A cappella music is group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. It contrasts with cantata, accompanied singing; the term "a cappella" was intended to differentiate between Renaissance polyphony and Baroque concertato style. In the 19th century a renewed interest in Renaissance polyphony coupled with an ignorance of the fact that vocal parts were doubled by instrumentalists led to the term coming to mean unaccompanied vocal music; the term is used, albeit as a synonym for alla breve. A cappella music was used in religious music church music as well as anasheed and zemirot. Gregorian chant is an example of a cappella singing, as is the majority of secular vocal music from the Renaissance; the madrigal, up until its development in the early Baroque into an instrumentally-accompanied form, is usually in a cappella form. Jewish and Christian music were a cappella, this practice has continued in both of these religions as well as in Islam.
The polyphony of Christian a cappella music began to develop in Europe around the late 15th century AD, with compositions by Josquin des Prez. The early a cappella polyphonies may have had an accompanying instrument, although this instrument would double the singers' parts and was not independent. By the 16th century, a cappella polyphony had further developed, but the cantata began to take the place of a cappella forms. 16th century a cappella polyphony, continued to influence church composers throughout this period and to the present day. Recent evidence has shown that some of the early pieces by Palestrina, such as what was written for the Sistine Chapel was intended to be accompanied by an organ "doubling" some or all of the voices; such is seen in the life of Palestrina becoming a major influence on Bach, most notably in the Mass in B Minor. Other composers that utilized the a cappella style, if only for the occasional piece, were Claudio Monteverdi and his masterpiece, Lagrime d'amante al sepolcro dell'amata, composed in 1610, Andrea Gabrieli when upon his death it was discovered many choral pieces, one of, in the unaccompanied style.
Learning from the preceding two composeres, Heinrich Schütz utilized the a cappella style in numerous pieces, chief among these were the pieces in the oratorio style, which were traditionally performed during the Easter week and dealt with the religious subject matter of that week, such as Christ's suffering and the Passion. Five of Schutz's Historien were Easter pieces, of these the latter three, which dealt with the passion from three different viewpoints, those of Matthew and John, were all done a cappella style; this was a near requirement for this type of piece, the parts of the crowd were sung while the solo parts which were the quoted parts from either Christ or the authors were performed in a plainchant. In the Byzantine Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches, the music performed in the liturgies is sung without instrumental accompaniment. Bishop Kallistos Ware says, "The service is sung though there may be no choir... In the Orthodox Church today, as in the early Church, singing is unaccompanied and instrumental music is not found."
This a cappella behavior arises from strict interpretation of Psalms 150, which states, Let every thing that hath breath praise the Lord. Praise ye the Lord. In keeping with this philosophy, early Russian musika which started appearing in the late 17th century, in what was known as khorovïye kontsertï made a cappella adaptations of Venetian-styled pieces, such as the treatise, Grammatika musikiyskaya, by Nikolai Diletsky. Divine Liturgies and Western Rite masses composed by famous composers such as Peter Tchaikovsky, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Alexander Arkhangelsky, Mykola Leontovych are fine examples of this. Present-day Christian religious bodies known for conducting their worship services without musical accompaniment include some Presbyterian churches devoted to the regulative principle of worship, Old Regular Baptists, Primitive Baptists, Plymouth Brethren, Churches of Christ, Church of God, the Old German Baptist Brethren, Doukhobors the Byzantine Rite and the Amish, Old Order Mennonites and Conservative Mennonites.
Certain high church services and other musical events in liturgical churches may be a cappella, a practice remaining from apostolic times. Many Mennonites conduct some or all of their services without instruments. Sacred Harp, a type of folk music, is an a cappella style of religious singing with shape notes sung at singing conventions. Opponents of musical instruments in the Christian worship believe that such opposition is supported by the Christian scriptures and Church history; the scriptures referenced are Matthew 26:30. There is no reference to instrumental music in early church worship in the New Testament, or in the worship of churches for the first six centuries. Several reasons have been posited throughout church history for the absence of instrumental music in church worship. Christians who believe in a cappella music today believe that in the Israelite worship assembly during Temple worship only the Priests of Levi sang and offered animal sacrifices, whereas in the church era, all Christians are commanded to sing praises to God.
