Dorset /ˈdɔːrsᵻt/ is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast. The ceremonial county comprises the county, which is governed by Dorset County Council. Covering an area of 2,653 square kilometres, Dorset borders Devon to the west, Somerset to the north-west, Wiltshire to the north-east, the county town is Dorchester which is in the south. After the reorganisation of government in 1974 the countys border was extended eastward to incorporate the Hampshire towns of Bournemouth. Around half of the lives in the South East Dorset conurbation. The county has a history of human settlement stretching back to the Neolithic era. The Romans conquered Dorsets indigenous Celtic tribe, and during the early Middle Ages, the first recorded Viking raid on the British Isles occurred in Dorset during the eighth century, and the Black Death entered England at Melcombe Regis in 1348. During the Second World War, Dorset was heavily involved in the preparations for the invasion of Normandy, the former was the sailing venue in the 2012 Summer Olympics, and both have clubs or hire venues for sailing, Cornish pilot gig rowing, sea kayaking and powerboating.
Dorset has a varied landscape featuring broad elevated chalk downs, steep limestone ridges, over half the county is designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Three-quarters of its coastline is part of the Jurassic Coast Natural World Heritage Site due to its geological and it features notable landforms such as Lulworth Cove, the Isle of Portland, Chesil Beach and Durdle Door. Agriculture was traditionally the major industry of Dorset but is now in decline, there are no motorways in Dorset but a network of A roads cross the county and two railway main lines connect to London. Dorset has ports at Poole and Portland, and an international airport, the county has a variety of museums and festivals, and is host to one of Europes largest outdoor shows. It is the birthplace of Thomas Hardy, who used the county as the setting of his novels. Dorset derives its name from the county town of Dorchester, the Romans established the settlement in the 1st century and named it Durnovaria which was a Latinised version of a Common Brittonic word possibly meaning place with fist-sized pebbles.
It is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in AD845 and in the 10th century the countys archaic name, the first human visitors to Dorset were Mesolithic hunters, from around 8000 BC. The first permanent Neolithic settlers appeared around 3000 BC and were responsible for the creation of the Dorset Cursus, from 2800 BC onwards Bronze Age farmers cleared Dorsets woodlands for agricultural use and Dorsets high chalk hills provided a location for numerous round barrows. During the Iron Age, the British tribe known as the Durotriges established a series of forts across the county—most notably Maiden Castle which is one of the largest in Europe. The Romans arrived in Dorset during their conquest of Britain in AD43, Maiden Castle was captured by a Roman legion under the command of Vespasian, and the Roman settlement of Durnovaria was established nearby
Nova Scotia is one of Canadas three Maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces which form Atlantic Canada. Nova Scotia is Canadas second-smallest province, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres, including Cape Breton, as of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is the second most-densely populated province in Canada with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre, Nova Scotia means New Scotland in Latin and is the recognized English language name for the province. In Scottish Gaelic, the province is called Alba Nuadh, which simply means New Scotland. Nova Scotia is Canadas second-smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island, the provinces mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km from the ocean, Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations. These formations are rich on the Bay of Fundys shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundys shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous age fossils, wassons Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic and Jurassic age fossils.
Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone, since the province is almost surrounded by the sea, the climate is closer to maritime than to continental climate. The winter and summer temperature extremes of the climate are moderated by the ocean. However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental – still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west. The Nova Scotia climate is in ways similar to the central Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe. This is in spite of Nova Scotia being some fifteen parallels south, areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, and winter lows a little colder. The province includes regions of the Mikmaq nation of Mikmaki, the Mikmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port Royal, the British conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island to the French, present-day New Brunswick still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia.
The British changed the name of the capital from Port Royal to Annapolis Royal, in 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia moved from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population were removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians
Marathon world record progression
This list is a chronological progression of record times for the marathon. World records in the marathon are now ratified by the International Association of Athletics Federations, the IAAF world record for men is 2,02,57, set by Dennis Kimetto of Kenya on September 28,2014 at the Berlin Marathon. As noted below, a marathon performance must meet criteria to be eligible for ratification as a world record. In order for a performance to be ratified as a record by the IAAF. The criteria include, The start and finish points of a course, the decrease in elevation between the start and finish shall not exceed an average of one in a thousand, i. e. 1m per km. Road racing events like the marathon were specifically excepted from IAAF rule 26018 that rejected from consideration those track, performances claiming world best or world record status on point-to-point courses such as the Boston Marathon have historically been rejected by USA Track & Field. Performances on these courses could be aided by slope and/or tailwinds, Marathon races were first held in 1896, but the distance was not standardized by the International Amateur Athletic Federation until 1921.
