The Mahanarayana Upanishad is an ancient Sanskrit text and is one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism. The text is classified as a Vaishnava Upanishad; the text exists in three main versions. One version with 64 chapters is attached to the Krishna Yajurveda in several South Indian anthologies, the same text in Andhra edition exists in an expanded form with 80 chapters attached to the same Veda. A second version has 25 chapters and is prefixed with Tripadvibhuti; these manuscripts are sometimes titled as the Yajniki Upanishad or Tripad-vibhuti-mahanarayana Upanishad. According to Swami Vimalananda, this Upanishad is called Yagniki Upanishad in reverence for sage Yagnatma Narayana; the Upanishad, despite its title which means "Great Narayana", is notable for glorifying both Narayana and Rudra, both as the first equivalent embodiment of Brahman, the concept of ultimate and transcendental reality in Hinduism. The Upanishad uses Vedanta terminology, uses numerous fragments from Rigveda, Taittiriya Brahmana, Vajasaneyi Samhita and Principal Upanishads.
The author and the century in which the Mahanarayana Upanishad was composed is unknown. The relative chronology of the text, based on its poetic verse and textual style, has been proposed by Parmeshwaranand to the same period of composition as Katha, Isha and Shvetashvatara Upanishads, but before Maitri and Mandukya Upanishad. Feuerstein places the relative composition chronology of Mahanarayana to be about that of Mundaka and Prashna Upanishads; these relative chronology estimates date the text to second half of 1st millennium BCE. Srinivasan suggests a date, one after about 300 BCE and by around the start of the common era 1st century CE, based on the texts it cites and the comparison of details of the Samdhya ritual found in Mahanarayana Upanishad with those found in other Sutras and Shastras. Deussen considers it to be ancient and a transitional link between the Upanishads of the three Vedas and the Atharvaveda. Manuscripts of this text are found titled as Mahanaryanopanishad. In the Telugu language anthology of 108 Upanishads of the Muktika canon, narrated by Rama to Hanuman, it is listed as Tripadvibhutimahanarayana Upanishad at number 52.
It is different from the shorter version of Narayana Upanishad of the Atharva Veda. The tenth chapter of the Taittiriya Upanishad is adopted in this Mahanarayana text; the Mahanarayana Upanishad was among the text included in the collection of fifty Upanishads translated into Persian by Sultan Mohammed Dara Shikhoh in 1656, under the title Maha-narain, listed at 30 in the compilation called the Oupanekhat. In the Colebrooke's version of 52 Upanishads, popular in North India, it is listed at 39–40 as Brhadnarayana. In the Narayana anthology, popular in South India, it is included at number 34 as Mahanarayana or Brhadnarayana in Bibliothica Indica. Though Adi Shankara did not directly comment on this Upanishad, his commentary on Brahmasutras such as at III.3.24 applies to this text, since some of the Vedanta sutras are incorporated in this Upanishad. The text opens with cosmology, with a verse describing the Brahman principle as existent before the creation of universe, which existed as and in light in the "boundless cosmic water".
The style of its opening verses suggest that the metaphysical principle of Brahman was well established by the time this text was composed. It is described as that where and from which the world originated and into which it shall disintegrate, upon whom all the gods are founded, it is that, past and what will be, it is all parts of time, it is that which envelops the entire universe, which procreates and is present in all creatures and immobile, that, in Om, it is highest of the highest, greatest of the greatest, it is the law, it is the truth, it is the Brahman. The text calls this metaphysical principle as Agni, Surya, Prajapati, Purusha and Narayana, that they are all none other than Brahman, it is that, states verse 10.19, there before the gods appeared. The text extracts and integrates the hymns from the Vedic texts. For example, its first ten chapters reference and include hymn fragments or entire hymns from Rigveda 1.18, 1.22, 1.164, 2.3, 4.58, 5.82, 9.96 and 10.81, Yajurveda 32.1 through 32.4, Atharvaveda 10.8.13, section 6.9 of Katha Upanishad, 4.2 of Shvetashvatara Upanishad, 2.1 of Mundaka Upanishad and others.