They believe that if God
The Idea of North
The Idea of North are an Australian a cappella vocal ensemble founded in Canberra in 1993, by Nick Begbie, Meg Corson, Trish Delaney-Brown and Andrew Piper. In March 2002 Corson was replaced as alto by Naomi Crellin. Delaney-Brown was replaced on soprano in February 2007 by Sally Cameron, they won the Best Jazz Album category at the ARIA Music Awards of 2010 for Feels Like Spring and again in 2013 for Smile. The Idea of North were formed as a jazz-based, a capella quartet, in Canberra in 1993, by Nick Begbie, Meg Corson, Trish Delaney-Brown and Andrew Piper. All four members were students at the Canberra School of Music of Australian National University; the group's name is from The Idea of North, a radio documentary by Canadian classical pianist, Glenn Gould. The group are described as a jazz quartet, but they sing pop, R&B, folk and gospel, they cover material by Peter Allen, the Muppets, Aretha Franklin and Bee Gees. In 1997 they issued their debut album, The Idea of North, with Ra Khan producing at the Canberra School of Music's recording studios.
The group members arranged cover versions of both more recent material. Instrumentation was provided by Greg Stott on congas and percussion on three tracks and Piper on flugelhorn on "My Funny Valentine". In 1999 they collaborated with jazz musician, James Morrison, country singer, Gina Jeffreys, to record a cover version of "Blue Christmas" which appears on Jeffreys' album, Christmas Wish. Morrison felt the ensemble were "the best contemporary a cappella group in the country."The Idea of North's second album, The Sum of Us, appeared in October 2001, its track, "Mas Que Nada", features Morrison on trombone and another track, "Fragile", showcases Don Burrows on flute. Delaney-Brown wrote two tracks, "Neat Surprise" and "Gotta Move On", while "Singin a Capella" was co-written by Begbie and Piper and "Two Sides to the Story" was written by Piper, it was co-produced by the group's members and recorded at Tiger Studios, Sydney for Magnetic Records. It reached No. 15 on the ARIA Blues Albums chart.
In March 2002 Corson was replaced as alto in the group by Naomi Crellin, a graduate from University of Adelaide's Elder Conservatorium. Corson started her solo career. Crellin's previous group, Pure Harmony, are an a capella quartet formed in 1992 at Marryatville High School, Adelaide with fellow students Sally Cameron and Joy Hague; the Idea of North's third album, Here & Now, was released in October 2003 via ABC Jazz, which has re-recordings of their previous material plus two new tracks. The line-up of Begbie, Delaney-Brown and Piper recorded it at Australian Broadcasting Corporation's studio 227, Sydney, it reached No. 13 on the ARIA Hitseekers Albums Chart and No. 8 on the ARIA Jazz & Blues Albums chart. San Francisco-based, Contemporary A Cappella Society, present the Contemporary A Cappella Recording Awards. In 2004 the Idea of North were runners up for Artist of the Year. At the 2005 ceremony they won best jazz album for Evidence and best jazz song for "Rachel". Evidence peaked at No. 12 on the ARIA Blues Albums chart.
Their next album, The Gospel Project, featured prayers and three tracks, "Let It Ring", "Help Us" and "The Truth" co-written by Begbie and Michael Leunig. Aside from vocals by Begbie, Delaney-Brown and Piper four of the recordings included instrumentals: Duncan Brown on bass guitar, Bill Risby on keyboards and Gordon Rytmeister on drums. During that year they had appeared at festivals in Germany, Japan and South Korea. In October they toured Australia to promote the album with the Gospel Project Band. On 2 July 2007 they issued their first live album, Live at the Powerhouse, both on CD and as a DVD. Barry O'Sullivan of All About Jazz described how the "a capella vocal ensemble just swings and swings with impeccable harmonies and an understanding of each others' vocal parts; the breadth of the group's performance is its most remarkable characteristic, never stopping in offering something new with tracks." It was recorded at the Brisbane Powerhouse on 4 June 2006 with the DVD directed and edited by Adam Sébire, while the audio was recorded by David Hemming and produced by the group.
Sally Cameron joined as soprano in February 2007 to replace Delaney-Brown, who left to start her family. The group farewelled Delaney-Brown, formally, in a one-off concert at The Basement, Sydney in June 2008, she became a member of Sonic Mayhem Orchestra and James Valentine Quartet before establishing the Trish Delaney-Brown Quintet. The group's sixth studio album, Feels Like Spring, another collaboration with Morrison, peaked at No. 3 on the ARIA Jazz & Blues Albums chart and spent 33 weeks in the top 20 until February 2011. In the studio, instrumentation was supplied by Begbie on tenor trombone, it was co-produced by Morrison. At the ARIA Music Awards of 2010 Idea of North and James Morrison won the trophy for Best Jazz Album for Feels Like Spring. At the ARIA Music Awards of 2011 the ensemble were nominated for Best Jazz Album
Azadoota is an Assyrian Australian worldbeat band formed in 1996 in Sydney, Australia that fuses traditional Assyrian pop and folk with Latin music. Its founder, Robin Zirwanda, the band's percussionist and lead singer and sings the songs in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic; the name of the band Azadoota means'freedom' in the Assyrian language. Represented by traditional costumes worn in the ancient Assyrian royal court, Azadoota is one of the few professional bands in the world that performs in the Assyrian language, is the only Assyrian act to target their presentations to mainstream audiences; the band performs original Assyrian music which the members describe as "contemporary Assyrian dance-rock worldbeat". The employment of styles derived from popular music in combination with the Assyrian lore provides the band's music a quality where listeners can relate to. Azadoota's lead singer and founder, Robin Haider Zirwanda, was born in Dora, Baghdad in 1954. In his childhood, Zirwanda stated “I used to find the key to the music room and play all the instruments.
