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A trisomy is a type of polysomy in which there are three instances of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two. A trisomy is a type of aneuploidy. Most organisms that reproduce sexually have pairs of chromosomes in each cell, with one chromosome inherited from each parent. In such organisms, a process called meiosis creates cells called gametes that have only one set of chromosomes; the number of chromosomes is different for different species. Humans have 46 chromosomes. Human gametes have only 23 chromosomes. If the chromosome pairs fail to separate properly during cell division, the egg or sperm may end up with a second copy of one of the chromosomes. If such a gamete results in fertilization and an embryo, the resulting embryo may have an entire copy of the extra chromosome; the number of chromosomes in the cell where trisomy occurs is represented as, for example, 2n+1 if one chromosome shows trisomy, 2n+1+1 if two show trisomy, etc. "Full trisomy" called "primary trisomy", means that an entire extra chromosome has been copied.

"Partial trisomy" means. "Secondary trisomy" - the extra chromosome has quadruplicated arms. "Tertiary trisomy" - the extra chromosome is made up of copies of arms from two other chromosomes. Trisomies are sometimes characterised as "autosomal trisomies" and "sex-chromosome trisomies." Autosomal trisomies are described by referencing the specific chromosome. Thus, for example, the presence of an extra chromosome 21, found in Down syndrome, is called trisomy 21. Trisomies can occur with any chromosome, but result in miscarriage, rather than live birth. For example, Trisomy 16 is the most common trisomy in human pregnancies, occurring in more than 1% of pregnancies; this condition, however results in spontaneous miscarriage in the first trimester. The most common types of autosomal trisomy that survive to birth in humans are: Trisomy 21 Trisomy 18 Trisomy 13 Trisomy 9 Trisomy 8 Of these, Trisomy 21 and Trisomy 18 are the most common. In rare cases, a fetus with Trisomy 13 can survive. Autosomal trisomy can be associated with birth defects, intellectual disability and shortened life expectancy.

Trisomy of sex chromosomes can occur and include: XXX XXY XYYCompared to trisomy of the autosomal chromosomes, trisomy of the sex chromosomes has less severe consequences. Individuals may have a normal life expectancy. Chromosome abnormalities Aneuploidy Karyotype Sexual reproduction Monosomy

Scottie Beam

Deanii Scott, known professionally as Scottie Beam, is an American media personality and model. She is best known as a former producer at Hot 97, where she worked for ten years, as a former co-host on State of the Culture, she co-hosts Black Girl Podcast. Scottie Beam was raised in the Bronx, New York, her mother, Shaila Scott, has been a DJ for 107.5 WBLS for decades. Scottie Beam began her radio career first working for KISS FM's street team, at Hot 97, she soon returned to New York to pursue a career in music. Scottie Beam worked as digital producer for Columbia Records and returned to Hot 97 to produce first for Angie Martinez and for Ebro in the Morning. After ten years at Hot 97, she took a role as co-host for Revolt TV's State of the Culture and left in 2019. Scottie Beam has worked as a model for brands such as The North Face, she has spoken on issues related to black women, such as colorism. In 2017, she began co-hosting a podcast with four other women, all of whom used to work for Hot 97.

Black Girl Podcast focuses on pop culture and issues relevant to young women in the professional world. In July 2017, she Tweeted about being physically attacked by a security guard at Queen's Knockdown Center. Scottie Beam on Instagram Scottie Beam on IMDB

Wilson, Pennsylvania

Wilson is a borough in Northampton County, United States. It is part of Pennsylvania's Lehigh Valley region, is adjacent to the city of Easton; the population was 7,896 at the 2010 census. There is more than one Wilson in Pennsylvania; this one is in Northampton County. Wilson is located at 40°41′5″N 75°14′23″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.2 square miles, of which 1.2 square miles is land and 0.80% is water. Wilson Borough is named after the U. S. President Woodrow Wilson. First formed as a township on February 10, 1913, during the first half of 1920 a number of property owners solicited the courts to change the form of government from a township to that of a borough. Wilson was founded by white supremacists who were opposed to racial integration occurring in the area. According to the 1920 book, History of the Northampton County and the Grand Valley of Lehigh, by the American Historical Society and Revised by William J. Heller the township was consummated by the courts in 1914, but the court case of Palmer School District v. Wilson School District indicates the township formation occurred on Feb. 10, 1913.

