Trinidad and Tobago at the 2012 Summer Olympics
Trinidad and Tobago competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom from 27 July to 12 August 2012. This was Tobago's most successful Summer Olympics, it was the nation's largest delegation sent to the Olympics, with a total of 30 athletes, 21 men and 9 women, in 6 sports. Trinidad and Tobago's participation in these games marked its sixteenth Olympic appearance as an independent nation, although it had competed in four other games as a British colony, as part of the West Indies Federation; the nation was awarded four Olympic medals based on the efforts by the athletes who competed in the track and field. Javelin thrower Keshorn Walcott became the first Trinidadian athlete to win an Olympic gold medal since the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, where Hasely Crawford won for the sprint event. Marc Burns, a four-time Olympic athlete and a relay sprinter who led his team by winning the silver medal in Beijing, was the nation's flag bearer at the opening ceremony. Trinidad and Tobago's participation in these Olympic games marked its sixteenth appearance as an independent nation since 1964, although it had competed in four Olympic games under two different colonies.
Although the athletes from Trinidad and Tobago had competed at every Olympic games since its debut, the nation's delegation to the London Olympics has become the most successful performance at any other Olympic games. It was the largest at any previous Games, with 30 athletes, competing only in 6 sports. Trinidad and Tobago had created its historical record by winning the most Olympic medals in the overall standings. At the London Games, javelin thrower Keshorn Walcott set the nation's historic Olympic record by winning its first gold medal since 1976, the first medal in the field events. Walcott, at age 19 became Trinidad and Tobago's youngest Olympic champion, the first non-European athlete to win the men's javelin throw since United States' Cy Young at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. Furthermore, he was able to break the national record in the javelin throw event, to surpass Norway's Andreas Thorkildsen, the defending champion and the Olympic record holder, who finished sixth in the final.
Three other medals were awarded in the track events. Sprinter Lalonde Gordon received the bronze medal in the men's 400 metres, he led the relay team by winning another medal in the men's 4 × 400 metres relay. Richard Thompson, silver medalist in the men's 100 metres at the Beijing games, Marc Burns, a four-time Olympic athlete, on the other hand, led their team this time to settle for the silver medal in the men's 4 × 100 metres relay. Apart from the track and field and Tobago excelled in cycling and swimming. Njisane Phillip qualified for the men's sprint and Keirin events in track cycling, but narrowly missed the bronze medal to Australia's Shane Perkins, finishing only in fourth place. Meanwhile and former Olympic bronze medalist George Bovell had competed in the freestyle and backstroke events in the men's 50 m freestyle. After his dismal performance in Beijing, Bovell performed tremendously in these Olympic games by finishing first in the overall heats, fifth in the semi-finals, allowing him to take the qualifying spot for the finals.
In the end, he finished abruptly in seventh place. * In May 2014, the US 4 × 100 metres relay team member Tyson Gay received a one-year suspension for anabolic steroid use and was stripped of his medals after 15 July 2012 when he first used. In May 2015, the IOC wrote to US Olympic Committee telling them to collect the medals from teammates Trell Kimmons, Justin Gatlin, Ryan Bailey, Jeffery Demps and Darvis Patton. Two of Gay's teammates who ran with him in the final and Bailey, had also served suspensions; the medals were reallocated, with Trinidad and Tobago awarded silver, France taking bronze. Athletes from Trinidad & Tobago have so far achieved qualifying standards in the following athletics events: KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Men Track & road events* Jamol James was selected in the men's 4 × 100 m relay, but did not compete.
Field eventsWomen Track & road eventsField events Trinidad and Tobago has qualified boxers for the following events. Men SprintKeirin Trinidad and Tobago has qualified 1 boat for each of the following events MenM = Medal race.
2000 Summer Olympics
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event, held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was the second time that the Summer Olympics were held in Australia, the Southern Hemisphere, the first being in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1956. Sydney was selected as the host city for the 2000 Games in 1993. Teams from 199 countries participated; the Games’ cost was estimated to be A$6.6 billion. The Games received universal acclaim, with the organisation, volunteers and Australian public being lauded in the international media. Bill Bryson from The Times called the Sydney Games "one of the most successful events on the world stage", saying that they "couldn't be better". James Mossop of the Electronic Telegraph called the Games "such a success that any city considering bidding for future Olympics must be wondering how it can reach the standards set by Sydney", while Jack Todd in the Montreal Gazette suggested that the "IOC should quit while it's ahead.
