Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
South Dakota's at-large congressional district
South Dakota's At-Large Congressional District is the sole congressional district for the state of South Dakota. Based on area, it is the fourth largest congressional district in the nation; the district is represented by Dusty Johnson. The district was created when South Dakota achieved statehood on November 2, 1889, electing two members At-Large. Following the 1910 Census a third seat was gained, with the legislature drawing three separate districts; the third district was eliminated after the 1930 Census. Following the 1980 Census the second seat was eliminated. Since 1983, South Dakota has retained a single congressional district. Hillary Clinton of New York won the June 3, 2008 South Dakota Democratic Primary with 55.35% of the statewide/at-large congressional district vote while Barack Obama of Illinois received 44.65%. The state/at-large congressional district gave Clinton her final win during the course of the historic and drawn-out 2008 Democratic Presidential Primary season. U. S. Representative Stephanie Herseth Sandlin, who had endorsed John Edwards, decided to support Obama before her state/congressional district voted in the primary for Clinton.
John McCain of Arizona won the June 3, 2008 South Dakota GOP Primary with 70.19% of the statewide/at-large congressional district vote while libertarian-leaning Ron Paul of Texas finished in second place in the state/congressional district with 16.52%. Incumbent U. S. Representative Bill Janklow resigned the seat January 20, 2004, after he was convicted of second-degree manslaughter, triggering a special election. Democrat Stephanie Herseth was selected as the Democratic nominee for this special election and she defeated Republican Larry Diedrich with 51 percent of the vote in a close-fought election on June 1, 2004. Herseth's victory gave the state its first all-Democratic congressional delegation since 1937. In the November general election, Herseth was elected to a full term with 53.4 percent of the vote, an increase of a few percentage points compared with the closer June special elections. Herseth's vote margin in June was about 3,000 votes, but by November it had grown to over 29,000. Herseth thereby became the first woman in state history to win a full term in the U.
S. Congress. Both elections were hard-fought and close compared to many House races in the rest of the United States, the special election was watched by a national audience; the general election was viewed as one of the most competitive in the country, but was overshadowed in the state by the competitive U. S. Senate race between Democrat Tom Daschle and Republican John Thune, which Thune narrowly won. Two seats were created in 1889, they were changed into three districts in 1913. One at-large seat remained after 1983. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 2004 campaign finance data
Cherry County, Nebraska
Cherry County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 5,713, its county seat is Valentine. The county was named for Lt. Samuel A. Cherry, an Army officer, stationed at Fort Niobrara and, killed in South Dakota in 1881. Cherry County is in the Nebraska Sandhills. In the Nebraska license plate system, Cherry County is represented by the prefix 66. Cherry County lies on the north side of Nebraska, its north boundary line abuts the south boundary line of the state of South Dakota. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has an area of 6,009 square miles, of which 5,960 square miles is land and 49 square miles is water, it is by far Nebraska's largest county in land area and larger than the state of Connecticut, or the states of Delaware and Rhode Island combined. The county is in Nebraska's Sandhills region. During the Holocene glacial retreat the sand dunes, deposited in their current location by the vast continental glaciers, were exposed and grasses took over.
Bowring Ranch State Historical Park Smith Falls State Park Owing to its size as Nebraska's largest county by area, Cherry County borders 11 counties, more than any other county in Nebraska. Seven of them are in Nebraska and four are in South Dakota; the adjacent counties are: As of the 2000 United States Census, of 2000, there were 6,148 people, 2,508 households, 1,710 families in the county. The population density was 1.02 people per square mile. There were 3,220 housing units at an average density of 0 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.19% White, 0.07% Black or African American, 3.25% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, 1.72% from two or more races. 0.93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 38.5% were of German, 12.6% English, 11.1% Irish and 7.3% American ancestry. There were 2,508 households out of which 31.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.90% were married couples living together, 6.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.80% were non-families.
28.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.98. The county population contained 27.00% under the age of 18, 6.20% from 18 to 24, 25.50% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 17.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 98.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,268, the median income for a family was $36,500. Males had a median income of $23,705 versus $17,277 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,943. About 9.60% of families and 12.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.40% of those under age 18 and 14.20% of those age 65 or over. Valentine Brownlee Cherry County residents observe the Central and Mountain time zones; the eastern third of the county, including county seat Valentine, is in the Central Time Zone, while the western two thirds, including Merriman, are in the Mountain Time Zone.