The first township supervisors were reported by Mr. Heller as being, William H. Hookway, William A. Moser, James Martin; the present board at the time of his book was published reports as being David Stout, Harry Transue, John A. Yohe, E. O. Correll, Floyd Young; this information was used in the publishing of the Golden Jubilee Souvenir Book published in 1970 compiled and edited by Walt Boran. Walt was the Borough Manager until he died in 2004, but based on page 99 of the Organizational Meeting of the Commissioners dated Monday, January 5, 1914 at 8:15pm of the township records, Jacob S. Stout and Ambrose Jacoby were sworn by Justice of the Peace Samuel W. Ricker as additional commissioners. Present at the meeting were William A. Moser and James Martin. Jacob S. Stout was elected as President of the Commissioners. William H. Hookway was elected vice president, that the salary of the Secretary to be established at $150.00. According to West's Directories for City of Easton and Phillipsburg, N. J. between the years of 1914 through 1920, there is no listing of a David Stout in City of Easton or adjacent townships/boroughs.

There is however a David Stout listed in Phillipsburg with his wife Amanda at 159 N. Main in the 1920 directory. All other peoples listed by both the 1920 book and meeting minutes can be found in the West's Directories for the City of Easton and vicinity. There are two early court cases soon after the creation of the new township in 1913; the first was Palmer School District v. Wilson School District where Wilson owed Palmer for a certain amount of indebtedness caused by the creation of the new township; the other was Township of Wilson v. Easton Transit Co. in 1916 where Wilson leadership sued the transit company for doing work without due consideration to the newly formed township's rights to give permission to do the work. The newly found township lost this case but on appeal to the Supreme Court of PA on May 22, 1917 and Justice Walling ruled "The assignments of error are overruled and the decree is affirmed at the cost of the appellant.". 1st Court Appointed Township Supervisors William Hookway James Martin William Moser2nd Board of Township Supervisors Jacob S. Stout, President William Hookway, Vice President James Martin Ambrose Jacoby William Moser1st Borough Burgess & Council John Neumeier, Burgess George A. Rader, President of Council E.

O. Correll William Meuser D. Miller Early Lloyd Transue Thomas J. Koch Floyd Klotz 2010 Census At the 2010 census, there were 7,896 people living in the borough; the racial makeup of the borough was 84.1% White, 6.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 3.0% from other races, 4.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.6% of the population. 2000 Census At the 2000 census, there were 7,682 people, 3,164 households and 1,949 families living in the borough. The population density was 6,185.9 per square mile. There were 3,345 housing units at an average density of 2,693.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 93.87% White, 1.84% African American, 0.07% Native American, 1.56% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.11% from other races, 1.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.05% of the population. There were 3,164 households, of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.4% were non-families.

31.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.05. 24.9% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For ever


Hydroline designs and manufactures durable, heavy-duty hydraulic cylinders. The Finnish company was founded in the early 1960s as a metal lathing shop; the family-owned company employs two hundred people. Its main production facility is located near to Finland. Cylinders operate as a part of complex applications. Hydroline produces and designs over 1500 different cylinder models for automotive manufacturing, forest machinery and tractor and transfer, earthworks industries; each cylinder model is custom-tailored to meet each customer's specifications. Hydroline is specialized in design and manufacturing of hydraulic cylinders, R&D services and testing; the company was founded in 1962 in a basement in Finland. First cylinders were manufactured in 1960s. After several years of steady expansion, the company headquarters moved to its current site in the Vuorela Industrial Zone, situated in Eastern Finland. Hydroline has expanded from a one-man turning shop to an international company. Nine out of Hydroline cylinders are delivered to applications destined for the export market.

Besides, the company has its own sales office in China. Hydroline Poland sp. Z o.o. was established in July 2012. Official Hydroline Website

Glutamate (neurotransmitter)

In neuroscience, glutamate refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells use to send signals to other cells. It is by a wide margin the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system, it is used by every major excitatory function in the vertebrate brain, accounting in total for well over 90% of the synaptic connections in the human brain. It serves as the primary neurotransmitter for some localized brain regions, such as cerebellum granule cells. Biochemical receptors for glutamate fall into three major classes, known as AMPA receptors, NMDA receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors. A fourth class, known as kainate receptors, are similar in many respects to AMPA receptors, but much less abundant. Many synapses use multiple types of glutamate receptors. AMPA receptors are ionotropic receptors specialized for fast excitation: in many synapses they produce excitatory electrical responses in their targets a fraction of a millisecond after being stimulated.