The chapter 2 of the text gives, for example, an elaborate version of the Rigvedic Gayatri mantra. Narayana is solemnized in the 11th chapter of the text, calling Atman as Narayana; this description mirrors those found in Yogatattva Upanishad. Narayana is described as the highest goal, the light beyond, the highest self, the highest Brahman, the highest object of thought; the chapter 12 and twenty six verses that follow solemnize Rudra, in a manner similar to Narayana, as being all the universe, the manifest One, the right, the just, the truth and the highest Brahman. Once again, the text references and integrates numerous hymns and their fragments from the Vedas, as it solemnizes Narayana and Rudra; the Upanishad describes its axiology, describing the highest principles of human endeavor to be satyam, dama, danam, prajanam, yajna, nyasa. It declares renunciation as the exquisite among these because this text is followed by the Sannyasa Upanishads in the Atharvaveda. T
The Rigveda is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy and mystical exegesis. It is one of the four sacred canonical texts of Hinduism known as the Vedas; the core text, known as the Rigveda Samhita, is a collection of 1,028 hymns in about 10,600 verses, organized into ten books. In the eight books that were composed the earliest, the hymns are praise of specific deities; the younger books in part deal with philosophical or speculative questions, with the virtue of dāna in society and with other metaphysical issues in their hymns. The oldest layers of the Rigveda Samhita are among the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language of similar age as certain Hittite texts. Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the bulk of the Rigveda Samhita was composed in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, most between c. 1500 and 1200 BC, although a wider approximation of c. 1700–1100 BC has been given. The initial codification of the Rigveda took place during the early Kuru kingdom.
Some of its verses continue to be recited during Hindu rites of passage celebrations and prayers, making it the world's oldest religious text in continued use. The associated material has been preserved from two shakhas or "schools", known as Śākalya and Bāṣkala; the school-specific commentaries are known as Brahmanas Aranyakas, Upanishads. The text maṇḍalas, of varying age and length; the text originates as oral literature, "books" may be a misleading term, the individual mandalas are, much rather, standalone collections of hymns that were intended to be memorized by the members of various groups of priests. This is true of the "family books", mandalas 2–7, which form the oldest part of the Rigveda and account for 38 per cent of the entire text, they are called "family books" because each of them is attributed to an individual rishi, was transmitted within the lineage of this rishi's family, or of his students. The hymns within each of the family books are arranged in collections each dealing with a particular deity: Agni comes first, Indra comes second, so on.
They are arranged by decreasing number of hymns within each section. Within each such collection, the hymns are arranged in descending order of the number of stanzas per hymn. If two hymns in the same collection have equal numbers of stanzas they are arranged so that the number of syllables in the metre are in descending order; the second to seventh mandalas have a uniform format. The eighth and ninth mandalas, comprising hymns of mixed age, account for 9 %, respectively; the ninth mandala is dedicated to Soma and the Soma ritual. The hymns in the ninth mandala are arranged by their length; the first and the tenth mandalas are the youngest. Some of the hymns in mandalas 8, 1 and 10 may still belong to an earlier period and may be as old as the material in the family books; the first mandala has a unique arrangement not found in the other nine mandalas. The first 84 hymns of the tenth mandala have a structure different than the remaining hymns in it; each mandala consists of sūktas intended for various rituals.
The sūktas in turn consist of individual stanzas called ṛc, which are further analysed into units of verse called pada. The meters most used in the ṛcas are the gayatri, anushtubh and jagati; the trishtubh meter and gayatri meter dominate in the Rigveda. For pedagogical convenience, each mandala is divided into equal sections of several sūktas, called anuvāka, which modern publishers omit. Another scheme divides the entire text over the 10 mandalas into adhyāya and varga; some publishers give both classifications in a single edition. The most common numbering scheme is by book and stanza. E.g. the first verse is in three times eight syllables: 1.1.1a agním ī́ḷe puróhitaṃ 1b yajñásya deváṃ ṛtvíjam 1c hótāraṃ ratna-dhā́tamam "Agni I invoke, the house-priest / the god, minister of sacrifice / the presiding priest, bestower of wealth." Tradition associates a rishi with each ṛc of the Rigveda. Most sūktas are attributed to single composers; the "family books" are so-called. In all, 10 families of rishis account for more than 95 per cent of the ṛcs.
