guias advising and helping the believers; these are the following spirits: Caboclos Those are spirits of deceased Indigenous Brazilians or Mestizos. They are knowledgeable about medical herbs prescribing inexpensive remedies to ill people, their speech is always based in truth and courage, are sought after in cases you need strength, counsel. When a caboclo speaks, you listen; when the medium incorporates a Caboclo, he/she, begins to walk around and the feature becomes more severe. They smoke cigars and drink a mix of herbs the mediums make. Preto Velho Those are spirits of old slaves who died enslaved.
They are wise and kind spirits that know all about suffering, compassion and hope. Some of them are considered to be from Angola and Congo, others are considered to be the old Yoruba priests that were first brought to Brazil, they often prescribe herbal remedies. The female counterpart of this spirit is the Preta Velha who demonstrates maternal compassion and concern. In the beginning of Umbanda, Preto Velho introduced himself as an old slave who died after being flogged for some unjust accusation, they are the most loved entities in Umbanda and is common to see a person consulting with the same preto velho year after year, develop a love for them. When the medium incorporates a Preto Velho, he can not stand straight, has difficulty walking, has to make consultations sitting down, they drink coffee and smoke pipes. Crianças/Erês Those are spirits of great evolution, appearing as children, to reveal the pure side of life, they are not children. They speak of hope; when they talk, they always intend to make you look at the bright side of things.
They are characterized as being pure and joyful. Most people make the mistake that, since the medium speaks funny, uses candies and ribbons in his head, that he is
Osun-Osogbo or Osun-Osogbo Sacred Grove is a sacred forest along the banks of the Osun river just outside the city of Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The Osun-Osogbo Grove is among the last of the sacred forests which adjoined the edges of most Yoruba cities before extensive urbanization. In recognition of its global significance and its cultural value, the Sacred Grove was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2005; the 1950s saw the desecration of the Osun-Osogbo Grove: shrines were neglected, priests abandoned the grove as customary responsibilities and sanctions weakened. Prohibited actions like fishing and felling of trees in the grove took place until an Austrian, Susanne Wenger and stopped the abuse going on in the grove. With the encouragement of the Ataoja and the support of the local people, "Wenger formed the New Sacred Art movement to challenge land speculators, repel poachers, protect shrines and begin the long process of bringing the sacred place back to life by establishing it, again, as the sacred heart of Osogbo."
Every year, the Osun-Osgogbo festival is celebrated in the month of August at the grove. Yearly, the festival attracts thousands of Osun worshippers and tourists from all walks of life. For the people of Osogbo Land, August is a month of celebration, traditional cleansing of the city and cultural reunion of the people with their ancestors and founders of the Osogbo Kingdom; the Osun-Osogbo Festival is a two-week-long programme. It starts with the traditional cleansing of the town called'Iwopopo', followed in three days by the lighting of the 500-year-old sixteen-point lamp called'Ina Olojumerindinlogun'. Comes the'Ibroriade', an assemblage of the crowns of the past ruler, Ataojas of Osogbo, for blessings; this event is led by the sitting Ataoja of Osogbo and the Arugba, Yeye Osun and a committee of priestesses. Aesthetics, according to general usage, is the perception of beauty, it is the appreciation of the beauty in all parts of life, but as a field of study it is concerned with the arts. The aesthetics of the Osun Osogbo festival includes drumming, musical performing, wearing of elaborate costumes, speaking of the Yoruba language, recitation of praise poetry and so on.
These elements make the festival what it is, adding pomp and colour to the proceedings. The festival is of immense benefit to the tourism sector of Nigeria, it enables the community to sell its culture to tourist coming from both within the country and all over the world. The Osun Osogbo festival serves as a strong unifying factor in Osogboland, as irrespective of the different social, economic and political convictions of the people, they all come together annually to celebrate the goddess. Sacred Orisa Gardens of the West Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove- UNESCO Ijele: Art Ejournal of the African World Osun Osogbo, the film Lady from Osogbo, long feature film OshunfilmOsun-Osogbo Sacred Grove
Oduduwa was not only the first ruler of a unified Ife, but the progenitor of various independent royal dynasties in Yorubaland, is today venerated as "the hero, the warrior, the leader and father of the Yoruba tribe". For a long time as propagated by early writers of Yoruba history, like the Bayajidda legend of the Hausa people, he was said to be an eastern prince, driven out of his kingdom in Arabia from Mecca in present day Saudi Arabia and was forced to migrate in a long march with his followers to present day south western Nigeria where through war lasting many years, he was able to defeat the forces of the 13 indigenous communities of Ife led by Obatala and formed these communities into a single Ife state, he held the praise names Olofin Olofin Aye and Olufe. His name, phonetically written by Yoruba language-speakers as Odùduwà and sometimes contracted as Ooduwa, Odudua or Oòdua, is ascribed to the ancestral dynasties of Yorubaland because he is held by the Yoruba to have been the ancestor of their numerous crowned kings.