The actual distance for pre-1921 races frequently varied slightly from the present figure of 42.195 km, in qualifying races for the 1896 Summer Olympics, Greek runners Charilaos Vasilakos and Ioannis Lavrentis won the first two modern marathons. On April 10,1896, Spiridon Louis of Greece won the first Olympic marathon in Athens, Greece in a time of 2,58,50, the distance for the event was reported to be only 40,000 meters. Three months later, British runner Len Hurst won the inaugural Paris to Conflans Marathon in a time of 2,31,30, in 1900, Hurst would better his time on the same course with a 2,26,28 performance. The first marathon over the now official distance was won by American Johnny Hayes at the 1908 Summer Olympics and it is possible that Stamata Revithi, who ran the 1896 Olympic course a day after Louis, is the first woman to run the modern marathon. Other unofficial performances have reported to be world bests or world records over time. Although her performance is not recognized by the IAAF, Adrienne Beames from Australia is frequently credited as the first woman to break the 3-hour barrier in the marathon, the Boston Athletic Association does not report Yamadas performance as a world best.
On April 18,2011, the Boston Marathon produced what were at time the two fastest marathon performances of all time. Winner Geoffrey Mutai of Kenya recorded a time of 2,03,02, since the Boston course does not meet the criteria for record attempts, these times did not get ratified by the IAAF. Eight world records have been set at the Polytechnic Marathon. 13th IAAF World Championships in Athletics - IAAF Statistics Handbook - Daegu 2011 Runners World - “What Will It Take to Run A 2-HOUR Marathon. ”BBC - “Could a marathon ever be run in two hours. ”Interactive graph of mens and womens marathon times with race descriptions
The Channel Islands are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They are considered the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy, and although they are not part of the United Kingdom, it is responsible for the defence, the Crown dependencies are not members of the Commonwealth of Nations nor of the European Union. They have a population of about 168,000. The total area of the islands is 198 km2, the two bailiwicks have been administered separately since the late 13th century, each has its own independent laws and representative bodies. Any institution common to both is the rather than the rule. The Bailiwick of Guernsey is divided into three jurisdictions – Guernsey and Sark – each with its own legislature, the term Channel Islands began to be used around 1830, possibly first by the Royal Navy as a collective name for the islands. The permanently inhabited islands of the Channel Islands are, Jersey Guernsey Alderney Sark Herm Jethou Brecqhou There are several uninhabited islets and they are an incorporated part of the commune of Granville.
While they are popular with visitors from France, Channel Islanders rarely visit them as there are no transport links from the other islands. Chausey is referred to as an Île normande, Îles Normandes and Archipel Normand have also, been used in Channel Island French to refer to the islands as a whole. The lowest point is the Atlantic Ocean, the earliest evidence of human occupation of the Channel Islands has been dated to 250,000 years ago when they were attached to the landmass of continental Europe. The islands became detached by rising sea levels in the Neolithic period, hoards of Armorican coins have been excavated, providing evidence of trade and contact in the Iron Age period. Evidence for Roman settlement is sparse, although evidently the islands were visited by Roman officials, the Roman name for the Channel Islands was I. Lenuri and is included in the Peutinger Table The traditional Latin names used for the islands derive from the Antonine Itinerary, gallo-Roman culture was adopted to an unknown extent in the islands.