The original text is close to but not identical to the extant Samhitapatha, but metrical and other observations allow reconstruction of the original text from the extant one, as printed in the Harvard Oriental Series, vol. 50. The surviving form of the Rigveda is based on an early Iron Age collection that established the core'family books' and a redaction, co
Advaita Vedanta known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy, one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization. The term Advaita refers to its idea that the true self, Atman, is the same as the highest metaphysical Reality; the followers of this school are known as Advaita Vedantins, or just Advaitins, they seek spiritual liberation through acquiring vidyā, meaning knowledge, of one's true identity as Atman, the identity of Atman and Brahman. Advaita Vedanta traces its roots in the oldest Upanishads, it relies on three textual sources called the Prasthanatrayi. It gives "a unifying interpretation of the whole body of Upanishads", the Brahma Sutras, the Bhagavad Gita. Advaita Vedanta is the oldest extant sub-school of Vedanta, one of the six orthodox Hindu philosophies. Although its roots trace back to the 1st millennium BCE, the most prominent exponent of the Advaita Vedanta is considered by the tradition to be 8th century scholar Adi Shankara. Advaita Vedanta emphasizes Jivanmukti, the idea that moksha is achievable in this life in contrast to Indian philosophies that emphasize videhamukti, or moksha after death.
The school uses concepts such as Brahman, Maya, Avidya and others that are found in major Indian religious traditions, but interprets them in its own way for its theories of moksha. Advaita Vedanta is one of the most influential schools of classical Indian thought. Many scholars describe it as a form of monism, others describe the Advaita philosophy as non-dualistic. Advaita influenced and was influenced by various traditions and texts of Hindu philosophies such as Samkhya, Nyaya, other sub-schools of Vedanta, Shaivism, the Puranas, the Agamas, as well as social movements such as the Bhakti movement. Beyond Hinduism, Advaita Vedanta interacted and developed with the other traditions of India such as Jainism and Buddhism. Advaita Vedanta texts espouse a spectrum of views from idealism, including illusionism, to realist or nearly realist positions expressed in the early works of Shankara. In modern times, its views appear in various Neo-Vedanta movements, it has been termed as the paradigmatic example of Hindu spirituality.
The Advaita Vedanta school has been referred to by various names, such as Advaita-vada, Abheda-darshana, Dvaita-vada-pratisedha, Kevala-dvaita. According to Richard King, a professor of Buddhist and Asian studies, the term Advaita first occurs in a recognizably Vedantic context in the prose of Mandukya Upanishad. In contrast, according to Frits Staal, a professor of Philosophy specializing in Sanskrit and Vedic studies, the word Advaita is from the Vedic era, the Vedic sage Yajnavalkya is credited to be the one who coined it. Stephen Phillips, a professor of philosophy and Asian studies, translates the Advaita containing verse excerpt in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, as follows: Advaita is a subschool of Vedanta, the latter being one of the six classical Hindu darśanas. It, like nearly all these philosophies, has an integrated body of textual interpretations and religious practices for what Hinduism considers four proper aims of life: virtue, material prosperity and the fourth and final aim being moksha, the spiritual liberation or release from cycles of rebirth.
Traditional Advaita Vedanta centers on the study of the sruti the Principal Upanishads, along with the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita. Within the Vedanta tradition of Hinduism are many sub-schools, of which Advaita is one. Unlike Buddhism, but like Jainism, all Vedanta schools consider the existence of Atman as self-evident; the Vedanta tradition posits the concept of Brahman as the eternal, unchanging metaphysical reality. The sub-schools of Vedanta disagree on the relation between Brahman; the Advaita darsana considers them to be identical. Advaita Vedanta believes that the knowledge of Atman is liberating. Along with self-knowledge, it teaches that moksha can be achieved by the correct understanding of one's true identity as Ātman, the dispassionate and unmoveable observer, the identity of Ātman and Brahman; the process of acquiring this knowledge entails realising that one’s True Self, the Atman, is the same as Brahman. This is achieved through. Sankara contends that this direct awareness is construction-free, not construction-filled.
Self-knowledge is, not seen as an awareness of Brahman, but instead an awareness, Brahman, since one will transcend any form of duality in this state of consciousness. Correct knowledge, which destroys avidya and perceptual errors related to Atman and Brahman, is obtained through three stages of practice, sravana and nididhyasana; the Vedanta tradition of Hinduism rejects the dualism of Samkhya. The Samkhya school of Hindu thought proposes two metaphysical realities, namely Purusha and Prakriti states that Purusha is the efficient cause of all existence while Prakriti is its material cause. Advaita, like all Vedanta schools, states that Brahman is both the efficient and the material cause, "that from which the origination and dissolution of this universe proceed." What created all existence is present in and reflected in all beings and inert matter, the creative principle was and is everywhere, always. This Brahman it postulates is sat-cit-ananda. By accepting thi
Rama or Ram known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism. He is the seventh avatar of the god Vishnu, one of his most popular incarnations along with Krishna and Gautama Buddha. In Rama-centric traditions of Hinduism, he is considered the Supreme Being. Rama was born to Dasharatha in Ayodhya, the ruler of the Kingdom of Kosala, his siblings included Lakshmana and Shatrughna. He married Sita. Though born in a royal family, their life is described in the Hindu texts as one challenged by unexpected changes such as an exile into impoverished and difficult circumstances, ethical questions and moral dilemmas. Of all their travails, the most notable is the kidnapping of Sita by demon-king Ravana, followed by the determined and epic efforts of Rama and Lakshmana to gain her freedom and destroy the evil Ravana against great odds; the entire life story of Rama and their companions allegorically discusses duties and social responsibilities of an individual. It illustrates dharmic living through model characters.
