The Mémoires de Hector Berlioz are an autobiography by French composer Hector Berlioz. First serialised in several contemporary journals including Journal des Débats and Le Monde Illustré, their compilation into one book was completed on New Year's Day, 1865 and after much proof-reading, an initial printing of 1200 was carried out in July. After distributing some copies to certain friends, they were put aside. After Berlioz's death in 1869, they were published in 1870, they provide an colourful, if biased, account of Berlioz's life, are invaluable to anyone with an interest in the artistic life of the time. Berlioz, translated by Cairns, David; the Memoirs of Hector Berlioz. Hardback. Everyman's Library/Random House. ISBN 0-375-41391-X Full Mémoires on gutenberg.org HBerlioz.com | Full Mémoires HBerlioz.com | Mémoires extracts UCDavis.edu - Berlioz 2003 anniversary | Full Mémoires
Laertes is a character in William Shakespeare's play Hamlet. Laertes is the brother of Ophelia. In the final scene, he kills Hamlet with a poisoned sword to avenge the deaths of his father and sister, for which he blamed Hamlet. While dying of the same poison, he implicates King Claudius; the Laertes character is thought to be originated by Shakespeare, as there is no equivalent character in any of the known sources for the play. His name is taken from father of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey. In the first act, Laertes is seen warning Ophelia against Hamlet's romantic pursuit of her, saying Hamlet will soon lose his desire for her, that it is not Hamlet's own choice but the king's as to whom he will marry. Before Laertes returns to France from Denmark, returning to Denmark only to attend the coronation of King Claudius, his father, gives him advice to behave himself in France. During Laertes's absence, Hamlet kills Polonius in Gertrude's parlour. Laertes, informed of his father's death, returns to Denmark, leads a mob to storm and take the castle.
Laertes confronts the King. The King explains to him who the real killer was, incites Laertes to kill Hamlet and avenge Polonius' death; when Ophelia appears in her mad condition, Laertes laments, saying that if she had her wits she could not persuade him more to revenge. Laertes is informed of her death, she had climbed into a willow tree that hung over a brook, fell into the water when a branch broke. Too insane to save herself, she drowned, his sister's death strengthens Laertes's resolve to kill Hamlet. At her funeral, Laertes asks why the normal Christian burial ceremony is not being carried out for his sister, rebukes the priest for questioning her innocence, he begs the attendants to bury him with her. Hamlet, watching from afar and himself leaps into Ophelia's grave; when Laertes attacks Hamlet, the two have to be held back to avoid a fight. In the next scene, King Claudius arranges a fencing match between Laertes. Laertes uses his poisoned sword instead of a bated sword; the King provides a poisoned drink as a backup measure.
Before the match begins, Hamlet apologises publicly to Laertes for the wrongs. Laertes accepts the apology, so he says. Hamlet is wounded with the poisoned sword. In a scuffle, the swords are switched. Hamlet wounds Laertes with his own poisoned blade, Laertes falls as well. Only does he seem to feel guilty, for he tells Osric he has been "justly killed" with his own treachery; as he lies dying, Laertes confesses the truth and reveals that it was Claudius's plot, resulting in the death of Claudius by Hamlet's hands. Laertes asks Hamlet for forgiveness, absolving him of his and his father's deaths if Hamlet absolves him of his own. Hamlet does. Other characters' views of Laertes vary widely. Polonius feels a need to send a servant to France to spy on his son's behaviour. Ophelia tells him not to be a hypocrite. Hamlet is at first puzzled by Laertes's hatred for him, but admits that he sees his own cause displayed in Laertes's actions. Laertes is portrayed by humble actors of the screen, to give a loyal, wholesome appeal to the character.
