Glossary of bowling
This glossary relates to terms applicable to ten-pin bowling. For candlepin terms, see Candlepin bowling#Jargon. Terms assume a right hand release. 180: A pinsetter malfunction in which the sweep bar is stuck at the back of the lane, halfway through a pinsetter cycle. 270: A pinsetter malfunction in which the pin sweep is stuck at the front of the pin deck and the setter is unable to lower the next set of pins. Absentee: See blind. Action bowling: Bowling contests involving money betting associated with the New York underworld from the 1940s to the 1970s. Anchor: In league play, the person bowling last: the bowler with the highest average or the best performer under pressure. Andy Varipapa 300: 12 consecutive strikes bowled across two games. Angle of entry: The angle at which the ball is moving when first impacting a pin, measured with respect to a line parallel to the lane's boards. Approach: The part of the delivery that leads up to the release. Approach denotes the area behind the foul line. Arrows: Seven regularly-spaced arrowhead-shaped guides located about 15 feet past the foul line, used as targets for rolling the ball.
Average: The total of scores from multiple games divided by the number of games, rounded down to an integer value. Axis rotation: Angle of the ball's axis of rotation in a horizontal plane, measured with respect to a line parallel to the foul line. Initial axis rotation is defined at the time of release. Distinguish: axis tilt. Axis tilt: Angle of the ball's axis of rotation in a vertical plane, measured with respect to the horizontal. Initial axis tilt is defined at the time of release. Distinguish: axis rotation. Baby Split: A split which can be converted by hitting both pins with the ball. Examples: 2-7, 4-5. Back _#_: A number, _#_, of consecutive strikes ending with the final roll of a game. Compare: front _#_. Back-up ball: A ball thrown with a right-handed release that hooks left to right, or thrown with a left-handed release that hooks right to left. Back end: The third of the lane furthest from the foul line, that lacks oil. _#_-Bagger: A string of _#_ consecutive strikes. Baker format: A team game scoring format in which a team's members bowl frames in a repetitive order to complete a single game.
Named after 1950s American Bowling Congress officer Frank K. Baker. Ball reaction: Change in direction of ball motion due to frictional contact with the lane surface, the term applied to describe the amount of hook. Shortened to reaction. Beer frame: Frame in which the only bowler on a team not to strike in the frame, or the bowler with the lowest score in a predetermined frame, buys beer for his teammates. BFO: When three of the first four bowlers of a five-man team have struck such that if the fourth strikes, the frame will constitute a beer frame. Blind: In league play, a score attributed to a team member, absent for a particular session, the score smaller than his average. Called "absentee score" or "dummy score". Distinguish: vacancy. Blocked lane: A lane with an oil pattern in which high oil volume on the middle boards allows a shot missed to inside to slide toward the pocket and not cross over, in which low oil volume on the outer boards causes a shot missed to the outside to hook more toward the pocket, the differing oil concentrations collectively increasing the margin of error for a strike.
See typical house shot. Distinguish: over/under. Blow-out-five: On a full rack, the ball hits light in the pocket, but still hits the 5-pin and makes it fly into the 7-pin or 10-pin to strike. Broadcaster Nelson Burton, Jr. used this term. If the result of a pocket hit like this leaves a corner pin, the resulting leave is a "Swishing 7". Swishing 7-10 splits can happen. Brackets: A contest format in which bowlers are divided into groups, each bowler is paired against another bowler in the group in the first round of what is a single-elimination tournament. Bracket competition is conducted in parallel with regular tournament or league competition. Breakdown: Process by which repeated ball traversals along a path incrementally remove oil from the path so it presents increased friction to subsequently-rolled balls, thus reducing their length. See also: burn. Breakdown is one aspect of lane transition. Distinguish: carry-down. Breakpoint: A term with varying definitions: The point along a bowling ball's path at which the ball transitions from the skid phase to the hook phase.
