Trinity School is a selective independent, preparatory, co-educational day school for grades K-12 located in New York City, USA, a member of both the New York Interschool and the Ivy Preparatory School League. Founded in 1709 in the old Trinity Church at Broadway and Wall Street, the school is the fifth oldest in the United States and the oldest continually operational school in New York City. Trinity School traces its founding to 1709 when William Huddleston, clerk of Trinity Church, schoolmaster, first received a grant from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, an Anglican missionary organization in London, to teach poor children in the parish of Trinity Church; the school’s first classes met in Trinity Church at the head of Wall Street. The building burned down two months and had to be rebuilt. Columbia University King's College, was founded in that building's first floor; the first Trinity students and girls, in addition to religious instruction learned to write plainly and legibly and were taught enough arithmetic to prepare them for employment.
These eighteenth-century Trinity students were invariably apprenticed to trades such as blacksmith, carpenter, mason, shoe binder, tailor. In 1789, Trinity's 56 boys and 30 girls were under the instruction of John Wood, clerk of St. Paul's Chapel at 29 John Street, its tuition stood in addition to a one guinea entrance fee. In 1838, Trinity closed admission to girls. Girls would not be readmitted until 1971. In 1889, Trinity School moved to 627 Madison Avenue, moved again a year to 108 West 45th Street. In 1898, the trustees established the St. Agatha's School for Girls at 257 West 93rd Street as a sister school for Trinity. St. Agatha's closed its doors. During its first two hundred years, Trinity moved many times as the population of both Manhattan and the School grew; the establishment, in the nineteenth-century, of a public school system in New York meant that the role of the charity school had come to an end. English and classical learning became the rule as the school increased in size to as many as 250 students and as Trinity refashioned itself as a college preparatory school for boys.
The curriculum was designed to meet the admissions standards of the leading colleges and universities of the time. In 1895, Trinity moved to its current location at 91st Street between Amsterdam and Columbus Avenues in the Upper West Side of Manhattan. Trinity occupies seven connected buildings: 151 and 149 West 91st Street house the admissions and business offices. Shortly before the completion of the new upper school building in 1968, Trinity severed its Episcopal ties with Trinity Church, is now non-sectarian, thus receiving no endowment from the Church; the school does, retain an Episcopal priest, paid by Trinity Church. The priest delivers weekly chapel services at the school, as well as the annual baccalaureate service held at Trinity Church each May. Forbes Magazine named Trinity the country's best private school in 2010. In 2004, The Wall Street Journal ranked Trinity as third best at getting its students accepted to some of the country's most exclusive colleges; the Lower and Middle School courseloads are structured, ninth and tenth graders are offered limited flexibility in their courses.
Juniors and seniors, are much freer to flexibly select electives and other such courses. English is the only subject mandated through four years in the Upper School. Math is mandated for three, the languages for three, the lab sciences for two. There is a requirement for Physical Education. Trinity is notable for having a full Classics department, recognized as one of the strongest in the nation. Nearly 40 % of the student body takes either Greek, while more than 60 % take two languages. Fall Boys' Cross Country Girls' Cross Country Boys' Soccer Girls' Soccer Girls' Tennis Girls' Volleyball Coed Water PoloWinter Boys' Basketball Girls' Basketball Coed Swimming Wrestling Indoor Track & FieldSpring Boys' Baseball Boys' Lacrosse Girls' Lacrosse Girls' Softball Outdoor Track and Field Coed Golf Boys' Tennis The school competes in the New York State Association of Independent Schools Athletic Association. Championships in this league are used as qualifiers for overall state championships. Girl's volleyball – 1997, 2012 Baseball – 2006 Basketball – 2007, 2009 Girls' soccer – 2009 Boys' cross country – 2016, 2017, 2018 Boys' soccer – 2017, 2018 Boys' Indoor track and field – 2018 Trinity School has musical groups ranging from instrumental music – jazz groups and chamber ensembles – to vocal music – choruses, both accompanied and a cappella.