Following his posthumous deification, he was admitted to the Yoruba pantheon as an aspect of a primordial divinity of the same name. Oduduwa is the power of the womb, that brings forth into existence Oduduwa represents omnipotence, the ability to affect and reconstruct the physical reality at will. Oduduwa - odu da uwa - odu to da iwa - the principle that created the physical reality Upon the ending of Oduduwa's time on Earth, there was a dispersal of his children and grandchildren from Ife to the outposts that they had founded or gained influence over, in order for them to establish effective control over these places; each is said to have made his or her mark in the subsequent urbanization and consolidation of the Yoruba confederacy of kingdoms, with each child or grandchild fashioning his or her state after Ile-Ife. Orunto, a child of Oduduwa, born to his maid, is the ancestor of the families that are entitled to inherit the Obalufe title - it is held by a royal that's traditionally ranked second in the order of precedence at the Ooni's court.
Obalufon II Alayemore was on the throne when Oranmiyan returned from his sojourn and ordered that the kingship be given to him and hence back to the legitimate family of Oduduwa. Oranmiyan's son Lajamisan was therefore the progenitor of all of the Oonis that have reigned in Ife from his time till now. In contradiction of the preceding historical claims, Ife tradition relates that Oduduwa was an emissary from the community of Oke-Ora, the easternmost part of the Ife cultural area which stretches towards the Northeastern Ijesa people, he descended from the Hills on a chain. He is said to have been a warrior. At that time, a confederacy existed between the 13 communities of the valley of Ile-Ife, with each community or'Elu' having its own Oba; when Oduduwa rose to be a prominent citizen of ancient Ife, he and his group are believed to have conquered most of the 13 component communities and deposed Obatala, subsequently evolving the palace structure with its effective centralized power and dynasty.
Due to this, he is referred to as the first Ooni of Ife and progenitor of the legitimate kings of the Yoruba people. The first child of Oduduwa, Okanbi Iyunade, married Obatala and gave birth to the future crowned king of Owu, he is believed to have acquired his crown as a toddler while crying on his grandfather's lap. Omonide, Oduduwa's favorite wife, gave birth to Sopasan, the father of the future crowned kings of Ketu. Sopasan was the first to leave Ile-Ife with his crown, he settled at such temporary sites as Aro. At Aro, Soposan was succeeded by Owe; the migrants stayed for a number of generations and broke camp in the reign of the seventh king, who revived the westward migrations and founded a dynasty at Ketu. Ajagunla Fagbamila Orangun, the first legitimate son of Oduduwa, is crowned king of Ila. Oduduwa is said to have wanted more sons to silence his critics. On the advice of the Ifa oracle, he went to a stream, where he found a naked lady by the name of Adetinrin Anasin, she became his wife and the mother of Ifagbamila Another son is subsequently crowned king of Sabe.
A third son is crowned king of Popo. Oranmiyan went on to found Oyo-Ile, his sons Ajaka and Sango rule Oyo in their turn. Oranmiyan was the most adventurous of the members of Oduduwa's household, he was the first Oba of Benin, the first Alaafin of Oyo, the sixth Ooni of Ife, in that order. After the dispersal of the family of kings and queens, the aborigines became ungovernable, constituted themselves into a serious threat to the survival of Ife. Thought to be supporters of Obatala who had ruled the land before the arrival of Oduduwa, these people turned themselves into marauders, they would come to town in costumes made of raffia with terrible and fearsome appearances, burn down houses and loot the markets. It is at this point that Moremi Ajasoro, a princess of Offa, of the lineage of Olalomi Olofagangan, the founder of Offa-Ile and the paramount head of the Ibolo region of the old Oyo kingdom, a member of the Ooduan dynasty by marriage to Oranmiyan, is said to have come onto the scene, she allowed herself to be taken away with them.