See length. Brooklyn: A roll in which the ball crosses over the centerline to impact the pins on a side opposite the pocket. Called a Jersey in the New York City area, or Windsor in the Metro Detroit area. Bumpers: Rails surrounding a lane to prevent balls from going into the gutters for beginners or young children. Burn or burn up: Phenomenon or intentional competitive strategy by which a large amount of ball traffic on a particular path removes lane oil from that path, causing subsequently rolled balls to encounter increased friction. Term is used to describe change in lane characteristics during long tournaments in which lanes are not re-oiled. See breakdown. Carry: See pin carry. Carry-down: Process by which balls, having picked up oil from the oil pattern, deposit it in the normally-dry back end to cause subsequently-rolled balls to "slide" and thus extend their length before hooking. Carry-down is one aspect of lane transition. Distinguish: breakdown. Cherry pick: See chop. C
A semi-trailer truck is the combination of a tractor unit and one or more semi-trailers to carry freight. A semi-trailer attaches to the tractor with a fifth-wheel coupling, with much of its weight borne by the tractor; the result is that both the tractor and semi-trailer will have a distinctly different design than a rigid truck and trailer. It is variously known as a transport in Canada; these vehicles have been criticised on safety grounds, including when a study in London found that they caused a disproportionate number of annual cyclist casualties. In North America, the combination vehicles made up of a powered truck and one or more semitrailers are known as "semis", "semitrailers", "tractor-trailers", "big rigs", "semi trucks", "eighteen-wheelers", or "semi-tractor trailers"; the tractor unit has two or three axles. The most common tractor-cab layout has a forward engine, one steering axle, two drive axles; the fifth-wheel trailer coupling on most tractor trucks is movable fore and aft, to allow adjustment in the weight distribution over its rear axle.
Ubiquitous in Europe, but less common in North America since the 1990s, is the cabover engine configuration, where the driver sits next to, or over the engine. With changes in the US to the maximum length of the combined vehicle, the cabover was phased out of North American over-the-road service by 2007. Cabovers were difficult to service; as of 2016, a truck can cost US$100,000. Trucks average from 4 to 8 miles per US gallon, with fuel economy standards requiring better than 7 miles per US gallon efficiency by 2014. Power requirements in standard conditions are 170 hp at 55 mph or 280 hp at 70 mph, somewhat different power usage in other conditions; the cargo trailer has tandem axles at the rear, each of which has dual wheels, or eight tires on the trailer, four per axle. In the US it is common to refer to the number of wheel hubs, rather than the number of tires; the combination of eight tires on the trailer and ten tires on the tractor is what led to the moniker eighteen wheeler, although this term is considered by some truckers to be a misnomer.
Many trailers are equipped with movable tandem axles to allow adjusting the weight distribution. To connect the second of a set of doubles to the first trailer, to support the front half of the second trailer, a converter gear known as a "dolly" is used; this has one or two axles, a fifth-wheel coupling for the rear trailer, a tongue with a ring-hitch coupling for the forward trailer. Individual states may further allow longer vehicles, known as "longer combination vehicles", may allow them to operate on roads other than Interstates. Long combination vehicle types include: Doubles: Two 28.5 ft trailers. Triples: Three 28.5 ft trailers. Turnpike Doubles: Two 48 ft trailers. Rocky Mountain Doubles: One 40 to 53 ft trailer and one 28.5 ft trailer. In Canada, a Turnpike Double is two 53 ft trailers, a Rocky Mountain Double is a 50 ft trailer with a 24 ft "pup". Future long combination vehicles under consideration and study for the U. S. MAP-21 transportation bill are container; these combinations are under study for potential recommendation in November 2014: 40 ft trailer Turnpike Doubles, 148,000 lb GVWR 40 ft and 20 ft trailer Rocky Mountain Doubles, 134,000 lb GVWR Double 20 ft trailers.
The US federal government, which only regulates the Interstate Highway System, does not set maximum length requirements, only minimums. Tractors can pull three trailers if the combination is legal in that state. Weight maximums are 20,000 lb on a single axle, 34,000 lb on a tandem, 80,000 lb total for any vehicle or combination. There is a maximum width of no maximum height. Roads other than the Interstates are regulated by the individual states, laws vary widely. Maximum weight varies depending on the combination. Most states restrict operation of larger tandem trailer setups such as triple units, turnpike doubles and Rocky-Mountain doubles. Reasons for limiting the legal trailer configurations include both safety concerns and the impracticality of designing and constructing roads that can accommodate the larger wheelbase of these vehicles and the larger minimum turning radii associated with them. In general, these configurations are restricted to the Interstates. Except for these units, double setups are not restricted to certain roads any more than a single setup.