Musical performances figure in all three divisions with concerts and chapel performances during the school day and in the evening. The school has dynamic dramatic art showings with performances ranging from plays to musicals, both as classes and as extra-curricular events. One of the most notable student organizations is the Trinity Upper School Senate; the Senate is composed of sixteen representatives. The Senate is run by four officer
John Cheney was an engraver in Boston and Philadelphia in the 19th century. He travelled in Europe in the 1830s, his brothers were Ward Cheney and Seth Wells Cheney, who married the writer, Ednah Dow Littlehale Cheney. Examples of Cheney's work are in the Museum of Boston. In 1833, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Academician. Sylvester Rosa Koehler. Catalogue of the engraved and lithographed work of John Cheney and Seth Wells Cheney. Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1891 WorldCat. Cheney, John 1801-1885 Library of Congress. Everett cigarros puros superiores, 1856. Engraved by Cheney New York Public Library. Edward Everett. Engraved by Cheney after R. M Staigg New York Public Library. Fitz-Greene Halleck. Engraved by Cheney New York Public Library. W. E. Channing. Engraved by Cheney Smithsonian Works by Cheney
The Great Britain men's national pitch and putt team represents Great Britain in the pitch and putt international competitions. It is managed by the British Pitch and Putt Association, one of the founders of the European Pitch and Putt Association, the governing body that develops the pitch and putt in Europe and stages the European Team Championship, where Great Britain reached the second place in 1999. In 2006 the "British Pitch and Putt Association" participated in the creation of the Federation of International Pitch and Putt Associations, that stages the World Cup Team Championship. National team in the European Championship 2010 Steve Deeble John Deeble Savio Fernandes Jamie Deeble Neil Green Ron CopeNational team in the World Cup 2008 Steve Deeble John Deeble Anthony O'BrienNational team in the European Championship 2007 John Deeble Steve Deeble Anthony O'Brien Geoff Unwin Ashley Hendricks Blaise Fernandes World Cup Team Championship European Team Championship BPPA British Pitch and Putt Association FIPPA Federation of International Pitch and Putt Associations website EPPA European Pitch and Putt Association website
The Social Contract published as On the Social Contract. The Social Contract helped inspire political reforms or revolutions in Europe in France; the Social Contract argued against the idea. Rousseau asserts; the epigraph of the work is "foederis aequas / Dicamus leges". The stated aim of The Social Contract is to determine whether there can be a legitimate political authority, since people's interactions he saw at his time seemed to put them in a state far worse than the good one they were at in the state of nature though living in isolation, he concludes book one, chapter three with, "Let us admit that force does not create right, that we are obliged to obey only legitimate powers", to say, the ability to coerce is not a legitimate power, there is no rightful duty to submit to it. A state has no right to enslave a conquered people. In this desired social contract, everyone will be free because they all forfeit the same number of rights and impose the same duties on all. Rousseau argues. Although the contract imposes new laws, including those safeguarding and regulating property, there are restrictions on how that property can be legitimately claimed.
His example with land includes three conditions. Rousseau posits. First, there must be a sovereign consisting of the whole population, women included, that represents the general will and is the legislative power within the state; the second division is that of the government. This division is necessary because the sovereign cannot deal with particular matters like applications of the law. Doing so would undermine its generality, therefore damage its legitimacy. Thus, the government must remain a separate institution from the sovereign body; when the government exceeds the boundaries set in place by the people, it is the mission of the people to abolish such government, begin anew. Rousseau claims that the size of the territory to be governed decides the nature of the government. Since a government is only as strong as the people, this strength is absolute, the larger the territory, the more strength the government must be able to exert over the populace. In his view, a monarchical government is able to wield the most power over the people since it has to devote less power to itself, while a democracy the least.
In general, the larger the bureaucracy, the more power required for government discipline. This relationship requires the state to be an aristocracy or monarchy; when Rousseau uses the word democracy, he refers to a direct democracy rather than a representative democracy. In light of the relation between population size and governmental structure, Rousseau argues that like his native Geneva, small city-states are the form of nation in which freedom can best flourish. For states of this size, an elected aristocracy is preferable, in large states a benevolent monarch; the French philosopher Voltaire used his publications to criticise and mock Rousseau, but to defend free expression. In his Idées républicaines, he reacted to the news that The Social Contract had been burned in Geneva, saying "The operation of burning it was as odious as that of writing it. To burn a book of argument is to say:'We do not have enough wit to reply to it.'" The work was banned in Paris. The work received a refutation called "The Confusion of the Social Contract by Jean-Jacques Rousseau" by the Jesuit Alfonso Muzzarelli in Italy in 1794.