But the drums were for me”. He migrated to Australia unaccompanied in 1971 when he was 17 years old with a guitar and a suitcase, not knowing a word in English. After his family arrived, they settled in Arnhem Land in the town of Nhulunbuy. Zirwanda joined a band and formed a close bond with the indigenous community there. After relocating to Sydney in the 1980s, he worked as a percussionist in the cabaret scene and with original bands on the pub circuit. In 1986, Zirwanda played with American folk singer Don McLean as his percussionist in McLean's 3-month Australian tour. In the early 1990s, the rising prominent of world music inspired Robin to create his own music in his native Aramaic language. Though Zirwanda wrote lyrics in Assyrian, his music was influenced by the styles he’d been performing as a percussionist earlier in his career, this became the foundation for Azadoota. In 1996, the band was formed, containing members from the Netherlands to Argentina, combining Latin American music and harmony spanning across musical genres and global cultures, to project and preserve the Assyrian identity in the modern-day world, with its first gig being held in Byron Bay.
Regarding the name of the band, Zirwanda states, “Azadoota is Assyrian for'freedom', our music celebrates of the freedom we have in this country to express ourselves through music.” They released the album “Planetarian” in 2008 and “Beyond Bridges” in 2011. Their recent songs “Lishana ”, “Mazreta” and “Unity” are a plea for Assyrians in the western world to protect their heritage in order to secure their future. “Lishana”, which came out in 2015, became a moderate success among the Assyrians in the diaspora. The band has performed at a diverse range of venues, from the smallest bush halls and pubs to the most well-known festivals. Azadoota has most notably performed at WOMADelaide in 2014 and Woodford Folk Festival in 2016, which drew in unsuspecting listeners due to the band's ethnic rhythms, theatrical musicality, the sounds of the ancient language; the band performs at the Assyrian new year festival in Fairfield Showground in Sydney each April, which draws 10,000 revellers. In August 2018, the band toured North America for the first time.
Regarding foreigners listening to Azadoota's music, Zirwanda states “It’s unbelievable. On performing at concerts and festivals, Zirwanda states:Performing at festivals is a big deal for us, because we represent such a little known-nation. We are the only band in the world performing Assyrian music on the mainstream stage, so we carry a great responsibility to spread awareness of culture and the issues facing our people in the global community. Festivals offer us a valuable opportunity to do this. Compared to 20 years ago, I think; the band makes use of a horn section, rhythm guitar, brass instruments and tambourine. The band may use rhythms of Assyrian folk music, whilst presenting them in contemporary arrangements. A merengue groove may be used. Robin Zirwanda fronts the band with timbales and doumbek switching casually from Cuban rhythms to those of his ethnicity. Azadoota’s music spans genres and generations, with diverse music styles – from percussive-heavy dance tunes inspired by Caribbean music genres, folk rock, jazz fusion and reggae, to sentimental ballads.
According to the band's lead singer, the horn section indicates a revival of Assyrian culture and a resistance of the destruction occurring in their ancestral lands. Azadoota performs in attire inspired by their ancient royal ancestors, such as Ashurbanipal, Ashurnasirpal I and Nebuchadnezzar – which would showcase a flamboyant sight and inspires discussion on themes of Assyrian heritage, musical history and cultural continuity. About the band's style, Zirwanda states: We use contemporary instrumentation with traditional Assyrian rhythms and song-forms, but because I'm a percussionist by trade I find there's a fair bit of Latin and Afro-Cuban influence in my songwriting... I sing about my homeland Iraq, about belonging to a nation without a land, about family and of course about love. Most songs are danceable, with a positive message. Regarding his skills, Zirwanda states, “When you’re in percussion, you learn all the rhythms: congo, rumba. I’d be tapping on the kitchen table I’d start singing a song, I’d write it that way.”
The band's front man Zirwanda cites Youssou N'Dour, Salif Keita and Santana as his influence, as well