Subsequent to this she got married to the king of the Ugbo. Her new husband wanted pleasures from her but she wouldn't give in because she was married and was on a mission, she told him to tell her the secret of the marauders, he didn't want to but
Ogun or Ogoun is an Orisha and Vodun. He is a powerful spirit of metal work, as well as of rum and rum-making, he is known as the'god of Iron'. In Yoruba religion, Ogun is a primordial orisha, he was the husband of Oya. He is said to have been the first Orisha to descend to the realm of Ile Aiye, to find suitable place for future human life. In some traditions he is said to have cleared a path for the other gods to enter Earth, using a metal ax and with the assistance of a dog. To commemorate this, one of his praise names, or oriki, is Osin Imole or the "first of the primordial Orisha to come to Earth", he is the god of war and metals. In his earthly life Ogun is said to be the first king of Ife; when some of his subjects failed to show respect, Ogun killed them and himself with his own sword. He disappeared into the earth at a place called Ire-Ekiti, with the promise to help those who call on his name, his followers believe him to have wo ile sun, to have disappeared into the earth's surface instead of dying.
Throughout his earthly life, he is thought to have fought for the people of Ire, thus is known as Onire. He is now celebrated in Ekiti and Ondo States. Ogun is the traditional deity of warriors, blacksmiths and drivers in the Yoruba religion. Followers of traditional Yoruba religion can swear to tell the truth in court by "kissing a piece of iron in the name of Ogun." Drivers carry an amulet of Ogun to ward off traffic accidents. The primary symbols of Ogun are iron, the dog, the palm frond, they symbolize Ogun's role in transformation and function. Iron is the primary emblem of Ogun. Ogun altars and ceremonies display and use iron objects both in Yoruba areas and the across the African diaspora. Followers of Ogun wear. Meats are a sacrifice for Ogun. Dogs are the traditional companions of hunters, but Ogun's personality is seen as "doglike": aggressive, able to face danger, straightforward. Other sacrificial animals associated with Ogun are the spitting cobra. Hunters and blacksmiths avoid witnessing the mating of blacksnakes.
Other important sacrificial offerings to Ogun are the Clarias submarginatus, alligator pepper, kola nuts, palm wine and red palm oil, small rats, salt, tortoise, yams.. Many of these sacrificial offerings were carried into New World traditions. Ogun worshipers are known to sing a song. Ogun Alaara ni gba aja - Ogun of the Alaara people collects dog. Ogun Ajeero ni gbaagbo - Ogun of the Ajeero people collects ram. Ogun Ikole a gba'igbin - Ogun of the Ikole people will collect snail. Ogun Elemono ni gbe'sun isu - Ogun of the Elemono will collect roasted yam. Ogun Gbena Gbena eran ahun ni je - Ogun of the wood carvers eats the tortoise's meat. Biko gba Tapa, a gba aboki, a gba kemberi a bilala lenu Meje logun, meje nire. Ogun onire oko mi. In Dahomey religion, Gu is the vodun of patron deity of smiths and craftsmen, he was sent to earth to make it a nice place for people to live, he has not yet finished this task. Ogun is known in the Afro-Brazilian tradition of Candomblé as Gu. Ogum is syncretized with Saint George, notably in Rio de Janeiro and the state of Rio Grande do Sul.
Candomblé tradition in Northeast Brazil in Bahia, associates Ogum with Saint Sebastian. Consecrated day: Tuesday Metal: iron Element: earth Color: red, green, marine blue Food: feijoada, yams Archetype: impetuous, cautious, suspicious and a bit selfish Symbols: sword, iron chainIndividual devotees of Ogum in Brazil avoid certain foods; these include goat, cajá-manga, black beans and the manga-espada in the Ketu nation. Ogum, as a male orisha, only "eats" male animals. Ox, billy goat, snake and game animals are sacrificed on festival days associated with Ogum in the Candomblé tradition. Acaçá is a ritual food offered to all gods in the Candomble pantheon. A variation, acaçá de feijão-preto, substitutes black beans for corn; this variation is only offered to Ogum in the Casa Fanti Ashanti temple in São Luís, in the state of Maranhão. Feijoada, a stew of beans with beef and pork, is a common offering to Ogum. Ogun's centrality to the Yoruba religion has resulted in his name being retained into the 20th century in the Gullah and Lucumí languages, as well as the Yoruba dialect of Trinidad and Tobago.
In Santería and Palo, Ogún is syncretized with Saint Peter, Saint Paul, John the Baptist. In Haitian Vodou Ogun is known as Ogou, consists of an array of manifestations; the Ogou guard the sacred altar of the Vodou temple. He wears a red sash. Ogou is the god of pioneering, justice and political power. Ogou Feray is the god of war. Other manifestations of Ogou are Ogou Badagri