In the sixth century, Christian missionaries visited the islands, samson of Dol, Helier and Magloire are among saints associated with the islands. In the sixth century, they were included in the diocese of Coutances where they remained until reformation. The islands were inhabited by Britons, who inhabited Wales, south west England, from the beginning of the ninth century, Norse raiders appeared on the coasts. Norse settlement succeeded initial attacks, and it is from this period that many names of Norse origin appear. In 933, the islands were granted to William I Longsword by Raoul King of Western Francia, in 1066, William II of Normandy invaded and conquered England, becoming William I of England, known as William the Conqueror
Seven Years' War
The Seven Years War was a war fought between 1754 and 1763, the main conflict occurring in the seven-year period from 1756 to 1763. It involved every European great power of the time except the Ottoman Empire and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain on one side and the Kingdom of France on the other. Meanwhile, in India, the Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned herself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. Conflict between Great Britain and France broke out in 1754–1756 when the British attacked disputed French positions in North America, rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for dominance within and outside the Holy Roman Empire in central Europe. In 1756, the major powers switched partners, realizing that war was imminent, Prussia preemptively struck Saxony and quickly overran it.
The result caused uproar across Europe, because of Austrias alliance with France to recapture Silesia, which had been lost in a previous war, Prussia formed an alliance with Britain. Reluctantly, by following the diet, most of the states of the empire joined Austrias cause. The Anglo-Prussian alliance was joined by smaller German states, seeking to re-gain Pomerania joined the coalition, seeing its chance when virtually all of Europe opposed Prussia. Spain, bound by the Pacte de Famille, intervened on behalf of France, the Russian Empire was originally aligned with Austria, fearing Prussias ambition on the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but switched sides upon the succession of Tsar Peter III in 1762. Naples and Savoy, although sided with the Franco-Spanish alliance, like Sweden, Russia concluded a separate peace with Prussia. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris between France and Great Britain and the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Saxony and Prussia, in 1763. The Native American tribes were excluded from the settlement, a subsequent conflict, Prussia emerged as a new European great power.
Although Austria failed to retrieve the territory of Silesia from Prussia its military prowess was noted by the other powers. The involvement of Portugal and Sweden did not return them to their status as great powers. France was deprived of many of its colonies and had saddled itself with heavy war debts that its inefficient financial system could barely handle. Spain lost Florida but gained French Louisiana and regained control of its colonies, e. g. Cuba and the Philippines and Spain avenged their defeat in 1778 when the American Revolutionary War broke out, with hopes of destroying Britains dominance once and for all. The Seven Years War was perhaps the first true world war, having taken place almost 160 years before World War I and it was characterized in Europe by sieges and the arson of towns as well as open battles with heavy losses
Weymouth /ˈweɪməθ/ is a seaside town in Dorset, situated on a sheltered bay at the mouth of the River Wey on the English Channel coast. The town is 11 kilometres south of Dorchester and 8 kilometres north of the Isle of Portland, the town is the third largest settlement in Dorset after the unitary authorities of Bournemouth and Poole. The A354 road bridge connects Weymouth to Portland, which form the borough of Weymouth. Weymouth originated as a settlement on a site to the south and west of Weymouth Harbour. The town developed from the mid 12th century onwards, but was not noted until the 13th century, by 1252 it was established as a seaport and became a chartered borough. Melcombe Regis developed separately on the peninsula to the north of the harbour, French raiders found the port so accessible that in 1433 the staple was transferred to Poole. Melcombe Regis is thought to be the first port at which the Black Death came into England in June 1348, possibly either aboard a spice ship or an army ship.
In their early history Weymouth and Melcombe Regis were rivals for trade and industry, both towns have become known as Weymouth, despite Melcombe Regis being the main centre. The villages of Upwey, Preston, Wyke Regis, Southill, King Henry VIII had two Device Forts built to protect the south Dorset coast from invasion in the 1530s, Sandsfoot Castle in Wyke Regis and Portland Castle in Castletown. Parts of Sandsfoot have fallen into the sea due to coastal erosion, during the English Civil War, around 250 people were killed in the local Crabchurch Conspiracy in February 1645. In 1635, on board the ship Charity, around 100 emigrants from the crossed the Atlantic Ocean and settled in Weymouth. More townspeople emigrated to the Americas to bolster the population of Weymouth, Nova Scotia and Salem, there are memorials to this on the side of Weymouth Harbour and near to Weymouth Pavilion and Weymouth Sea Life Tower. The architect Sir Christopher Wren was the Member of Parliament for Weymouth in 1702, when he designed St Pauls Cathedral, Wren had it built out of Portland Stone, the famous stone of Portlands quarries.
