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Triple-alpha process

The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei are transformed into carbon. Helium accumulates in the cores of stars as a result of the proton–proton chain reaction and the carbon–nitrogen–oxygen cycle. Further nuclear fusion reactions of helium with hydrogen or another alpha particle produce lithium-5 and beryllium-8 respectively. Both products are unstable and decay instantly back into smaller nuclei, unless a third alpha particle fuses with a beryllium-8 nucleus before that time to produce a stable carbon-12 nucleus; the half-life of 5Li is 3.7×10−22 s and that of 8Be is 8.19×10−17 s. When a star runs out of hydrogen to fuse in its core, it begins to heat up. If the central temperature rises to 108 K, six times hotter than the Sun's core, alpha particles can fuse fast enough to produce significant amounts of carbon: The net energy release of the process is 7.275 MeV. As a side effect of the process, some carbon nuclei fuse with additional helium to produce a stable isotope of oxygen and energy: 126C + 42He → 168O + γ Fusing with additional helium nuclei can create heavier elements in a chain of stellar nucleosynthesis known as the alpha process, but these reactions are only significant at higher temperatures and pressures than in cores undergoing the triple-alpha process.

This creates a situation in which stellar nucleosynthesis produces large amounts of carbon and oxygen but only a small fraction of those elements are converted into neon and heavier elements. Oxygen and carbon make up the main "ash" of helium-4 burning; the triple-alpha process is ineffective at the temperatures early in the Big Bang. One consequence of this is. Ordinarily, the probability of the triple alpha process is small. However, the beryllium-8 ground state has exactly the energy of two alpha particles. In the second step, 8Be + 4He has exactly the energy of an excited state of 12C; this resonance increases the probability that an incoming alpha particle will combine with beryllium-8 to form carbon. The existence of this resonance was predicted by Fred Hoyle before its actual observation, based on the physical necessity for it to exist, in order for carbon to be formed in stars; the prediction and discovery of this energy resonance and process gave significant support to Hoyle's hypothesis of stellar nucleosynthesis, which posited that all chemical elements had been formed from hydrogen, the true primordial substance.

The anthropic principle has been cited to explain the fact that nuclear resonances are sensitively arranged to create large amounts of carbon and oxygen in the universe. With further increases of temperature and density, fusion processes produce nuclides only up to nickel-56; the slow capture of neutrons, the s-process, produces about half of elements beyond iron. The other half are produced by rapid neutron capture, the r-process, which occurs in core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers; the triple-alpha steps are dependent on the temperature and density of the stellar material. The power released by the reaction is proportional to the temperature to the 40th power, the density squared. In contrast, the proton–proton chain reaction produces energy at a rate proportional to the fourth power of temperature, the CNO cycle at about the 17th power of the temperature, both are linearly proportional to the density; this strong temperature dependence has consequences for the late stage of stellar evolution, the red giant stage.

For lower mass stars on the red giant branch, the helium accumulating in the core is prevented from further collapse only by electron degeneracy pressure. The entire degenerate core is at the same temperature and pressure, so when its mass becomes high enough, fusion via the triple-alpha process rate starts throughout the core; the core is unable to expand in response to the increased energy production until the pressure is high enough to lift the degeneracy. As a consequence, the temperature increases, causing an increased reaction rate in a positive feedback cycle that becomes a runaway reaction; this process, known as the helium flash, lasts a matter of seconds but burns 60–80% of the helium in the core. During the core flash, the star's energy production can reach 1011 solar luminosities, comparable to the luminosity of a whole galaxy, although no effects will be observed at the surface, as it is hidden by the star's overlying layers. For higher mass stars, carbon collects in the core, displacing the helium to a surrounding shell where helium burning occurs.

In this helium shell, the pressures are lower and the mass is not supported by electron degeneracy. Thus, as opposed to the center of the star, the shell is able to expand in response to increased thermal pressure in the helium shell. Expansion slows the reaction, causing the star to contract again; this process continues cyclically, stars undergoing this process will have periodically variable radius and power production. These stars will lose material from their outer layers as they expand and contract; the triple alpha process is dependent on carbon-12 and beryllium-8 having resonances with more energy than helium-4, before 1952, no such energy levels were known for carbon. The astrophysicist Fred Hoyle used the fact that carbon-12 is abundant in the universe as evidence for the existence of a carbon-12 resonance; the only way Hoyle could find that would produce an abundance of both carbon and oxygen is through a triple alpha process with a carbo