Admit there can never be a better Olympic Games, be done with it," as "Sydney was both exceptional and the best". In preparing for the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Lord Coe declared the Sydney Games the "benchmark for the spirit of the Games, unquestionably" and admitting that the London organising committee "attempted in a number of ways to emulate what the Sydney Organising Committee did." These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. These were the second Olympic Games to be held in spring and is to date the most recent games not to be held in its more traditional July or August summer slot; the final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by Russia and China with host Australia at fourth place overall. Several World and Olympic records were broken during the games. With little or no controversies, the games were deemed successful with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. Sydney won the right to host the Games on 24 September 1993, after being selected over Beijing, Berlin and Manchester in four rounds of voting, at the 101st IOC Session in Monte Carlo, Monaco.
The Australian city of Melbourne had lost out to Atlanta for the 1996 Summer Olympics four years earlier. Beijing lost its bid to host the games to Sydney in 1993, but was awarded the 2008 Summer Olympics in July 2001 after Sydney hosted the previous year, it would be awarded the 2022 Winter Olympics twenty-two years in 2015. Although it is impossible to know why members of the International Olympic Committee voted for Sydney over Beijing in 1993, it appears that an important role was played by Human Rights Watch's campaign to "stop Beijing" because of China's human rights record. Many in China were angry at what they saw as U. S.-led interference in the vote, the outcome contributed to rising anti-Western sentiment in China and tensions in Sino-American relations. The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics at USD 5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 90% in real terms; this includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Sydney 2000 compares with a cost of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40–44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion, average cost overrun is 176%. In 2000, the Auditor-General of New South Wales reported that the Sydney Games cost A$6.6 billion, with a net cost to the public between A$1.7 and A$2.4 billion. Many venues were constructed in the Sydney Olympic Park, which failed in the years following the Olympics to meet the expected bookings to meet upkeep expenses. In the years leading up to the games, funds were shifted from education and health programs to cover Olympic expenses, it has been estimated that the economic impact of the 2000 Olympics was that A$2.1 billion has been shaved from public consumption.
Economic growth was not stimulated to a net benefit and in the years after 2000, foreign tourism to NSW grew by less than tourism to Australia as a whole. A "multiplier" effect on broader economic development is not realised, as a simple "multiplier" analysis fails to capture is that resources have to be redirected from elsewhere: the building of a stadium is at the expense of other public works such as extensions to hospitals. Building sporting venues does not add to the aggregate stock of productive capital in the years following the Games: "Equestrian centres, softball compounds and man-made rapids are not useful beyond their immediate function." In the years after the games, infrastructure issues have been of growing concern to citizens those in the western suburbs of Sydney. Proposed rail links to Sydney's west have been estimated to cost in the same order of magnitude as the public expenditure on the games. Although the Olympic Games Opening Ceremony was not sc
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island country, the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean. It is situated 130 kilometres south of Grenada off the northern edge of the South American mainland, 11 kilometres off the coast of northeastern Venezuela, it shares maritime boundaries with Barbados to the northeast, Grenada to the northwest, Guyana to the southeast, Venezuela to the south and west. The island of Trinidad was a Spanish colony from the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1498 until Spanish governor Don José María Chacón surrendered the island to a British fleet under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1797. During the same period, the island of Tobago changed hands among Spanish, French and Courlander colonisers more times than any other island in the Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens as separate states and unified in 1889. Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962 and became a republic in 1976.
As of 2015, the sovereign state of Trinidad and Tobago had the third highest GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity in the Americas after the United States and Canada. It is recognised by the World Bank as a high-income economy. Unlike most of the English-speaking Caribbean, the economy is industrial with an emphasis on petroleum and petrochemicals. Trinidad and Tobago is known for its Carnival and Diwali celebrations and as the birthplace of steelpan, the limbo, music styles such as calypso, soca and chutney. Historian E. L. Joseph claimed that Trinidad's Amerindian name was Cairi or "Land of the Humming Bird", derived from the Arawak name for hummingbird, ierèttê or yerettê. However, other authors dispute this etymology with some claiming that cairi does not mean hummingbird and some claiming that kairi, or iere means island. Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad", fulfilling a vow made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration. Tobago's cigar-like shape may have given it its Spanish name and some of its other Amerindian names, such as Aloubaéra and Urupaina, although the English pronunciation is /təˈbeɪɡoʊ/, rhyming with lumbago, "may go".
Trinidad and Tobago are islands situated between 10° 2' and 11° 12' N latitude and 60° 30' and 61° 56' W longitude. At the closest point, Trinidad is just 11 kilometres from Venezuelan territory. Covering an area of 5,128 km2, the country consists of the two main islands and Tobago, numerous smaller landforms, including Chacachacare, Huevos, Gaspar Grande, Little Tobago, St. Giles Island. Trinidad is 4,768 km2 in area with an average length of 80 kilometres and an average width of 59 kilometres. Tobago has an area of about 300 km2, or 5.8% of the country's area, is 41 km long and 12 km at its greatest width. Trinidad and Tobago lie on the continental shelf of South America, are thus geologically considered to lie in South America; the terrain of the islands is a mixture of plains. The highest point in the country is found on the Northern Range at El Cerro del Aripo, 940 metres above sea level; as the majority of the population lives on the island of Trinidad, this is the location of most major towns and cities.