Sir James Thornhill was born in the White Hart public house in Melcombe Regis, Thornhill became an artist, and coincidentally decorated the interior of St Pauls Cathedral. A mounted white horse representing the King is carved into the hills of Osmington. Weymouths esplanade is composed of Georgian terraces, which have been converted into apartments, hotels, statues of Victoria, George III and Sir Henry Edwards, Member of Parliament for the borough from 1867 to 1885, and two war memorials stand along the Esplanade. In the centre of the town lies Weymouth Harbour, although it was the reason for the towns foundation, since the 18th century they have been linked by successive bridges over the narrowest part of the harbour. The present Town Bridge, built in 1930, is a bascule bridge allowing boats to access the inner harbour
Charles-Henri-Louis d'Arsac de Ternay
Charles-Henri-Louis dArsac, chevalier de Ternay was a French naval officer. Most active in the Seven Years War and the War of American Independence and he was appointed commander of the Marine Royale, French naval forces, as part of the project code named Expédition Particulière that brought French troops to American soil in 1780. He died aboard ship off Newport, Rhode Island, Ternay was born on 27 January 1723, probably in Angers, to Charles-François dArsac, Marquis de Ternay and Louise Lefebvre de Laubrière. He served as a page in the Knights of Malta beginning in 1737 and he rose through the ranks, and received his first command, the Robuste, on 10 January 1761. In 1762, late in the Seven Years War, Ternay was chosen to lead an expedition against the British-controlled island of Newfoundland. Arriving at Bay Bulls on June 20, he landed 750 soldiers, led by Joseph-Louis-Bernard de Cléron dHaussonville, Ternay oversaw the destruction of St. Johns fishing stages and fishing fleet. British estimates of the damage ran to £1 million, the British fleet arrived on 12 September, landing 1,500 troops the next day at Torbay.
Two days the French troops had retreated into Fort William after the Battle of Signal Hill, given a favourable wind and foggy conditions, Ternay decided to depart that night, and slipped away, leaving the ground forces to surrender three days later. Ternays return to France was difficult, he was forced to run from British ships to the Spanish port of Corunna, although criticised by dHaussonville for abandoning him, Ternays actions met with approval, since he had managed to save his fleet. After the war he continued in several ship commands, and was promoted to brigadier general in 1771. He was promoted to admiral in November 1776. In 1780 he was given command of the forces of the Expédition Particulière. Ternays fleet was blockaded by the British after his arrival and he died of typhus aboard his flagship the Duc de Bourgogne on 15 December 1780. Ternays entry into the Knights of Malta included a vow of celibacy and he was buried in the cemetery of the Trinity Church in Newport, where memorials given by King Louis XV and the United States Congress have been placed in his honour.
He was posthumously enrolled in the Society of the Cincinnati for his role in the war, in the Port Glaud district of Mahé, Baie Ternay and Cap Ternay are named after him. Biography at Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Gardner, the Order of the Cincinnati in France Charles-Henri-Louis dArsac de Ternay at Find a Grave
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Trinity Bay (Newfoundland and Labrador)
Trinity Bay is a large bay on the northeastern coast of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Bay along with Placentia Bay to the southeast define the isthmus of Avalon from which the Avalon Peninsula lies to the east of the landmass of Newfoundland Island. Major fishing communities include Trinity and Hearts Content, the smaller communities in Newfoundland may often be referenced by the Bay in which they are located, eg, Brownsdale, TB. Trinity Bay is famous as the location of an intact specimen of giant squid found there on September 24,1877. In April 2003, thousands of northern cod, washed up on the shores of Smith Sound in a single weekend. Jellyfish harvesting communities include Smith Sound, Old Perlican, and Northwest and Southwest Arms
Poole /puːl/ is a large coastal town and seaport in the county of Dorset, on the south coast of England. The town is 33 kilometres east of Dorchester, and adjoins Bournemouth to the east, the local council is Borough of Poole and was made a unitary authority in 1997, gaining administrative independence from Dorset County Council. The borough had a population of 147,645 at the 2011 census, together with Bournemouth and Christchurch, the town forms the South East Dorset conurbation with a total population of over 465,000. Human settlement in the dates back to before the Iron Age. The earliest recorded use of the name was in the 12th century when the town began to emerge as an important port. Later, the town had important trade links with North America and, at its peak during the 18th century, in the Second World War, Poole was one of the main departing points for the Normandy landings. Poole is a tourist resort, attracting visitors with its natural harbour, history. The town has a port with cross-Channel freight and passenger ferry services.