Rama is important to Vaishnavism. He is the central figure of the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana, a text popular in the South Asian and Southeast Asian cultures, his ancient legends have attracted bhasya and extensive secondary literature and inspired performance arts. Two such texts, for example, are the Adhyatma Ramayana – a spiritual and theological treatise considered foundational by Ramanandi monasteries, the Ramcharitmanas – a popular treatise that inspires thousands of Ramlila festival performances during autumn every year in India. Rama legends are found in the texts of Jainism and Buddhism, though he is sometimes called Pauma or Padma in these texts, their details vary from the Hindu versions. Rāma is a Vedic Sanskrit word with two contextual meanings. In one context as found in Arthavaveda, states Monier Monier-Williams, it means "dark, dark-colored, black" and is related to the term ratri which means night. In another context as found in other Vedic texts, the word means "pleasing, charming, lovely".
The word is sometimes used as a suffix in different Indian languages and religions, such as Pali in Buddhist texts, where -rama adds the sense of "pleasing to the mind, lovely" to the composite word. Rama as a first name appears in the Vedic literature, associated with two patronymic names – Margaveya and Aupatasvini – representing different individuals. A third individual named Rama Jamadagnya is the purported author of hymn 10.110 of the Rigveda in the Hindu tradition. The word Rama appears in ancient literature in reverential terms for three individuals: Parashu-rama, as the sixth avatar of Vishnu, he is linked to the Rama Jamadagnya of the Rigveda fame. Rama-chandra, as the seventh avatar of Vishnu and of the ancient Ramayana fame. Bala-rama called Halayudha, as the elder brother of Krishna both of whom appear in the legends of Hinduism and Jainism; the name Rama appears in Hindu texts, for many different scholars and kings in mythical stories. The word appears in ancient Upanishads and Aranyakas layer of Vedic literature, as well as music and other post-Vedic literature, but in qualifying context of something or someone, "charming, lovely" or "darkness, night".
The Vishnu avatar named Rama is known by other names. He is called Raghava. Additional names of Rama include Ramavijaya, Phreah Ream, Phra Ram, Megat Seri Rama, Raja Bantugan, Ramar. In the Vishnu sahasranama, Rama is the 394th name of Vishnu. In some Advaita Vedanta inspired texts, Rama connotes the metaphysical concept of Supreme Brahman, the eternally blissful spiritual Self in whom yogis delight nondualistically; the root of the word Rama is ram- which means "stop, stand still, rejoice, be pleased". According to Douglas Adams, the Sanskrit word Rama is found in other Indo-European languages such as Tocharian ram, reme, *romo- where it means "support, make still", "witness, make evident"; the sense of "dark, soot" appears in other Indo European languages, such as *remos or Old English romig. This summary is a traditional legendary account, based on literary details from the Ramayana and other historic mythology-containing texts of Buddhism and Jainism. According to Sheldon Pollock, the figure of Rama incorporates more ancient "morphemes of Indian myths", such as the mythical legends of Bali and Namuci.
The ancient sage Valmiki used these morphemes in his Ramayana similes as in sections 3.27, 3.59, 3.73, 5.19 and 29.28. Rama was born on the ninth day of the lunar month Chaitra, a day celebrated across India as Ram Navami; this coincides with one of the four Navratri on the Hindu calendar, in the spring season, namely the Vasantha Navratri. The ancient epic Ramayana states in the Balakhanda that Rama and his brothers were born to Kaushalya and Dasharatha in Ayodhya, a city on the banks of Sarayu River; the Jain versions of the Ramayana, such as the Paumacariya by Vimalasuri mention the details of the early life of Rama. The Jain texts are dated variously, but pre-500 CE, most sometime within the first five centuries of the common era. Dasharatha was the king of Kosala, a part of the solar dynasty of Iksvakus, his mother's name Kaushalya implies that she was from Kosala. The kingdom of Kosala is mentioned in Buddhist and Jaina texts, as one of the sixteen Maha janapadas of ancient India, as an important center of pilgrimage for Jains and Buddhists.