He has been played by Terence Morgan, Nicholas Jones, Nathaniel Parker, Hugh Bonneville, Michael Maloney, Liev Schreiber, Edward Bennett and Tom Felton
Béatrice et Bénédict
Béatrice et Bénédict is an opéra comique in two acts by Hector Berlioz. Berlioz wrote the French libretto himself, based on Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. Berlioz had been interested in setting Shakespeare's comedy since his return from Italy in 1833, but only composed the score of Béatrice et Bénédict following the completion of Les Troyens in 1858, it was first performed at the opening of the Theater Baden-Baden on 9 August 1862. Berlioz conducted the first two performances of a German version in Weimar in 1863, where, as he wrote in his memoirs, he was "overwhelmed by all sorts of kind attention." It is the first notable version of Shakespeare's play in operatic form, was followed by works by among others Árpád Doppler, Paul Puget and Reynaldo Hahn. Berlioz biographer David Cairns has written: "Listening to the score's exuberant gaiety, only momentarily touched by sadness, one would never guess that its composer was in pain when he wrote it and impatient for death". Berlioz described the premiere of Béatrice et Bénédict as a "great success" in a letter to his son Louis.
Although it continued to be staged in German cities in the years after the premiere, the first performance in France only took place on 5 June 1890 at the Théâtre de l'Odéon, promoted by the Société des Grandes auditions musicales de France, conducted by Charles Lamoureux, with Juliette Bilbaut-Vauchelet and Émile Engel in the lead roles. Paul Bastide conducted a notable production of Bénédict in Strasbourg in the late 1940s, it was produced at the Paris Opéra-Comique in 1966 conducted by Pierre Dervaux but with recitatives by Tony Aubin, in February 2010 under Emmanuel Krivine. The UK premiere was on 24 March 1936 in Glasgow under Erik Chisholm; the English National Opera opened a production on 25 January 1990, with wife and husband Ann Murray and Philip Langridge in the title roles. The work was first performed in New York in 1977 as a concert performance at Carnegie Hall, Seiji Ozawa conducting the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Although rather infrequently performed and not part of the standard operatic repertoire, recent productions have included Amsterdam and Welsh National Opera tour in 2001, Prague State Opera in 2003, Santa Fe Opera in 2004, Opéra du Rhin in Strasbourg in 2005, Lyric Opera of Chicago in 2007, Houston Grand Opera in 2008, Opera Boston in 2011, Theater an der Wien in 2013, Glyndebourne in 2016.
The first Swedish production of the opera was at Läckö Castle in 2015. The overture alludes to several parts of the score without becoming a pot-pourri; the opera opens with Sicilienne. Héro has a two-part air where she looks expectantly to the return of Claudio; the sparring between Béatrice and Bénédict begins in a duo. An allegretto trio of "conspiratorial humour" for Don Pedro, Claudio and Bénédict, consists of the latter expounding his views on marriage to which the others pass comment. After Somarone has rehearsed his Epithalame grotesque, Bénédict's fast rondo reveals that he has fallen for the plot and will try to be in love; the act ends with a nocturne for Héro and Ursule – a slow duo in 6/8 which W. J. Turner described as "a marvel of indescribable lyrical beauty" and which Grove compares to "Nuit d'ivresse" in Les Troyens; the second act opens with a drinking song for Somarone and chorus with guitar and tambourine prominent. Next, in an extended air across a wide melodic span, Béatrice acknowledges that she too is powerless against love and in the following trio Héro and Ursule join her to extol the joys of marriage.
There is a marche nuptiale and the work ends with a brilliant duet marked scherzo-duettino for the title characters whose "sparkle and gaiety" end the comedy perfectly. Woodwind: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in A, 2 bassoons Brass: 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 1 cornet à piston, 3 trombones Percussion: timpani, glasses Strings: strings, guitar Harp: 2hp Time: The 16th century. Place: Messina, Sicily. Don Pedro, prince of Aragon, is visiting Messina after a successful military victory over the Moors, celebrated by all of Sicily, he is joined by Claudio and Bénédict. They are greeted by Léonato, governor of Messina, together with his daughter, Héro, niece, Béatrice. Héro awaits the return of her fiancé, Claudio and rewarded for his valour. Béatrice scorns Bénédict, they trade insults, as they have in previous meetings, tease each other. Bénédict swears to his friends. Claudio and Pedro scheme to trick Bénédict into marrying Béatrice. Knowing that he is listening, Léonato assures Pedro. Upon hearing this, Bénédict resolves that Béatrice's love must not go unrequited, so he decides to pursue her.
