SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tripolitania

Tripolitania is a historic region and former province of Libya. Tripolitania was a separate Italian colony from 1927 to 1934. From 1934 to 1963, Tripolitania was one of three administrative divisions within Italian Libya and the Kingdom of Libya, alongside Cyrenaica to the east and Fezzan to the south; the region had been settled since antiquity, first coming to prominence as part of the Carthaginian empire. Following the defeat of Carthage in the Punic Wars, Rome organized the region, into a province known as Africa, placed it under the administration of a proconsul. During the Diocletian reforms of the late 3rd century, all of North Africa was placed into the newly created Diocese of Africa, of which Tripolitania was a constituent province. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, Tripolitania changed hands between the Vandals and the Byzantine Empire, until it was taken during the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in the 8th century, it was part of the region known to the Islamic world as Ifriqiya, whose boundaries mirrored those of the old Roman province of Africa Proconsularis.

Though nominally under the suzerainty of the Abbasid Caliphate, local dynasties such as the Aghlabids and the Fatimid Caliphate were independent. The native Berbers, who had inhabited the area locally for centuries before the arrival of the Arabs, established their own native Hafsid dynasty over Ifriqiya in the 13th century, would control the region until it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, who established Ottoman Tripolitania as a distinct province. In the old system, Tripolitania included Tripoli, the capital city of Libya and a vast northwestern portion of the country; because the city and the sha'biyah are nowadays coextensive, the term "Tripolitania" has more historical than contemporary value. In Arabic the same word is used for both the city and the region, that word, used alone, would be understood to mean only the city; the system of administrative divisions that included Tripolitania was abolished in the early 1970s in favor of a system of smaller-size municipalities or baladiyat.

The baladiyat system was subsequently changed many times and has become the "Sha'biyat" system. The region, Tripolitania is now composed of several smaller baladiyat or sha'biyat; the city of Oea, on the site of modern Tripoli, was founded by the Phoenicians in the 7th century BC. It was conquered by the Greek rulers of Cyrenaica, who were in turn displaced by the Punics of Carthage; the Greek name Τρίπολις "three cities" referred to Oea and Leptis Magna. The Roman Republic captured Tripolitania in 146 BC, the area prospered during the Roman Empire period; the Latin name Regio Tripolitania dates to the 3rd century. The Vandals took over in 435, were in turn supplanted by the counter offensive of the Eastern Roman Empire in the 530s. In the 7th century, Tripolitania was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate, was inherited by its descendants, the Umayyad Caliphate and the Abbasid Caliphate; the Fatimid Caliphate ruled from Tunisia to Syria. In the 1140s, the Italo-Normans invaded Tripoli, but were ousted by the Almohad Caliphate in 1158.

Abu Zakariya Yahya, an Almohad vassal, established an independent state in Tunisia in 1229 and took control of Tripolitania shortly after. The Hafsids would control the region until the Ottoman conquest of 1553. Ottoman Tripolitania extended beyond the region of Tripolitania proper including Cyrenaica. Tripolitania became independent under the rulers of the Karamanli dynasty from 1711 until Ottoman control was re-imposed by Mahmud II in 1835. Ottoman rule persisted until 1911 -- 12. Italy granted autonomy after the war, but occupied the region. After World War I, an Arab Republic, Al-Jumhuriya al-Trabulsiya, or "Tripolitanian Republic", declared the independence of Tripolitania from Italian Libya; the proclamation of the Tripolitanian Republic in autumn 1918 was followed by a formal declaration of independence at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. This was the first formally declared republican form of government in the Arab world, but it gained little support from international powers, disintegrated by 1923.

Italy under Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini managed to reestablish full control over Libya by 1930. Administered as part of a single colony, Italian Tripolitania was a separate colony from 26 June 1927 to 3 December 1934, when it was merged into Libya; the Italian fascists constructed the Marble Arch as a form of an imperial triumphal arch at the border between Tripolitani and Cyrenaica near the coast. Tripolitania experienced a huge development in the late 1930s, when was created the Italian 4th shore with the Province of Tripoli and with Tripoli as a modern "westernized" city; the Tripoli Province was established in 1937, with the official name: Commissariato Generale Provinciale di Tripoli. It was considered a province of the Kingdom of Italy and lasted until 1943. During World War II, several see-saw back and forth campaigns with mobile armour vehicles ebbed and flowed across the North African coastal deserts between first Italian Fascists and the British, soon joined by