There are four major municipalities in Trinidad: Port of Spain, the capital, San Fernando and Chaguanas. The main town in Tobago is Scarborough. Trinidad is made up of a variety of soil types, the majority being heavy clays; the alluvial valleys of the Northern Range and the soils of the East–West Corridor are the most fertile. The Northern Range consists of Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous metamorphic rocks; the Northern Lowlands consist of younger shallow marine clastic sediments. South of this, the Central Range fold and thrust belt consists of Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary rocks, with Miocene formations along the southern and eastern flanks; the Naparima Plains and the Nariva Swamp form the southern shoulder of this uplift. The Southern Lowlands consist of Miocene and Pliocene sands and gravels; these overlie oil and natural gas deposits north of the Los Bajos Fault. The Southern Range forms the third anticlinal uplift, it consists of several chains of hills, most famous being the Trinity Hills.
The rocks consist of sandstones, shales and clays formed in the Miocene and uplifted in the Pleistocene. Oil sands and mud volcanoes are common in this area; the climate is tropical. There are two seasons annually: the dry season for the first five months of the year, the rainy season in the remaining seven of the year. Winds are dominated by the northeast trade winds. Unlike most of the other Caribbean islands, both Trinidad and Tobago have escaped the wrath of major devastating hurricanes, including Hurricane Ivan, the most powerful storm to have passed close to the islands in recent history, in September 2004. In the Northern Range, the climate is different in contrast to the sweltering heat of the plains below. With constant cloud and mist cover, heavy rains in the mountains, the temperature is much cooler. Record temperatures for Trinidad and Tobago are 39 °C for the high in Port of Spain, a low of 12 °C; because Trinidad and Tobago lies
Marc Burns is an athlete from Trinidad and Tobago specializing in the 100 metres and the 4 x 100 metres relay. Participating in the 2004 Summer Olympics, he was disqualified from his 100 metres heat due to a false start, thus failing to make it through to the second round. Marc Burns placed second in the men's 100 metres dash at the Bislett Games IAAF Golden League meet in Oslo in July 2005, in preparation for the 2005 World Championships in Athletics. At the 2005 World Championships he won a silver medal; that year he won the World Athletics Final. At the 2006 Commonwealth Games he won a bronze medal over 100 metres, he was a finalist in the 100 m final at the 2007 World Championships in Osaka. At the London Grand Prix he ran a season's best time of 9.97 seconds coming second behind former world record holder Asafa Powell. In the 2008 Summer Olympics he competed at the 100 metres sprint and placed 2nd in his heat after Samuel Francis in a time of 10.46 seconds. He qualified for the second round in which he improved his time to 10.05 seconds, winning his race with opponents as Kim Collins and Tyrone Edgar.
In the semi finals he finished 3rd in his heat behind Usain Bolt and Walter Dix and qualified for the final. There he finished his race in 7th place in a time of 10.01 seconds. Together with Keston Bledman, Aaron Armstrong and Richard Thompson he competed at the 4x100 metres relay. In their qualification heat they placed first in front of the Netherlands and Brazil, their time of 38.26 was the fastest of all sixteen teams participating in the first round and they qualified for the final. Armstrong was replaced by Emmanuel Callender for the final race and they sprinted to a time of 38.06 seconds, the second time after the Jamaican team, winning the silver medal. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, he was part of the Trinidad and Tobago team that won the silver medal in the men's 4 × 100 m relay, he was part of the team that won the bronze medal at the 2014 Commonwealth Games. Marc Burns at IAAF Report on Bislett Games Golden League in Oslo, July 2005
Ato Jabari Boldon is a former athlete from Trinidad and Tobago and four-time Olympic medal winner. He is the current Trinidad and Tobago national record holder in the 50, 60 and 200 metres events with times of 5.64, 6.49 and 19.77 seconds respectively. He held the 100m national record at 9.86, having run it four times, until Richard Thompson ran 9.85 on 13 August 2011. He holds the Commonwealth Games record in the 100 m. After retiring from his track career, he was an Opposition Senator in the Trinidad and Tobago Parliament, representing the United National Congress from 2006–2007, he is now a ESPN and NBC Sports television broadcast analyst for track and field, while serving as a features contributor for NASCAR on NBC. Boldon was born in Trinidad to a Jamaican mother and Trinidadian father, he attended Fatima College in Trinidad before leaving for the United States at age fourteen. In December 1989, as a soccer player at Jamaica High School in Queens, New York City, head track and field coach Joe Trupiano noticed his sprinting abilities during a soccer practice session.