NMDA receptors are ionotropic, but they differ from AMPA receptors in being permeable, when activated, to calcium. Their properties make them important for learning and memory. Metabotropic receptors act through second messenger systems to create slow, sustained effects on their targets; because of its role in synaptic plasticity, glutamate is involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory in the brain. The form of plasticity known as long-term potentiation takes place at glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus and other parts of the brain. Glutamate works not only as a point-to-point transmitter, but through spill-over synaptic crosstalk between synapses in which summation of glutamate released from a neighboring synapse creates extrasynaptic signaling/volume transmission. In addition, glutamate plays important roles in the regulation of growth cones and synaptogenesis during brain development. Glutamate is a major constituent of a wide variety of proteins. Under ordinary conditions enough is obtained from the diet that there is no need for any to be synthesized.

Glutamate is formally classified as a non-essential amino acid, because it can be synthesized from alpha-Ketoglutaric acid, produced as part of the citric acid cycle by a series of reactions whose starting point is citrate. Glutamate cannot cross the blood-brain barrier unassisted, but it is transported out of the nervous system by a high affinity transport system, which maintains its concentration in brain fluids at a constant level. Glutamate is synthesized in the central nervous system from glutamine as part of the glutamate–glutamine cycle by the enzyme glutaminase; this can occur in neighboring glial cells. Glutamate itself serves as metabolic precursor for the neurotransmitter GABA, via the action of the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase. Glutamate exerts its effects by binding to and activating cell surface receptors. In mammals, four families of glutamate receptors have been identified, known as AMPA receptors, kainate receptors, NMDA receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors; the first three families are ionotropic, meaning that when activated they open membrane channels that allow ions to pass through.

The metabotropic family are G protein-coupled receptors, meaning that they exert their effects via a complex second messenger system. Glutamate transporters, EAAT and VGLUT, are found in glial membranes, they remove glutamate from the extracellular space. In brain injury or disease, they work in reverse, excess glutamate can accumulate outside cells; this process causes calcium ions to enter cells via NMDA receptor channels, leading to neuronal damage and eventual cell death, is called excitotoxicity. The mechanisms of cell death include Ca2+-concentration regulates different mitochondrial functions and upon increasing uncontrollably, the excessively high intracellular Ca2+-concentration can damage mitochondria. Ca2+-concentration increases intracellular nitric oxide concentration. Excessive NO-molecules thus increase cell's oxidative stress. Glutamate or Ca2+ mediate promotion of transcription factors for pro-apoptotic genes, or downregulation of transcription factors for anti-apoptotic genes.

Thus the net effect of increased Glu/Ca2+-concentration is cell apoptosis. Excitotoxicity due to excessive glutamate release and impaired uptake occurs as part of the ischemic cascade and is associated with stroke, some forms of intellectual disability, diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. In contrast, decreased glutamate release is observed under conditions of classical phenylketonuria leading to developmental disruption of glutamate receptor expression. Glutamic acid has been implicated in epileptic seizures. Microinjection of glutamic acid into neurons produces spontaneous depolarisations around one second apart, this firing pattern is similar to what is known as paroxysmal depolarizing shift in epileptic attacks; this change in the resting membrane potential at seizure foci could cause spontaneous opening of voltage-activated calcium channels, leading to glutamic acid release and further depolarization. Glutamate functions as a neurotransmitter in every type of animal that has a nervous system, including ctenophores, which branched off from other phyla at an early stage in evolution and lack the other neurotransmitters found ubiquitously among animals, including serotonin and acetylcholine.

Rather, ctenophores have functionally distinct types of ionotropic glutamate receptors, such that activation of these receptors may trigger muscle contract

List of Upper Canada College alumni

The following is a list of prominent Upper Canada College alumni. UCC's alumni are known as Old Boys, they include: Arthur, James Greig – world's leading mathematician in representation theory and creator of the General Trace Formula Assikinack, Francis – Ojibwe historian and treaty negotiator Bethune, Charles James Stewart – Headmaster of Trinity College School. Cooper, John Julius, 2nd Viscount Norwich – British historian, travel writer, television personality Crean, John Gale – founding President of the Ontario Science Centre and the first Canadian director of International Chamber of Commerce Crooks, Adam – first Chancellor of the University of Toronto and Attorney General of Canada Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander – Canadian historian and founder of the Ontario Historical Society Denison, George Taylor III – founder of Canada First and the Canadian National Association Eayrs, James – political scientist. P. de T. – University of Oxford graduate and Canadian historian Heintzman, Andrew – founder and editor of Shift magazine Leacock, Stephen – writer and economist Macklem, Michael – founder and owner of Oberon Press MacLean, Rory – writer and broadcaster Newman, Peter C.

– Peabody Award-winning journalist.