Cherry County voters are reliably Republican. In no national election since 1936 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cherry County, Nebraska Lt. Samuel A. Cherry County website
Todd County, South Dakota
Todd County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 9,612. Todd County does not have its own county seat. Instead, Winner in neighboring Tripp County serves as its administrative center, its largest city is Mission. The county was created in 1909; the county was named for John Blair Smith Todd, a delegate from Dakota Territory to the United States House of Representatives and a Civil War general. The county lies within the Rosebud Indian Reservation and is coterminous with the main reservation, its southern border is with the state of Nebraska. It is one of five South Dakota counties within an Indian reservation; the county's per-capita income makes it the third poorest county in the United States. Unlike many rural counties in South Dakota, since 1960, its net population has increased; until 1981 Todd and Washabaugh were the last unorganized counties in the United States. Although organized, Todd did not receive a home rule charter until 1983.
It contracts with Tripp County for its Auditor and Registrar of Deeds. Todd County lies on the south line of South Dakota, its south boundary line abuts the north boundary line of the state of Nebraska. Its terrain consists of semi-arid rolling hills, cut by gullies and drainages which flow to the northeast; the land is dedicated to agriculture, including center pivot irrigation. The terrain slopes to the northeast, its highest point is near the SW corner, at 3,176' ASL; the eastern portion of South Dakota's counties observe Central Time. Todd County is the westernmost of the SD counties to observe Central Time. Todd County has a total area of 1,391 square miles, of which 1,389 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 18 U. S. Highway 83 South Dakota Highway 63 Hollow Horn Bear Village Antelope Lake He Dog Lake White Lake As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 9,050 people, 2,462 households, 1,917 families in the county; the population density was 6 people per square mile.
There were 2,766 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 85.60% Native American, 12.57% White, 0.09% Black or African American, 0.14% Asian, 0.21% from other races, 1.38% from two or more races. 1.52% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,462 households out of which 48.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.20% were married couples living together, 31.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.10% were non-families. 18.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.62 and the average family size was 4.09. The county population contained 44.00% under the age of 18, 10.40% from 18 to 24, 25.10% from 25 to 44, 14.80% from 45 to 64, 5.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females there were 97.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.30 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $20,035, the median income for a family was $19,533. Males had a median income of $20,993 as opposed to $21,449 for females; the per capita income for the county was $7,714. About 44.00% of families and 48.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 57.60% of those under age 18 and 33.50% of those age 65 or over. The county's per-capita income makes it one of the poorest counties in the United States; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 9,612 people, 2,780 households, 2,091 families in the county. The population density was 6.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,142 housing units at an average density of 2.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 88.1% American Indian, 9.6% white, 0.2% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 5.1% were German, 1.1% were American.
Of the 2,780 households, 55.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.5% were married couples living together, 34.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.8% were non-families, 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 3.45 and the average family size was 3.95. The median age was 24.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $25,196 and the median income for a family was $29,010. Males had a median income of $26,971 versus $30,211 for females; the per capita income for the county was $11,010. About 44.2% of families and 48.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 59.0% of those under age 18 and 45.7% of those age 65 or over. Mission St. Francis East Todd West Todd Like Most Native American Counties, Hillary Clinton won the majority of votes in Todd County in 2016; the last election in which the Republican nominee was in 1960 which the Richard Nixon-Henry Cabot Lodge ticket carried the county.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Todd County, South Dakota
U.S. Route 18
U. S. Route 18 is an east–west U. S. highway in the Midwestern United States. The western terminus is in Orin, Wyoming at an interchange with Interstate 25, its eastern terminus is in downtown Wisconsin. However, US 18 runs concurrent with other U. S. routes from its western terminus to Wyoming. US 18 is one of the original United States highways of 1926; the US 18 designation was proposed for a road in Michigan from Grand Haven east to Detroit. This roadway was designated as U. S. Route 16. In Wyoming, US 18 runs concurrent with U. S. Route 20 from Interstate 25 to Lusk, where US 18 branches off to run concurrently with U. S. Route 85. At the unincorporated community of Mule Creek Junction in northeastern Niobrara County, US 18 leaves US 85; this ten-mile stretch from US 85 to the South Dakota border is the only segment of US 18 in Wyoming, not co-signed with another highway. U. S. 18 enters South Dakota west of Edgemont. It passes through Hot Springs, the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the Rosebud Indian Reservation and Gregory before crossing the Missouri River near Pickstown over the Fort Randall Dam.