They are not restricted by weather conditions or "difficulty of operation". The Canadian province of Ontario, does have weather-related operating restrictions for larger tandem trailer setups; the noticeable difference between tractor units in Euro
Triple is a spy thriller novel written by British author Ken Follett. It was published in 1979; the background of the plot is Operation Plumbat, a 1968 operation carried out by Mossad that did not become publicly known about until 1977. The book's prologue describes a chance meeting of several people in Oxford in the year 1947; the main character is Nathaniel "Nat" Dickstein, a victim of experimentation in the Nazi concentration camps who becomes an Israeli agent. The three go together to a sherry party given by Professor Ashford, who teaches Hebrew Literature at Oxford. Dickstein, studying under Ashford, is in love with his wife Eila, but there are rival suitors. Another guest, Yasif Hassan, of Palestinian origin, has an affair with Eila, as seen in Professor Ashford's garden. Ashford's daughter, Suza makes an appearance. In the first chapters Pierre Bourg, the head of the Israeli secret service Mossad finds out in 1968 that Egypt is building a nuclear reactor in the Western Desert, in order to produce an atom bomb.
He assigns his best agent, Nat Dickstein, to steal about two hundred tons of uranium ore for Israel, to pre-empt the potential Egyptian threat and to enable them to build a bomb themselves. Dickstein has to ensure. Dickstein travels to Luxembourg to obtain documentation on all uranium shipments from the EURATOM agency located there, he achieves this by blackmailing a EURATOM employee. In his hotel he has a chance encounter with Yasif Hassan, now an Egyptian agent; as a result of this the KGB gets onto Dickstein's tail. For practical reasons, because in 1948 he hijacked an arms shipment at sea, Dickstein meanwhile decides to make the uranium theft from a maritime transport of yellowcake ore, from a freighter called the Coparelli. Dickstein is persistently followed by Rostov's KGB group, to which Hassan now belongs; this culminates in the tailing of all Israeli diplomats in London by the KGB. Despite this, Dickstein succeeds in shaking off his pursuers, he travels to Oxford to see Professor Ashford again.
Instead of his former teacher, the now grown-up daughter Suza Ashford answers the door. They fall in love. A short time Hassan visits the Professor, tells him of Dickstein's true activities and plans; the two persuade Suza to help eliminate Dickstein. She pretends to go along with this in order to be in a better position to warn her lover of this danger. Hassan intends to deliver the uranium to the Palestinian Fedayeen, betraying both Rostov and the Egyptians. To facilitate the robbery at sea, Dickstein acquires the Stromberg, a sister ship of the Coparelli, founds a bogus maritime company, he arranges for the Coparelli to suffer a mechanical breakdown at sea, for the crew to be completely disembarked. Through further complicated measures, Dickstein hopes to erase traces of the uranium theft. Israeli commandos aboard the Stromberg are to attack the Coparelli, but Hassan and his Fedayeen arrive first; however Dickstein and the Israelis recapture the Coparelli, Hassan is killed. Dickstein goes alone to board the Russian ship Karla, in the area, as Suza Ashford is a prisoner there.
Rostov and a KGB force are aboard. Suza is able to create a diversion, enabling Dickstein to rescue her and destroy the Karla by means of a magnetic mine; the story ends with the statement. The book concludes with a newspaper article appearing in the Daily Telegraph in 1977, revealing that Israel is suspected of involvement in the disappearance at sea of the uranium shipment nine years earlier
Tripel is a term used by brewers or people in the Low Countries, some other European countries, the U. S. to describe a strong pale ale, loosely in the style of Westmalle Tripel. The origin of the term is unknown, it was used in 1956 by the Trappist brewery, Westmalle, to rename the strongest beer in their range, though both the term Tripel and the style of beer associated with the name, were in existence before 1956. The style of Westmalle's Tripel and the name was copied by the breweries of Belgium, in 1987 another Trappist brewery, the Koningshoeven in the Netherlands, expanded their range with a beer called La Trappe Tripel, though they produced a stronger beer they termed La Trappe Quadrupel; the term spread to the U. S. and other countries, is applied by a range of secular brewers to a strong pale ale in the style of Westmalle Tripel. The term Tripel comes from the Low Countries. According to the Brewmaster at Half Moon Brewery in Bruges, the term refers to the amount of malt used to make the beer.