However, there is a schola
Ātman is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul. In Hindu philosophy in the Vedanta school of Hinduism, Ātman is the first principle, the true self of an individual beyond identification with phenomena, the essence of an individual. In order to attain liberation, a human being must acquire self-knowledge, to realize that one's true self is identical with the transcendent self Brahman; the six orthodox schools of Hinduism believe. This is a major point of difference with the Buddhist doctrine of Anatta which holds that there is no unchanging soul or self. "Ātman" is a Sanskrit word which means "essence, soul." It is derived from the Proto-Indo-European word *h₁eh₁tmṓ.Ātman, sometimes spelled without a diacritic as atman in scholarly literature, means "real self" of the individual, "innermost essence", soul. Atman, in Hinduism, is considered as eternal, beyond time, "not the same as body or mind or consciousness, but is something beyond which permeates all these". Atman is a metaphysical and spiritual concept for the Hindus discussed in their scriptures with the concept of Brahman.
The earliest use of word "Ātman" in Indian texts is found in the Rig Veda. Yāska, the ancient Indian grammarian, commenting on this Rigvedic verse, accepts the following meanings of Ātman: the pervading principle, the organism in which other elements are united and the ultimate sentient principle. Other hymns of Rig Veda where the word Ātman appears include I.115.1, VII.87.2, VII.101.6, VIII.3.24, IX.2.10, IX.6.8, X.168.4. Ātman is a central idea in all of the Upanishads, "know your Ātman" is their thematic focus. These texts state that the core of every person's self is not the body, nor the mind, nor the ego, but "Ātman", which means "soul" or "self". Atman is the spiritual essence in their real innermost essential being, it is eternal, it is the essence, it is ageless. Atman is that; the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad describes Atman as that in which everything exists, of the highest value, which permeates everything, the essence of all and beyond description. In hymn 4.4.5, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad describes Atman as Brahman, associates it with everything one is, everything one can be, one's free will, one's desire, what one does, what one doesn't do, the good in oneself, the bad in oneself.
That Atman is indeed Brahman. It is identified with the intellect, the Manas, the vital breath, with the eyes and ears, with earth, air, ākāśa, with fire and with what is other than fire, with desire and the absence of desire, with anger and the absence of anger, with righteousness and unrighteousness, with everything — it is identified, as is well known, with this and with that; as it does and acts, so it becomes: by doing good it becomes good, by doing evil it becomes evil. It becomes virtuous through good acts, vicious through evil acts. Others, say, "The self is identified with desire alone. What it desires, so it resolves; this theme of Ātman, soul and self of oneself, every person, every being is the same as Brahman, is extensively repeated in Brihadāranyaka Upanishad. The Upanishad asserts that this knowledge of "I am Brahman", that there is no difference between "I" and "you", or "I" and "him" is a source of liberation, not gods can prevail over such a liberated man. For example, in hymn 1.4.10, Brahman was this before.
I am Brahman, therefore it became all. And whoever among the gods had this enlightenment became That, it is the same with the same with men. Whoever knows the self as “I am Brahman,” becomes all this universe; the gods cannot prevail against him, for he becomes their Ātma. Now, if a man worships another god, thinking: “He is one and I am another,” he does not know, he is like an animal to the gods. As many animals serve a man, so does each man serve the gods. If one animal is taken away, it causes anguish; therefore it is not pleasing to the gods. Along with the Brihadāranyaka, all the earliest and middle Upanishads discuss Ātman as they build their theories to answer how man can achieve liberation and bliss; the Katha Upanishad, for example, explains Atman as immanent and transcendent innermost essence of each human being and living creature, that this is one though the external forms of living creatures manifest in different forms, for example, in hymns 2.2.9 and others, its states As the one fire, after it has entered the world, though one, takes different forms according to whatever it burns,so does the internal Ātman of all living beings, though one, takes a form according to whatever He enters and is outside all forms.