Fucus radicans

Fucus radicans is a species of brown algae in the family Fucaceae, endemic to and evolved within the Baltic Sea. The species was first described by Lena Bergström and Lena Kautsky in 2005 from a location in Ångermanland, Sweden; the specific epithet is from the Latin and means "rooting", referring to the fact that this species reproduces by the taking root of detached fragments. Fucus radicans seems to have diverged from the related and distributed Fucus vesiculosus within about the last 400 years, it reproduces clonally, which may have helped its rapid emergence as a new species. Genetic analysis supports the hypothesis of the recent divergence of Fucus radicans from Fucus vesiculosus as an example of sympatric speciation, with the two species presently occupying the same semi-marine territory. Fucus radicans is morphologically similar to bladderwrack, dichotomously branched, has brown leathery fronds known as thalli with a prominent midrib and globular air bladders; the main differences between the two are that plants of F. radicans are smaller and more bushy than F. vesiculosus and have narrower thalli.

Bladderwrack is common on the foreshore on both sides of the temperate North Atlantic and the subarctic. F. radicans is endemic to the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea was formed by the retreating ice after the last ice age, about ten thousand years ago. At first it was a freshwater lake but the sea broke through on more than one occasion. From about 4,000 years ago till the present time it has been a brackish water area isolated from the North Sea with only occasional inflows of oceanic water. Over 200 rivers flow into the Baltic and this results in the surface layers being much less saline than other seas. There is a certain amount of inflow of water from the North Sea but this remains on the bottom and unmixed with the surface waters. F. radicans is endemic to the Baltic Sea. It seems to be specially adapted to low salinity levels and unable to tolerate the higher levels of salinity to which other species of seaweed are habituated. Within the Baltic, salinity levels vary and F. radicans favours the northernmost part, the Gulf of Bothnia, where the brackish water may have a salinity of less than 10‰.

Being intermediate between sea and fresh water, the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia, has a low biodiversity and supports only a small number of plant and animal species that have been able to adapt to this level of salinity. Those that are present tend to be smaller than in their main habitats, be those marine or freshwater biomes. Bladderwrack has a wide distribution and is present in quantities in the Baltic Sea where it lives side by side with the similar F. radicans. Studies to find their evolutionary relationship using chloroplast or mitochondrial DNA sequence markers have been inconclusive. Genetic analysis using microsatellite markers suggests that a divergence between the two species occurred between 125 and 2475 years ago with a posterior distribution peak at around 400 years ago; this means the species would have diverged more than the transition of the Baltic Sea from a marine environment to its present brackish state. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that F. radicans is found nowhere else other than the Baltic.

An isolating mechanism between the two species may be the fact that F. vesiculosus reproduces sexually whereas F. radicans shows a much greater tendency to reproduce asexually, with detached fragments having the ability to take root and develop into new plants. Environmental stress, in this instance the decrease in salinity of the water, has been shown to contribute to the formation of new species. Another contributor to speciation is the evolutionary pressure applied by the change in the environment. Fucus radicans is endemic to the Baltic Sea where it occurs along the coasts of the Bothnian Sea and in Estonian waters, it may be present in Gulf of Finland. Just like the related bladder wrack, F. radicans can reproduce both sexually and asexually. The genetic structure in F. radicans is complex, the genetic differences between populations in Estonia and in Gulf of Bothnia are substantial. Some populations are completely sexually recruited while others are dominated by single clones; the Estonian populations are sexually reproduced, harbour large genetic variation.

The populations in the Bothnian Sea recruit asexually, are dominated by two clones – one female and one male. The female is found along a 550 km coastline, making up 20 – 95 percent of the individuals in local populations. Due to this dominant clone, the genetic structure in F. radicans is less fine-scaled than in bladder wrack in this area. Genetic variation is fundamental for a species ability to adapt and survive in new environmental conditions. To mitigate future losses and conservation of Baltic Sea biodiversity should include the genetic level; the situation in Fucus radicans, with large areas with no or little sexual reproduction, means that this species has low potential for future genetic adaption. Thus, the warming and salinity decrease predicted for the Baltic Sea over the coming 50 to 100 years could risk the loss of populations and the whole species. According to the Baltic Sea research and development project BONUS BAMBI, management for long-term conservation of F. radicans should aim to: protect populations with sexual activity.