A "Tripel" is made with three times the malt in the wort and therefore the outcome is a higher ABV. The word indicates strength by reference to the final gravity of a beer, which corresponds to 3% abv, 6% abv or 9% abv. According to brewing historian Michael Jackson, the first golden strong pale ale associated with the term was brewed by Hendrik Verlinden of the Drie Linden brewery in the early 1930s, when ale brewers were looking to compete with the pale lagers from Plzeň. Verlinden had an association with the Trappist brewery, assisting them with brewing, becoming the only secular brewer allowed to carry the Trappist Beer designation. In 1933, Westmalle released a beer under the name Superbier, it was a strong blonde ale and was likely based on a blonde beer the monks had been brewing sporadically since 1931. In 1956 they renamed it Tripel, the popularity of that brand ensured the name is still associated with the Westmalle brewery, though both the term Tripel and the style of beer associated with the name, were in existence before 1956.
In 1956, the recipe was modified by the head brewer of Westmalle, Brother Thomas, by the addition of more hops, it took on the name Tripel. It has remained unchanged since. Tim Webb in his Good Beer Guide to Belgium says that some of the pre-1956 beers called Tripel were dark, in contrast to modern beers using the term. Dubbel Beer in Belgium Beer in the United States Westmalle Tripel
Method ringing is a form of change ringing in which the ringers commit to memory the rules for generating each change of sequence, pairs of bells are affected. This creates a form of bell music, continually changing, but which cannot be discerned as a conventional melody, it is a way of sounding continually changing mathematical permutations. It is distinct from call changes, where the ringers are instructed how to generate each new change by calls from a conductor, only two adjacent bells swap their position at each change. In method ringing, the ringers are guided from permutation to permutation by following the rules of a method. Ringers learn a particular method by studying its "blue line", a diagram which shows its structure; the underlying mathematical basis of method ringing is intimately linked to group theory. The basic building block of method ringing is Plain hunt; the first method, was designed around 1650 by Robert Roan who became master of the College Youths change ringing society in 1652.
Details of the method on five bells appeared in print in 1668 in Tintinnalogia, Campanalogia which are the first two publications on the subject. The practice remains most popular there today. In method ringing, plain hunt is the simplest form of generating changing permutations in a continuous fashion, is a fundamental building-block of change ringing methods, it consists of a plain undeviating course of a bell between the first and last places in the striking order, with two strikes in the first and last position to enable a turn-around. Thus each bell moves one position at each succeeding change, unless they reach the first or last position, when they remain there for two changes proceed to the other end of the sequence; this simple rule can be extended to any number of bells. Plain hunting is limited to a small number of possible different changes, numerically equal to twice the number of bells that are hunting. However, by introducing deviations from the plain hunt, by causing some of the bells to change their relationship to the others, change ringing "methods" were developed.
These allow a large range of possible different changes to be rung. Grandsire, the oldest change ringing method is based on a simple deviation to the plain hunt when the treble is first in the sequence or it is said to "lead"; the treble is known as the "hunt bell" because it hunts continuously without deviating from the path. The diagram for the plain course is shown here; the Grandsire variation on the plain hunt on odd numbers adds a second hunt bell, "coursing" the treble: that is, the second hunt bell takes its place at the front of the change after the treble. The single deviation away from hunting for the rest of the bells now takes place as the two hunt bells change places at the front of the lead. Furthermore, because there are two hunt bells, not the second bell but the third remains in place: 13254 – Treble leads 12345 21354 – The second hunt bell, No.2 in this case, leads after the treble. It is coursing it. 23145 This forces a dodge on the other bells in 4/5 positions. After this the bells return to the plain hunt pattern until the next treble lead.