1978 United States House of Representatives elections in California

The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1978 was an election for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred as part of the general election of the House of Representatives on November 7, 1978. Republicans knocked off three Democratic incumbents. Final results from the Clerk of the House of Representatives: 96th United States Congress Political party strength in California Political party strength in U. S. states United States House of Representatives elections, 1978 California Elections Page Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives California Legislative District Maps RAND California Election Returns: District Definitions

Pennsylvania Route 987

Pennsylvania Route 987 is a state highway in the Lehigh Valley region of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania, running 10.3 mi from U. S. Route 22 near the Lehigh Valley International Airport north of Allentown north to PA 946 in Klecknersville; the route begins at a cloverleaf interchange with the US 22 freeway north of Allentown in Lehigh County and heads to the east of the airport as a four-lane divided highway called Airport Road as it crosses into Northampton County. PA 987 narrows to a two-lane undivided road and continues north, becoming concurrent with PA 329 as it heads into Bath. Here, PA 329 ends and PA 987 runs concurrent with PA 248 before leaving the borough. PA 987 continues northwest and serves Chapman before ending at PA 946. PA 987 was first designated in PA 946 in Klecknersville. After US 22 was relocated to its present freeway alignment in 1955, the southern terminus of PA 987 was cut back to its interchange with US 22, which used to carry Interstate 78 as well. In the early 2000s, PA 987 was widened into a divided highway and shifted to a new alignment near the Lehigh Valley International Airport.

PA 987 begins at a cloverleaf interchange with the US 22 freeway in Hanover Township in Lehigh County, in the Lehigh Valley, heading northeast on four-lane divided Airport Road. South of here, Airport Road continues into the city of Allentown. From the US 22 interchange, the route heads northeast along the border between Hanover Township to the west and the city of Bethlehem to the east, passing between the Lehigh Valley International Airport to the west and an industrial park to the east; the road enters Hanover Township and becomes five lanes with a center left-turn lane, continuing between the airport to the west and commercial development to the east, again becoming a divided highway near the community of Schoenersville. Upon crossing Schoenersville Road, PA 987 enters Hanover Township in Northampton County and curves north near farmland, narrowing to a two-lane undivided road; the route continues north through a mix of agricultural areas and scattered residential subdivisions as it continues into East Allen Township.

Farther north, PA 987 reaches an intersection with PA 329 in the community of Franks Corner. At this point, PA 987 turns east for a concurrency with PA 329 on Nor-Bath Boulevard, with the two routes continuing east through Jacksonville before turning northeast and passing to the east of a quarry; the road passes near a cement plant. Here, the road passes through woods before heading into residential areas. PA 329 reaches its eastern terminus at the PA 248 intersection, where PA 987 makes a turn east to follow PA 248 for a block on West Main Street, crossing the Monocacy Creek. A block west of PA 512, the two routes turn north onto South Chestnut Street. At the Northampton Street intersection, PA 248 splits to the east and PA 987 continues north on North Chestnut Street; the route curves northwest through a mix of farm homes as it leaves Bath. The road turns north and passes through East Allen Township again before it enters Moore Township, becoming Monocacy Drive. PA 987 passes through wooded areas with some homes, crossing the Monocacy Creek again, before it curves northwest and passes through a section of the borough of Chapman, bypassing the center of the borough to the southwest.

The route continues through a mix of farmland and homes before it reaches its northern terminus at PA 946 at the Cross Roads junction near the community of Klecknersville. Past this intersection, the road continues northwest as part of PA 946; when Pennsylvania first legislated routes in 1911, the portion of PA 987 along the PA 329 concurrency was designated as part of Legislative Route 175. By 1928, the portion of road between Schoenersville and Bath was paved, with the portion between Franks Corner and Bath designated as part of PA 145; the road between Allentown and Schoenersville was paved by 1930. PA 987 was designated in the 1930s to run from US 22 in Allentown north to PA 946 in Klecknersville, following Schoenersville Road out of Allentown before picking up its current alignment; the concurrent PA 145 designation between Franks Corner and Bath was replaced by PA 329 in 1941. Following the completion of the US 22 freeway in 1955, the southern terminus of PA 987 was cut back to the interchange with US 22, which carried I-78 at the time.

In the 1980s, PA 987 north of Allentown was renamed from Allentown-Schoenersville Road to Airport Road. In 2000, a two-year project costing $16.8 million began to widen PA 987 to a divided highway between US 22 and Schoenersville Road. In addition, a portion of the road was shifted east at the Schoenersville Road intersection and the relocated Race Street intersection was reconfigured from a Y-intersection to a T-intersection. U. S. Roads portal Pennsylvania portal