Katha Upanishad, in Book 1, hymns 3.3 to 3.4, describes the cited analogy of chariot for the relation of "Soul, Self" to body and senses. Stephen Kaplan translates these hymns as, "Know the Self as the rider in a chariot, the body as the chariot. Know the intellect as the charioteer, the mind as the reins; the senses, they say are the horses, sense objects are the paths around them". The Katha Upanishad declares that "when the Self understands this and is unified, integrated w
International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. It is based on a scheme that emerged during the nineteenth century from suggestions by Charles Trevelyan, William Jones, Monier Monier-Williams and other scholars, formalised by the Transliteration Committee of the Geneva Oriental Congress, in September 1894. IAST makes it possible for the reader to read the Indic text unambiguously as if it were in the original Indic script, it is this faithfulness to the original scripts that accounts for its continuing popularity amongst scholars. University scholars use IAST in publications that cite textual material in Sanskrit, Pāḷi and other classical Indian languages. IAST is used for major e-text repositories such as SARIT, Muktabodha, GRETIL, sanskritdocuments.org. The IAST scheme represents more than a century of scholarly usage in books and journals on classical Indian studies.
By contrast, the ISO 15919 standard for transliterating Indic scripts emerged in 2001 from the standards and library worlds. For the most part, ISO 15919 follows the IAST scheme, departing from it only in minor ways —see comparison below; the Indian National Library at Kolkata romanization, intended for the romanization of all Indic scripts, is an extension of IAST. The IAST letters are listed with their Devanāgarī equivalents and phonetic values in IPA, valid for Sanskrit and other modern languages that use Devanagari script, but some phonological changes have occurred: The highlighted letters are those modified with diacritics: long vowels are marked with an overline, vocalic consonants and retroflexes have an underdot. Unlike ASCII-only romanizations such as ITRANS or Harvard-Kyoto, the diacritics used for IAST allow capitalization of proper names; the capital variants of letters never occurring word-initially are useful only when writing in all-caps and in Pāṇini contexts for which the convention is to typeset the IT sounds as capital letters.
For the most part, IAST is a subset of ISO 15919 that merges: the retroflex liquids with the vocalic ones. The following seven exceptions are from the ISO standard accommodating an extended repertoire of symbols to allow transliteration of Devanāgarī and other Indic scripts, as used for languages other than Sanskrit; the most convenient method of inputting romanized Sanskrit is by setting up an alternative keyboard layout. This allows one to hold a modifier key to type letters with diacritical marks. For example, alt+a = ā. How this is set up varies by operating system. Linux Modern Linux systems allow one to set up custom keyboard layouts and switch them by clicking a flag icon in the menu bar. MacOS One can use the pre-installed US International keyboard, or install Toshiya Unebe's Easy Unicode keyboard layout. A revision of this is Shreevatsa R's EasyIAST. Microsoft Windows Windows allows one to change keyboard layouts and set up additional custom keyboard mappings for IAST. Many systems provide a way to select Unicode characters visually.
ISO/IEC 14755 refers to this as a screen-selection entry method. Microsoft Windows has provided a Unicode version of the Character Map program since version NT 4.0 – appearing in the consumer edition since XP. This is limited to characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane. Characters are searchable by Unicode character name, the table can be limited to a particular code block. More advanced third-party tools of the same type are available. MacOS provides a "character palette" with much the same functionality, along with searching by related characters, glyph tables in a font, etc, it can be enabled in the input menu in the menu bar under System Preferences → International → Input Menu or can be viewed under Edit → Emoji & Symbols in many programs. Equivalent tools – such as gucharmap or kcharselect – exist on most Linux desktop environments. Users of SCIM on Linux based platforms can have the opportunity to install and use the sa-itrans-iast input handler which provides complete support for the ISO 15919 standard for the romanization of Indic languages as part of the m17n library.
Only certain fonts support all Latin Unicode characters for the transliteration of Indic scripts according to the ISO 15919 standard. For example, Tahoma supports all the characters needed. Arial and Times New Roman font packages that come with Microsoft Office 2007 and also support most Latin Extended Additional characters like ḍ, ḥ, ḷ, ḻ, ṁ, ṅ, ṇ, ṛ, ṣ and ṭ. However, the growing trend amongst academics working in the area of Sanskrit studies is towards using Gentium font which has complete support for all the conjoined diacritics used in the IAST character set. Reddy, Shashir. "Shashir's Notes: Modern Transcription of Sanskrit". Retrieved 2016-12-02. Stone, Anthony. "Transliteration of Indic Scripts: How to use ISO 15919". Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown Wujastyk, Dominik. "Transliteration of Devanagari". INDOLOGY. Retrieved 2016-12-02. Typing a macron - page from Penn State University about typing with accents International Phonetic Alphabet chart with pronunciation guide A visual chart which shows 1.
Which part of the mouth for each sound 2. The 3 groups where the 12 diacritics appear. - from