The sexually reproducing Estonian populations should be prioritised, maintain large population sizes, maintain


Collegians are an Australian rugby league football team based in Wollongong. The club compete in the Illawarra Rugby League premiership. Known as CBC Old Boys, the Club was founded in 1933, the Brothers Club was admitted to the Illawarra 1st Grade competition in 1938; as of 2013 Collegians will call the new Lysaghts Oval, Figtree home. Collegians have won 9 minor premierships and 10 premierships; the Collegians Leagues club is a thriving club in North Wollongong. Illawarra Rugby League First Grade Premierships: 111967, 1987, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2013, 2017, 2019Illawarra Rugby League Minor Premierships: 91986, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2013 Recent 10 Year Servicemen = James Andraos, James Sara, Josh Porter Notable former players of the Collegians club include: Ron Costello Dapto Canaries Homepage Country Rugby League Homepage Country Rugby League Illawarra Rugby League Homepage Illawarra Rugby League

The Good Cop (American TV series)

The Good Cop is an American web television comedy-drama murder-mystery created by Andy Breckman. The ten episode series premiered on Netflix on September 21, 2018. On November 13, 2018, Netflix canceled the series after one season; the program is based on an Israeli show of the same name created by Erez and Tomer Aviram and produced by Yoav Gross. Tony Danza as Anthony "Tony" Caruso Sr. a streetwise ex-cop paroled from prison after serving seven years for a corruption conviction. He knows the ins and outs of the criminal underworld. Although prohibited from interacting professionally with active police personnel, he is intent on proving that he still has what it takes to fight crime and solve homicide cases. Josh Groban as Anthony "TJ" Caruso Jr. Tony Sr.'s son, a by-the-book NYPD lieutenant who, in contrast to his father, goes to great lengths to avoid departmental infractions minor ones. Monica Barbaro as Cora Vasquez, an inspector turned homicide detective in the NYPD and Tony Sr.'s parole officer.

She is a subordinate of Tony Jr. Isiah Whitlock Jr. as Burl Loomis, a veteran NYPD sergeant on the verge of retirement who coasts his way through investigations, making as little effort as possible. He refuses to get out of his car during cold weather. Bill Kottkamp as Ryan, a technical crime analyst for the NYPD, he is ultra-nerdy, technologically savvy, obsessed with electronic devices. John Scurti as Wendell Kirk, a barber and Tony Sr.'s friend Frank Whaley as Joseph Privett Netflix announced the new series in June 2017. The show stars Tony Danza as "a disgraced, former NYPD officer who never followed the rules", Josh Groban as his son, Tony Jr. "an earnest, obsessively honest NYPD detective who makes a point of always following the rules". The show was created and is written by Andy Breckman, who created and wrote the Emmy Award-winning USA Network series Monk; the main characters are Tony Caruso Sr. and Jr. who live together. Tony Sr. was expelled from law enforcement for chronic violations of departmental policy, while his son, Tony Jr. scrupulously obeys departmental procedures.

During one scene in episode 1, two of Tony Jr.'s colleagues reveal that others in the department refer to him sarcastically as the "Choir Boy" and "Nancy Drew." In the series, according to Netflix, "This'odd couple' become unofficial partners as Tony Sr. offers his overly-cautious son blunt, street-wise advice on everything from handling suspects to handling women."Danza, a native New Yorker, is on the board of directors of the city's Police Athletic League, "will be able to draw on his real-life connection to the NYPD" to develop his character and role. The first season is being filmed in various neighborhoods in Brooklyn. About the series, Breckman said, "Many cop shows feature dark and provocative material: psycho-sexual killers, grim, flawed detectives. Many address the most controversial issues of the day. I watch a lot of them. God bless'em all, but the show I want to produce is playful, family-friendly, a celebration of old-fashioned puzzle-solving."Music for the series was composed by Pat Irwin.

On November 13, 2018, it was announced. In episode 6, "Did the TV Star Do It?," the murder victim is identified as "Beth Landau". The character is named after series creator Andy Breckman's wife. Breckman had named a murder victim after his wife in season 2, episode 1 of Monk, "Mr. Monk Goes Back to School". Beth Landau is the only character murdered twice in shows written by her real-life husband; the Good Cop at Netflix The Good Cop at Internet Movie Database Israeli "HaShoter HaTov" at Internet Movie Database


Šoštanj is a town in northern Slovenia. It is the seat of the Municipality of Šoštanj; the area is part of the traditional region of Styria. The entire municipality is now included in the Savinja Statistical Region. Šoštanj was first mentioned in written documents dating to around 1200 as Schönstein in relation to its castle. As a market town it was first mentioned in 1348, it was given town status in 1919. In 1963 nearby Velenje became the administrative center. Šoštanj again became a municipal center in the late 1990s. The town has a long leather-working history, with industrial-scale activity going back to 1788; the factory was owned by the Woschnagg family, a Germanized branch of the Vošnjak family, until it was nationalized in 1945. The processing factory was closed down in 1999. A leather industry museum is now open in the town. Šoštanj is the site of four known mass graves and one unmarked grave from the period after the Second World War. The Gorica 1–4 mass graves all lie north of Lake Šoštanj.