Meanwhile, elsewhere, Héro and her attendant, manage to play a similar trick on Béatrice who now believes that Bénédict is secretly in love with her. To celebrate the pending wedding of Claudio and Héro, Léonato hosts a masquerade party. A local music teacher, leads the group in song and everybody enjoys themselves except Béatrice who realizes that she has fallen in love with Bénédict. With Héro and Ursule she sings of the happiness of a bride about to be wed; as she turns to leave she is met by Bénédict, prompting an exchange in which they both attempt to conceal their love for each other. A notary solemnizes the marriage of Claudi
Prince Hamlet is the title role and protagonist of William Shakespeare's c. 1600 tragedy Hamlet. He is the Prince of Denmark, nephew to the usurping Claudius, son of King Hamlet, the previous King of Denmark. At the beginning of the play, he struggles with whether, how, to avenge the murder of his father, struggles with his own sanity along the way. By the end of the tragedy, Hamlet has caused the deaths of Polonius, Laertes and two acquaintances of his from the University of Wittenberg Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, he is indirectly involved in the deaths of his love Ophelia and of his mother Gertrude. The play opens with Hamlet depressed over the recent death of his father, King Hamlet, his uncle Claudius' ascension to the throne and hasty marriage to Hamlet's mother Gertrude. One night, his father's ghost appears to him and tells him that Claudius murdered him in order to usurp the throne, commands his son to avenge his death. Claudius sends for two of Hamlet's friends from Wittenberg, to find out what is causing Hamlet so much pain.
Claudius and his advisor Polonius persuade Ophelia—Polonius' daughter and Hamlet's love interest—to speak with Hamlet while they secretly listen. Hamlet enters. Ophelia greets him, offers to return his remembrances, upon which Hamlet questions her honesty and tells her to "get thee to a nunnery." Hamlet devises a test to see whether Claudius is guilty: he hires a group of actors to perform a play about the murder of a king in front of the royal court, has Horatio gauge Claudius' reaction. Claudius demands the play be stopped half through; when Claudius leaves the audience upset, Hamlet knows that the ghost was telling the truth. He follows Claudius into his chambers in order to kill him, but stops when he sees his uncle praying. A second attempt on Claudius' life ends in Polonius' accidental death. Claudius, now fearing for his life, sends Hamlet to England, accompanied by Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Alone, Claudius discloses that he is sending Hamlet to his death. Prior to embarking for England, Hamlet hides Polonius' body revealing its location to the King.
Meanwhile, her father's death has driven Ophelia insane with grief, Claudius convinces her brother Laertes that Hamlet is to blame. He proposes a fencing match between the two. Laertes informs the king that he will further poison the tip of his sword so that a mere scratch would mean certain death. Claudius plans to offer Hamlet poisoned wine. Gertrude enters to report. In the Elsinore churchyard, two "clowns" represented as "gravediggers", enter to prepare Ophelia's grave. Hamlet arrives with Horatio and banters with one of them, who unearths the skull of a jester whom Hamlet once knew, Yorick. Ophelia's funeral procession approaches. Hamlet interrupts, grief for Ophelia, he and Laertes grapple. That day, Hamlet tells Horatio how he escaped death on his journey, disclosing that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have been sent to their deaths instead. A courtier, interrupts to invite Hamlet to fence with Laertes. Despite Horatio's warnings, Hamlet accepts and the match begins. After several rounds, Gertrude toasts Hamlet, accidentally drinking the wine Claudius poisoned.
Between bouts, Laertes pierces Hamlet with his poisoned blade. Gertrude, in her dying breath, announces that she has been poisoned. In his dying moments, Laertes reveals Claudius' plot. Hamlet stabs Claudius with the poisoned sword, forces him to drink from his own poisoned cup to make sure he dies. In his final moments, Hamlet names Prince Fortinbras of Norway as the probable heir to the throne. Horatio attempts to kill himself with the same poisoned wine, but it was stopped by Hamlet, so he will be the only one left alive to give a full account of the story, he wills the throne of Denmark to Fortinbras before dying. The most straightforward view sees Hamlet as seeking truth in order to be certain that he is justified in carrying out the revenge called for by a ghost that claims to be the spirit of his father; the 1948 movie with Laurence Olivier in the title role is introduced by a voiceover: "This is the tragedy of a man who could not make up his mind." T. S. Eliot offers a similar view of Hamlet's character in his critical essay, "Hamlet and His Problems".