East of the Missouri River, U. S. 18 passes through Lake Andes and Tripp before a brief concurrency with Interstate 29 near Worthing. East of I-29, U. S. 18 passes through Canton before crossing the Big Sioux River into Iowa. The Oyate Trail is one of the names given to the section of US-18 traveling across South Dakota from I-29 east of Vermillion to Maverick Junction. Named in an attempt to encourage more tourism traffic through the lands of various AmerInd tribes in southern South Dakota, it passes through or near the Yankton Sioux Indian Reservation, the Rosebud Indian Reservation, the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, crossing the James River Valley, the Missouri River near Fort Randall Dam, portions of Pine Ridge, the High Plains of South Dakota, connecting the urban areas of the middle Missouri River with the Black Hills. Portions of the road were known as the Grant Highway, Black Hills Sioux Trail, as part of the Omaha and Black Hills Highway and the Custer Battlefield Trail. Towns along the road include Gregory, Olivet, Martin and Pine Ridge.
Nearby towns and locales of interest include Rosebud, Wounded Knee. The South Dakota section of U. S. 18, other than the concurrency with Interstate 29, is defined at South Dakota Codified Laws § 31-4-141. U. S. 18 enters Iowa via a Big Sioux River crossing northeast of Beloit. It overlaps U. S. Route 75 for a mile near Hull and U. S. Route 59 for a mile near Sanborn, it overlaps U. S. Route 71 through Spencer. U. S. 18 passes through Emmetsburg before intersecting U. S. Route 169 at Algona. U. S. 18 continues east through Garner before intersecting Interstate 35 in Clear Lake. After a brief concurrency with I-35, U. S. 18 continues as a freeway bypassing Mason City to the south. At Charles City, U. S. 18 becomes a rural two-lane highway again, except for a brief concurrency with the U. S. Route 63 bypass of New Hampton. After passing through West Union, it turns northeast and joins U. S. Route 52 at Postville leaving 52 about 7 miles east of Monona before crossing the Mississippi River into Wisconsin via the Marquette–Joliet Bridge in the city of Marquette.
U. S. 18 is the designated route of the Avenue of the Saints between Charles City. Upon entry into Wisconsin at Prairie du Chien, US 18 is the terminus for WIS 60; the two routes are concurrent until Bridgeport where WIS 60 splits off to the east and US 18 crosses the Wisconsin River and turns east on the other side. The route joins the US 151 expressway in Dodgeville and the two remain concurrent east to Madison. US 18 follows US 12 south of Madison and passes through or around Cambridge and Waukesha before terminating in Milwaukee at the junction of East Michigan Street and Lincoln Memorial Drive in downtown. Wyoming I‑25 / US 20 / US 26 / US 87 in Orin. US 18/US 20 travel concurrently to Lusk. US 85 in Lusk; the highways travel concurrently to the northeastern part of Niobrara County. South Dakota US 385 in Hot Springs; the highways travel concurrently to Oelrichs. US 83 west of Mission; the highways travel concurrently to Mission. US 183 southeast of Witten; the highways travel concurrently to Colome.
US 281 east-southeast of Fairfax. The highways travel concurrently to south of Armour. US 81 east of Menno I‑29 south-southwest of Worthing; the highways travel concurrently for 3.02 miles. Iowa US 75 in Lincoln Township; the highways travel concurrently through the township. US 59 in Sanborn; the highways travel concurrently to Franklin Township. US 71 in Spencer; the highways travel concurrently through the city. US 169 in Algona US 69 in Garfield Township; the highways travel concurrently to Garner. I‑35 in Clear Lake; the highways travel concurrently to Lake Township. US 65 in Mason City US 218 in Floyd; the highways travel concurrently to Charles City. US 63 in New Hampton; the highways travel concurrently to Dresden Township. US 52 in Post Township; the highways travel concurrently to Giard Township. Wisconsin US 61 in Fennimore; the highways travel concurrently through the city. US 151 east of Dodgeville; the highways travel concurrently to Madison. US 12 / US 14 in Madison. US 12/US 18 travel concurrently to Cambridge.
US 14/US 18 travel concurrently through Madison. US 51 in Madison I‑39 / I‑90 in Madison I‑94 northeast of Waukesha Michigan Street/Lincoln Memorial Drive in Milwaukee U. S. Route 18 Bypass in Hot Springs, South Dakota U. S. Route 18 Business in Mason City, Iowa U. S. Route 18 Business in Marquette and McGregor, I