In his first track season, at age 16, he finished with 21.20 seconds in the 200 metres and 48.40 seconds in the 400 metres, recording a double win at the Queens County Championships in 1990 and earning MVP honors. After transferring for his final year from Jamaica High to Piedmont Hills High School in San Jose, Boldon was selected to the San Jose Mercury News' Santa Clara all-county soccer team, he continued to sprint, placing third in the 200 m at the CIF California State Meet in 1991. Athletics became his primary focus and he won the Junior Olympic Title that summer in Durham, North Carolina, in 200 m. At 18, Boldon represented Trinidad and Tobago at 100 metres and 200 m in the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, but did not qualify in the first round of either event. Boldon returned to the junior circuit, winning the 100 m and 200 m titles at the IAAF World Junior Championships in Athletics in Seoul, South Korea to become the first double sprint champion in World Junior Championships history.
He was an NCAA Champion while enrolled as a sociology major at the University of California at Los Angeles, in 1995 in the 200 m. He secured an NCAA 100 m Championship in 1996, in Eugene, Oregon, in the final race of his collegiate career, setting an NCAA meet record of 9.92 s which still stands. Boldon held the collegiate 100 m record with 9.90 s from 1996 until it was broken by Travis Padgett, who ran 9.89s, in 2008. Ngonidzashe Makusha equalled this record at the 2011 NCAA Championships in Des Moines, Iowa Boldon won his first international senior-level medal at the 1995 World Championships, taking home the bronze in the 100 m. At the time he was the youngest athlete to win a medal in that event, at 21 years of age; the following year at the 1996 Summer Olympics, he again placed third in the 100 m and 200 m events, both behind world records. In 1997, he won the 200 m at the World Championships in Greece; this made him one of only a few male sprinters to win both a World World Senior title.
The following year saw Boldon reaching the peak of his career, setting a new personal best and national record of 9.86 s in the 100 m at the Mt. SAC Relays in Walnut, California on 19 April and repeating the feat in Athens on 17 June, he picked up gold in the 100 m at the 1998 Commonwealth Games held in Kuala Lumpur, setting a record time of 9.88 s, beating Namibia's Frankie Fredericks and Barbados' Obadele Thompson. The Commonwealth Games 100 m record remains unbroken. In 1999, Boldon ran 9.86 s twice in the 100 m before sustaining a serious hamstring injury which forced him to miss the World Championships in Seville - the only Championship he missed in his career due to injury. A silver medal in the 100 m and a bronze in the 200 m were his results of the 2000 Summer Olympics, a personal victory, considering his comeback from a career-threatening injury the year before. In 2001, Boldon tested positive at an early-season relay meet for the stimulant ephedrine, was given a warning, but was not suspended or sanctioned, since ephedrine is a substance found in many over the counter remedies, Boldon had been treating a cold.
"It is in no way something where the blame is laid on the athlete," said IAAF General Secretary István Gyulai of the positive result. In 2001, at the World Championships in Edmonton, Canada, Boldon finished fourth and out of the medals in the 100 m with 9.98 s, ran the second leg of his country's 4 x 100 metre relay, finishing third in the finals. This was Trinidad and Tobago's first 4 x 100 m relay medal in either World or Olympic competition and Boldon states that making national history with this team of young men was his greatest accomplishment in his career; the colours of his 2001 World Championship medals would change in 2005 as both his placings were improved – he received bronze in the 100 m and the bronze relay medals were upgraded to silver after all the times and performances of the American sprinter Tim Montgomery were nullified due to serious doping violations. That brought Boldon's career total to four World Championship medals, to match his four Olympic medals. Boldon was injured in a head-on crash with a drunk driver in Barataria and Tobago, in July 2002, never again ran sub-ten seconds in the 100 m or sub-twenty seconds for 200 m.
In 2006, a judge in Trinidad found that Boldon was not at fault in that accident and he was paid substantial damag
Taekwondo at the 2000 Summer Olympics
Taekwondo was contested as an official sport at the Olympic Games for the first time at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. It had been a demonstration sport in 1988 and 1992. Medals were awarded in four weight classes each for women. Tran Hieu Ngan became the first Vietnamese Olympic medalist in this competition. MenWomen A total of 103 taekwondo jins from 51 nations competed at the Sydney Games: Bronze medalist Chi Shu-Ju, Hamide Bıkçın Tosun, Hadi Saei and Pascal Gentil complained to the media about what they perceived as biased refereeing which made them lose their possible gold medal. Pascal Gentil refused to be photographed with his fellow medalists Kim Kyong-Hun and Daniel Trenton in the medal ceremony. Gold medalist Steven López revealed some inside story from his viewpoint in his family's 2009 book, Family Power: The True Story of How "The First Family of Taekwondo" Made Olympic History. International Olympic Committee results database