He states, "We find Shakespeare's'Hamlet' not in the action, not in any quotations that we might select, so much as in an unmistakable tone...". Others see Hamlet as a person charged with a duty that he both knows and feels is right, yet is unwilling to carry out. In this view, his efforts to satisfy himself on Claudius' guilt and his failure to act when he can are evidence of this unwillingness, Hamlet berates himself for his inability to carry out his task. After observing a play-actor performing a scene, he notes that the actor was moved to tears in the passion of the story and compares this passion for an ancient Greek character, Hecuba, in light of his own situation: O, what a rogue and peasant slave am I! Is it not monstrous that this player here, But in a fiction, in a dream of passion, Could force his soul so to his own conceit That from her working all his visage wan'd.
Yorick is a character in William Shakespeare's play Hamlet. He is the dead court jester whose skull is exhumed by the First Gravedigger in Act 5, Scene 1, of the play; the sight of Yorick's skull evokes a reminiscence by Prince Hamlet of the man, who played a role during Hamlet’s upbringing: Alas, poor Yorick! I knew Horatio. My gorge rises at it. Here hung those lips. Where be your gibes now? Your gambols? Your songs? Your flashes of merriment, that were wont to set the table on a roar? It is suggested that Shakespeare may have intended his audience to connect Yorick with the Elizabethan comedian Richard Tarlton, a celebrated performer of the pre-Shakespearian stage, who had died a decade or so before Hamlet was first performed; the contrast between Yorick as "a fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy" and his grim remains reflects on the theme of earthly vanity: death being unavoidable, the things of this life are inconsequential. This theme of Memento mori is common in 16th- and 17th-century painting, appearing in art throughout Europe.
Images of Mary Magdalene showed her contemplating a skull. It is a common motif in 15th- and 16th-century British portraiture. Memento mori are expressed in images of playful children or young men, depicted looking at a skull as a sign of the transience of life, it was a familiar motif in emblem books and tombs. Hamlet meditating upon the skull of Yorick has become a lasting embodiment of this idea, has been depicted by artists as part of the vanitas tradition; the name Yorick has been interpreted as an attempt to render a Scandinavian forename: either "Erick" or "Jørg", a form of the name George. The name "Rorik" has been suggested, since it appears in Saxo Grammaticus, one of Shakespeare's source texts, as the name of the queen's father. There has been no agreement. Alternative suggestions include the ideas that it may be derived from the Viking name of the city of York, or that it is a near-anagram of the Greek word'Kyrios' and thus a reference to the Catholic martyr Edmund Campion; the name was used by Laurence Sterne in his comic novels Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental Journey as the surname of one of the characters, a parson, a humorous portrait of the author.
Parson Yorick is supposed to be descended from Shakespeare's Yorick. The earliest printed image of Hamlet holding Yorick's skull is a 1773 engraving by John Hall after a design by Edward Edwards in Bell's edition of Shakespeare's plays, it has since become a common subject. While Yorick only appears as the skull, there have been scattered portrayals of him as a living man, such as Philip Hermogenes Calderon's painting The Young Lord Hamlet, which depicts him carrying the child Hamlet on his back, as if being ridden like a horse by the prince, he was portrayed by comedian Ken Dodd in a flashback during the gravedigging scene in Kenneth Branagh's 1996 film Hamlet. Pianist André Tchaikowsky donated his skull to the Royal Shakespeare Company for use in theatrical productions, hoping that it would be used as the skull of Yorick. Tchaikowsky died in 1982, his skull was used during rehearsals for a 1989 RSC production of Hamlet starring Mark Rylance, but the company decided to use a replica skull in the performance.