This rule can now be extended to any number of odd bells in changes, making Grandsire an extendable method. The hunt bell is changed many times during such ringing to enable the full factorial number of changes to be achieved. "Plain Bob" is one of the oldest change ringing and simplest of these, first named "Grandsire Bob". The deviations when a plain course is extended with "calls" are much simpler than those in Grandsire. A "plain course" of plain bob minor is shown in diagrammatic form; the red bell track shows the order of "works". 3/4 down dodge. And it repeats; each bells starts at a different place in this cyclical order. A dodge means just that; the plain bob pattern can be extended beyond the constraints of the plain course, to the full unique 720 changes possible. To do this, at set points in the sequences one of the ringers, called the "conductor" calls out commands such as "bob" or "single", which introduce further variations; the conductor follows a "composition". This enables the other ringers to produce large numbers of unique changes without memorising huge quantities of data, without any written prompts.
Ringers can ring different methods, with different "works" – so there is a huge variety of ways of ringing method changes. The highest bell in pitch is known as the lowest the tenor; the majority of bell towers have the ring of bells going clockwise from the treble. For convenience, the bells are referred to by number, with the treble being number 1 and the other bells numbered by their pitch sequentially down the scale; the bells are tuned to a diatonic major scale, with the tenor bell being the tonic note of the scale. The simplest way to use a set of be
The triple jump, sometimes referred to as the hop and jump or the hop and jump, is a track and field event, similar to the long jump. As a group, the two events are referred to as the "horizontal jumps"; the competitor runs down the track and performs a hop, a bound and a jump into the sand pit. The triple jump was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympics event since the Games' inception in 1896. According to IAAF rules, "the hop shall be made so that an athlete lands first on the same foot as that from which he has taken off. Both records were set during 1995 World Championships in Gothenburg. Historical sources on the ancient Olympic Games mention jumps of 15 meters or more; this led sports historians to conclude that these must have been a series of jumps, thus providing the basis for the triple jump. However, there is no evidence for the triple jump being included in the ancient Olympic Games, it is possible that the recorded extraordinary distances are due to artistic license of the authors of victory poems, rather than attempts to report accurate results.
The triple jump was a part of the inaugural modern Olympics in Athens, although at the time it consisted of two hops on the same foot and a jump. In fact, the first modern Olympic champion, James Connolly, was a triple jumper. Early Olympics included the standing triple jump, although this has since been removed from the Olympic program and is performed in competition today; the women's triple jump was introduced into the Atlanta Olympics in 1996. In Irish mythology the geal-ruith, was an event contested in the ancient Irish Tailteann Games as early as 1829 BC; the athlete sprints down a runway to a takeoff mark. The takeoff mark is a physical piece of wood or similar material embedded in the runway, or a rectangle painted on the runway surface. In modern championships a strip of plasticine, tape, or modeling clay is attached to the far edge of the board to record athletes overstepping or "scratching" the mark, defined by the trailing edge of the board; these boards are placed at different places on the run way depending on how far the athlete can jump.
The boards are set. These are the most common boards you see at the high school and collegiate levels, but boards can be placed anywhere on the runway. There are three phases of the triple jump: the "hop" phase, the "bound" or "step" phase, the "jump" phase; these three phases are executed in one continuous sequence. The hop begins with the athlete jumping from the take off board on one leg, which for descriptive purposes will be the right leg; the objective of the first phase is to hop out. The hop landing phase is active, involving a powerful backward "pawing" action of the right leg, with the right take-off foot landing heel first on the runway; the hop landing marks the beginning of the step phase, where the athlete utilizes the backward momentum of the right leg to execute a powerful jump forwards and upwards, the left leg assisting the take-off with a powerful hip flexion thrust. This leads to the familiar step-phase mid-air position, with the right take off leg trailing flexed at the knee, the left leg now leading flexed at the hip and knee.