The first grave is known as the Čebul Meadow Mass Grave. The second grave is known as the Stvarnik Meadow Mass Grave or the Bodjan Meadow Mass Grave; the four graves contain the remains of Slovene and German civilians that were murdered on the Gorica Ridge northeast of the town in late May 1945 as they were fleeing to Carinthia. The victims include a group of wealthy Šoštanj residents murdered on 23 May 1945; the graves are part of the same set as the Družmirje 2 mass graves. The Janez Pirmanšek Grave lies at Primorska Cesta no. 7, above the sawmill and log storage area. A memorial to Šoštanj residents that fell while serving in the German army stood at the site; the grave contained the remains of the Slovene civilian Janez Pirmanšek, liquidated on 20 May 1945. The Šoštanj Power Plant began producing electricity in 1956; the plant is sponsored by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the European Investment Bank, is controversial. There are five units in the TEŠ power plant, owned by Holding Slovenske Elektrarne.

Units 1 and 2 have closed down, units 3, 4, 5 were planned to be shut down around 2016. The TEŠ6 is the newest unit of the project, made to replace the old technology of the previous units; the newest edition is said to increase the power generated by 30%. This new unit will hold around 600 megawatts of electricity; the plant's operations will last for 40 years, 6650 hours annually, will consume 440 metric tonnes of lignite per hour. The TEŠ6 was proposed in 2003 and was included in the Slovenian government's agenda around 2007; the cost of TEŠ6 has climbed to around 1.5 billion euros due to the 50 million euro annual losses. The European Investment Bank has given 550 million euros, the European Bank for Research and Development has given 200 million euros, 515 million euros from the owner's capital, 83 million euros from HSE, 80 million euros from a commercial loan. Organizations such as CEE Bankwatch are not content with the construction of the TEŠ6 and the way the project has been running. There are claims by the Slovenian media that there is evidence of corruption in the project regarding the involvement of Alstom, the main equipment contractor.

Ten people were charged with destruction of business abuse of office and forgery. Alstom could have gained information on competing companies and offers. Environmentalists do not support the project due to the harmful effects that the project may lead to in terms of carbon emissions. Lignite emits carbon dioxide at a high rate, is not an eco-friendly source of energy. There is opposition regarding the construction of the plant because of future financial losses which Slovenia would incur. For a number of years, the plant could be responsible for 70 to 80 million euros in losses; the parish church in the town is dedicated to Michael the Archangel and belongs to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Celje. A second church in town was built in 1776 on the site of a 13th-century predecessor and is dedicated to Saints Hermagoras and Fortunatus. Karel Destovnik, a.k.a. Kajuh, Partisan poet Jožef Kastelic, religious writer Ivan Samonigg, Austrian officer and military education reformer Mihael Valenci, technical writer and physician Josip Vošnjak, 19th-century national liberal leader Mihael Vošnjak and politician Šoštanj at Geopedia Portal Šoš Šoštanj municipal site

Geraldine González

Geraldine González Martínez is a Chilean model and beauty pageant titleholder, crowned Miss Universe Chile 2019. She will now represent Chile at the Miss Universe 2019 competition. González was born and raised in Conchalí, she is a law student at the Andrés Bello University obtaining a master's degree in law. González has been training to be part of the Seventh Fire Company of Conchalí since on March 2019, she is dedicating her time to the social program she developed with migrant women with support of the government of Conchalí. González competed in the 2018 edition of Miss Universe Chile where she was placed as the second runner-up behind Andrea Díaz. At her second attempt winning the title of Miss Universe Chile, she won the title of Miss Universe Chile 2019 representing Escuella SuperMiss on September 1, 2019 at the Casino Dreams in Punta Arenas, Región de Magallanes y de la Antártica Chilena, Chile. González won the Miss Popularity award at the conclusion of the final night, she succeeded Andrea Díaz but was crowned by the first runner-up of Miss Universe Chile 2018, Sabina Ahumada.

She will represent Chile at the Miss Universe 2019 competition. The event will be held at Tyler Perry Studios, Georgia, United States on Sunday December 8 at 9:00 pm Chilean time by tnt Miss Universo Chile on Instagram Official Miss Universo Chile