Musical director Claire van Kampen, who married Rylance, recalled: As a company, we all felt most privileged to be able to work the gravedigger scene with a real skull... However, collectively as a group we agreed that as the real power of theatre lies in the complicity of illusion between actor and audience, it would be inappropriate to use a real skull during the performances, in the same way that we would not be using real blood, etc, it is possible that some of us felt a certain primitive taboo about the skull, although the gravedigger, as I recall, was all for it! Although Tchaikowsky's skull was not used in the performances of this production, its use during rehearsals affected some interpretations and line readings: for example, Rylance delivered the line "That skull had a tongue in it, could sing once" with especial reproach. In this production, Hamlet retained Yorick's skull throughout subsequent scenes, it was placed on a mantelpiece as a "talisman" during his final duel with Laertes.
In 2008, Tchaikowsky's skull was used by David Tennant in an RSC production of Hamlet at the Courtyard Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon. It was announced that the skull had been replaced after it became apparent that news of the skull distracted the audience too much from the play; this was untrue however, the skull was used as a prop throughout the run of the production after its move to London's West End. Yorick appears as a principal character in the novel The Skull of Truth by Bruce Coville
Les nuits d'été
Les nuits d'été, Op. 7, is a song cycle by the French composer Hector Berlioz. It is a setting of six poems by Théophile Gautier; the cycle, completed in 1841, was for soloist and piano accompaniment. Berlioz orchestrated one of the songs in 1843, did the same for the other five in 1856; the cycle was neglected for many years, but during the 20th century it became, has remained, one of the composer's most popular works. The full orchestral version is more performed in concert and on record than the piano original; the theme of the work is the progress of love, from youthful innocence to loss and renewal. Berlioz and the poet Théophile Gautier were friends. Gautier wrote, "Berlioz represents the romantic musical idea... unexpected effects in sound and Shakespearean depth of passion." It is possible that Berlioz read Gautier's collection La comédie de la mort before its publication in 1838. Gautier had no objection to his friend's setting six poems from that volume, Berlioz began in March 1840; the title Nuits d'été was Berlioz's invention, it is not clear why he chose it: the first song is set in spring rather than summer.
The writer Annagret Fauser suggests that Berlioz may have been influenced by the preface to a collection of short stories by his friend Joseph Méry, Les nuits de Londres, in which the author writes of summer nights in which he and his friends sat outside until dawn telling stories. In a 1989 study of Berlioz, D. Kern Holoman suggests that the title is an allusion to Shakespeare, whose works Berlioz loved; the cycle was complete in its original version for voice and piano by 1841. Berlioz made arrangements for baritone, contralto, or soprano, piano; the piano version is not as performed in concert or on record as the orchestrated score, which Berlioz arranged between 1843 and 1856. David Cairns wrote in 1988 that the success of the piano version was impeded by the inferior quality of the piano part in the published score: it is not Berlioz's own, Cairns described it as "a clumsy, inauthentic piece of work". In 1843 Berlioz orchestrated the fourth song, "Absence" for his lover, Marie Recio, who premiered it in Leipzig on 23 February 1843.
The publisher Jakob Rieter-Biedermann was in the audience for the premiere, much impressed, prevailed on Berlioz to orchestrate the rest of the cycle. The orchestration left the existing melodic and harmonic writing unchanged, but for "Le spectre de la rose" the composer added an introduction for muted solo cello and clarinet; the original piano version had a single dedicatee – Louise Bertin, whose father, Louis-François Bertin, was editor of the Journal des débats, for which Berlioz wrote musical criticism and other articles. Each of the six songs of the orchestral cycle was dedicated individually, to singers well known in Germany, some of whom had performed Berlioz's music there: Louise Wolf, Anna Bockholtz-Falconi, Hans von Milde, Madeleine Nottès, Friedrich Caspari and Rosa von Milde. For the orchestral version, Berlioz transposed the third songs to lower keys; when this version was published, Berlioz specified different voices for the various songs: mezzo-soprano or tenor for "Villanelle", contralto for "Le spectre de la rose", baritone for "Sur les lagunes", mezzo or tenor for "Absence", tenor for "Au cimetière", mezzo or tenor for "L'île inconnue".