The jumper holds this position for as long as possible, before extending the knee of the leading left leg and immediately beginning a powerful backward motion of the whole left leg, again landing on the runway with a powerful pawing action. The takeoff leg should be extended with the drive leg thigh just below parallel to the ground; the takeoff leg stays extended behind the body with the heel held high. The drive leg extends with a flexed ankleand snaps downward for a quick transition into the jump phase; the step landing forms the beginning of the take-off of the final phase, where the athlete utilizes the backward force from the left leg to take off again. The jump phase is similar to the long jump although most athletes have lost too much speed by this time to manage a full hitch kick, used is a hang or sail technique; when landing in the sand-filled pit, the jumper should aim to avoid sitting back on landing, or placing either hand behind the feet. The sand pit begins 13m from the take off board for male international competition, or 11m from the board for international female and club-level male competition.
Each phase of the triple jump should get progressively higher, there should be a regular rhythm to the 3 landings. A "foul" known as a "scratch," or missed jump, occurs when a jumper oversteps the takeoff mark, misses the pit does not use the correct foot sequence throughout the phases, or does not perform the attempt in the allotted amount of time; when a jumper "scratches," the seated official will raise a red flag and the jumper, "on deck," or up next, prepares to jump. It shall not be considered a foul if an athlete, while jumping, should touch or scrape the ground with his/her "sleeping leg". Called a "scrape foul", "sleeping leg" touch violations were ruled as fouls prior to the mid-1980s; the IAAF changed the rules following outrage at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, when Russian field officials in the Men's Triple Jump ruled as foul 8 of the 12 jumps made by two leading competitors thus helping two Russian jumpers win the G
For a St. Petersburg bridge, see Tripartite BridgeThe Triple Bridge is a group of three bridges across the Ljubljanica River, it connects the Ljubljana's historical, town on one bank, the modern city of Ljubljana, capital of Slovenia, on the other. The central bridge is built from Glinica limestone. Other parts are built from concrete; the balustrades with 642 balusters are made of artificial concrete. The platform is covered with granite blocks laid in 2010, it was covered with asphalt. There is mention of a wooden bridge in this location from 1280, it was at first called the Old Bridge and the Lower Bridge, in contrast to the Upper Bridge, built in the location of the nowadays Cobblers' Bridge in the same century. It was named the Špital Bridge after the nearby poorhouse, established in the early 14th century, it was built anew in 1657 after a fire. In 1842, the Lower Bridge was replaced by a new bridge designed by Giovanni Picco, an Italian architect from Villach, named Franz's Bridge, in honor of Archduke Franz Karl of Austria.
It became known as the Franciscan Bridge. This bridge, opened on 25 September 1842, had a metal fence; the essentials of the bridge have been preserved until today, evidenced by the inscribed dedication to the archduke above its central pier, reading in Latin "ARCHIDVCI. FRANCISCO. CAROLO. MDCCCXLII. CIVITAS.", which means "To Archduke Franz Karl in 1842 by the Town."In order to prevent the 1842 stone arch bridge from being a bottleneck, the architect Jože Plečnik designed in 1929 the extension of the bridge with two footbridges at a slight angle on each side of it. In collaboration with his student Ciril Tavčar, who drew the plans, he published the proposal in the same year in the journal Ljubljanski Zvon. Construction started in 1931 and continued until spring 1932; the bridge was opened for traffic in April 1932. The bridge was renovated in 1992. Since 2007, all the three bridges have been part of the Ljubljana pedestrian-only zone. A model of the bridge is displayed at Mini-Europe in Brussels.
On 23 January 2012, celebrating the 140th birth anniversary of Jože Plečnik, a picture of the Triple Bridge was featured as an official Google logo adaptation in Slovenia. Other bridges designed by Plečnik: Butchers' Bridge Cobblers' Bridge Rooster Bridge Ljubljanica Sluice Gate Trnovo Bridge 44 international travelers sharing their experience of Triple Bridge on VirtualTurist.com Interactive panoramic virtual view of the Triple Bridge by the Burger.si Youtube video on the Triple Bridge by InYourPocket travel guide Coordinates: 46°03′04″N 14°30′22″E