Bertram, Christopher. Rousseau and the'Social Contract'. Routledge. Incorvati, Giovanni “Du contrat social, or the principles of political right. Les citoyens de Rousseau ont la parole en anglais”, in: G. Lobrano, P. P. Onida, Il principio della democrazia. Jean-Jacques Rousseau Du Contrat social, Jovene, p. 213-256. Williams, David Lay. Rousseau's'Social Contract': An Introduction. Cambridge University Press. Wraight, Christopher D.. Rousseau's The Social Contract: A Reader's Guide. London: Continuum Books. Du contrat social The Social Contract translated 1782 by G. D. H. Cole at constitution.org The Social Contract Public domain audiobook G. D. H. Cole translation The Social Contract English translation audiobook on LibriVox.org Catholic Encyclopedia Based on an article critical of The Social Contract, written in 1908. SparkNotes entry on The Social Contract Rousseaus Gesellschaftsvertrag in Kurzform A site containing The Social Contract modified for easier reading The Social Contract on In Our Time at the BBC Du contrat social, or the principles of political right
Gabor Takács-Nagy (born 17 April 1956, Budapest, is a Hungarian violinist and conductor. He began violin studies at age 8, he attended the Franz Liszt Academy of Music. His teachers at the Liszt Academy included Ferenc Rados, András Mihály, György Kurtág. In 1975, Takács-Nagy, Károly Schranz, Gabor Ormai and András Fejér founded the Takács Quartet; the quartet recorded for the Decca labels. Takács-Nagy left the ensemble in 1992, after he had developed hand stress, which forced him to stop playing the violin, personal tensions arose within the quartet after their emigration from Hungary to the United States. Following his departure from the quartet, he underwent musical therapy and resumed playing the violin. In 1996, Takács-Nagy founded the Takács Piano Trio with Péter Szabo, he became concertmaster of the Budapest Festival Orchestra. In 1997, he joined the faculty of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève as Professor of String Quartet. In 1998, he established the Mikrokosmos String Quartet with Zoltán Tuska, Sándor Papp and Miklós Perényi.
Takács-Nagy began to develop an interest in conducting. In 2005, he formed the string orchestra Camerata Bellerive, as a resident ensemble at the Festival de Bellerive in Geneva, where he has served as co-artistic director. In 2007, he became Music Director of the Verbier Festival Chamber Orchestra, as well as principal guest conductor of the Hungarian State Symphony and of the MÁV Symphony Orchestra. In September 2010, he became chief conductor and artistic director of the MÁV Symphony Orchestra, he became principal guest conductor of the Budapest Festival Orchestra effective with the 2012/2013 season. In March 2010, the Manchester Camerata announced the appointment of Takács-Nagy as its fifth principal conductor, effective with the 2011-2012 season, with an initial contract of 3 years, leading 12 concerts per year, he has recorded with the Manchester Camerata commercially for the Avie label. He became a principal artistic partner of the Irish Chamber Orchestra in January 2013. Takács-Nagy has held the International Chair in Chamber Music at the Royal Northern College of Music.
He married Lesley de Senger, a native of Burnley, in 1991. They have two daughters. Official website Manchester Camerata page on Takács-Nagy European Chamber Music Academy biography of Takács-Nagy Royal Northern College of Music biography of Takács-Nagy Bellerive Festival French-language page on Takács-Nagy Gábor Takács-Nagy discography at Discogs
Lara Naki Gutmann is an Italian figure skater. She is the 2020 Nordic champion, the 2020 Dragon Trophy silver medalist, 2018 Bosphorus Cup silver medalist, a two-time Italian national bronze medalist. Gutmann began learning to skate in 2006, she won her first junior national medal, bronze, in December 2015, had the same result the following year. Her ISU Junior Grand Prix debut came in October 2017. In December 2017, she became the Italian junior national silver medalist. Gutmann placed 19th in Austria. In December 2018, making her first senior international appearance, she won silver at the Bosphorus Cup in Turkey; that month, she won bronze in the senior ladies' category at the Italian Championships, behind Alessia Tornaghi and Lucrezia Beccari, was named in Italy's team to the 2019 European Championships. Ranked 29th in the short program, she did not advance to the final segment at the latter event, which took place in January in Minsk, Belarus. Gutmann competed in the senior ranks, with the exception of two JGP events.
She finished 6th at 7th at JGP Italy. In December, she repeated as national bronze medalist, this time finishing third behind Tornaghi and Marina Piredda. In February, she won silver behind Roberta Rodeghiero at the Dragon Trophy in Ljubljana and outscored Emmi Peltonen to take gold at The Nordics in Stavanger, Norway. CS: Challenger Series.