The headquarters of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution are in Poole, despite their names, Poole is the home of The Arts University Bournemouth, the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra and a significant part of Bournemouth University. The towns name derives from a corruption of the Celtic word bol, variants include Pool, Poles, Polle and Poolman. The area around modern Poole has been inhabited for the past 2,500 years, during the 3rd century BC, Celts known as the Durotriges moved from hilltop settlements at Maiden Castle and Badbury Rings to heathland around the River Frome and Poole Harbour. The Romans landed at Poole during their conquest of Britain in the 1st century and took over an Iron Age settlement at Hamworthy, in Anglo-Saxon times, Poole was included in the Kingdom of Wessex. The settlement was used as a base for fishing and the harbour a place for ships to anchor on their way to the River Frome, following the Norman conquest of England, Poole rapidly grew into a busy port as the importance of Wareham declined.
The town was part of the manor of Canford, but does not exist as an entry in the Domesday Book. The earliest written mention of Poole occurred on a document from 1196 describing the newly built St Jamess Chapel in La Pole. The Lord of the Manor, Sir William Longspée, sold a charter of liberties to the burgesses of Poole in 1248 to raise funds for his participation in the Seventh Crusade. Consequently, Poole gained a measure of freedom from feudal rule and acquired the right to appoint a mayor. In 1568, Poole gained further autonomy when it was granted independence from Dorset
Baie Verte, Newfoundland and Labrador
Baie Verte is a town located on the north coast of the island portion of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador on the Baie Verte Peninsula. Baie Verte is one of 42 communities that make up the Emerald Zone which is located in the North Central portion of Newfoundland, bowering Brothers steamers called in the area in the 1950s to transport the ore found here. It became a town in 1968, the major Baie Verte fault line starts here and runs from here to Long Island Sound by way of Vermont. In the 1970s the town was gripped by a strike by asbestos miners over working conditions which lasted for 15 weeks. Brad Brown, National Hockey League player List of cities and towns in Newfoundland and Labrador The town of Baie Verte Baie Verte - Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, vol.1, p. 108-109
Edward Jenner, FRS was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the worlds first vaccine. The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived from Variolae vaccinae, the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 in the title of his Inquiry into the. Variolae vaccinae. known. the Cow Pox. Jenner is often called the father of immunology, and his work is said to have saved more lives than the work of any other human. A member of the Royal Society, in the field of zoology he was the first person to describe the brood parasitism of the cuckoo, in 2002, Jenner was named in the BBCs list of the 100 Greatest Britons. Edward Anthony Jenner was born on 17 May 1749 in Berkeley and his father, the Reverend Stephen Jenner, was the vicar of Berkeley, so Jenner received a strong basic education. He went to school in Wotton-under-Edge and Cirencester, during this time, he was inoculated for smallpox, which had a lifelong effect upon his general health. At the age of 14, he was apprenticed for seven years to Daniel Ludlow, a surgeon of Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire, in 1770, Jenner became apprenticed in surgery and anatomy under surgeon John Hunter and others at St Georges Hospital.
William Osler records that Hunter gave Jenner William Harveys advice, very famous in medical circles, Dont think, Hunter remained in correspondence with Jenner over natural history and proposed him for the Royal Society. Returning to his native countryside by 1773, Jenner became a family doctor and surgeon. Jenner contributed papers on angina pectoris and cardiac valvular disease and he belonged to a similar society which met in Alveston, near Bristol. He became a mason on 30 December 1802, in Lodge of Faith. From 1812–1813, he served as master of Royal Berkeley Lodge of Faith. He described how the newly hatched cuckoo pushed its hosts eggs, the adult does not remain long enough in the area to perform this task. Jenners findings were published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1788, when it is about twelve days old, this cavity is quite filled up, and the back assumes the shape of nestling birds in general. Jenners nephew assisted in the study and he was born on 30 June 1737.
Jenners understanding of the behaviour was not entirely believed, until the artist Jemima Blackburn. Her description and illustration of this were enough to convince Charles Darwin to revise a edition of On the Origin of Species, Jenner married Catherine Kingscote in March 1788