The cycle is usually sung by a single soloist, most a soprano or mezzo-soprano. When the cycle is sung by sopranos the second and third songs are transposed back to their original pitches. Although Berlioz wrote more than fifty songs, twenty of them with orchestral accompaniment, those in Les nuits d'été are the only ones published as a set, they are not a cycle on the German model of Schubert's Winterreise or Schumann's Dichterliebe, with narrative and thematic continuity, but form a unified whole by virtue of the single authorship of the words and the composer's use throughout of delicate, atmospheric musical shading. The structure of the cycle has four sombre songs framed by exuberant closing ones; the critic A. E. F. Dickinson wrote in a 1969 study, "Their common theme is nominally love unrequited or lost, arguably, an ache for vanished or unattainable beauty, but their musical order is fortuitous, forms an acceptable, rather than a compulsive, association." Berlioz's innovative creation of an orchestral song cycle had few successors until Mahler took the genre up in the late 19th century.
As far as is known, the orchestral cycle was not performed in its entirety during the composer's lifetime. The work was neglected for many years, but during the twentieth century it was rediscovered and has become one of Berlioz's best-loved works. By Berlioz's standards the orchestration is on a modest scale. There is no percussion, the forces stipulated are the normal string section of violins, violas and double-basses. Allegretto Key: A major; the first of the set, "Vi
La damnation de Faust
La damnation de Faust, Op. 24 is a work for four solo voices, full seven-part chorus, large children's chorus and orchestra by the French composer Hector Berlioz. He called it a "légende dramatique", it was first performed at the Opéra-Comique in Paris on 6 December 1846. The French composer was inspired by a translation of Goethe's dramatic poem Faust and produced a musical work that, like the masterpiece on which it is based, defies easy categorisation. Conceived at various times as a free-form oratorio and as an opera its travelogue form and cosmic perspective have made it an extreme challenge to stage as an opera. Berlioz himself was eager to see the work staged, but once he did, he conceded that the production techniques of his time were not up to the task of bringing the work to dramatic life. Most of the work's fame has come through concert performances. Berlioz read Part One in 1828, in Gérard de Nerval's translation. "I could not put it down. I read it incessantly, at meals, in the theatre, in the street."
He was so impressed that a suite entitled Eight Scenes from Faust became his Opus 1, though he recalled all the copies of it he could find. He returned to the material in 1845, to make a larger work, with some additional text by Almire Gandonnière to Berlioz's specifications, that he first called a "concert opera", as it expanded a "dramatic legend", he worked on the score during his concert tour of 1845, adding his own text for "Nature immense, impénétrable et fière"—Faust's climactic invocation of all nature—and incorporating the Rákóczi March, a thunderous success at a concert in Pest, Hungary, 15 February 1846. Its first performance at the Opéra-Comique, Paris, 6 December 1846, did not meet with critical acclaim due to its halfway status between opera and cantata. La damnation de Faust is performed in concert halls, since its first successful complete performance in concert in Paris, in 1877; the Metropolitan Opera premiered it first in concert and on stage and revived it in concert at Carnegie Hall on 10 November 1996.
The company presented a staged production on 7 November 2008, produced and directed by Robert Lepage, with innovative techniques of computer-generated stage imagery that responds to the performers' voices. Filmmaker Terry Gilliam made his opera debut at London's English National Opera in May 2011, directing The Damnation of Faust; the production received positive reviews in the British press In 2015 the Opéra National de Paris reimagined the role of Faust by assuming the persona of English scientist Stephen Hawking for that role. This version of the work reinterpreted the metaphysical journey Faust is sent on by Méphistophélès in relation to the Mars One project. Three instrumental passages, the Marche Hongroise, Ballet des sylphes, Menuet des follets are sometimes extracted and performed as "Three Orchestral Pieces from La damnation de Faust." The orchestral score requires: 3 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, bass clarinet in B♭, 4 bassoons 4 horns, 2 trumpets in C/D/F, 2 cornets in A/B♭, 3 trombones, 2 tubas timpani, snare drum, bass drum, suspended cymbal, tamtam, bell 2 harps strings: 15 violins I, 15 violins II, 10 violas, 10 violoncellos, 9 double basses The aging scholar Faust contemplates the renewal of nature.
Hearing peasants sing and dance, he realizes that their simple happiness is something he will never experience. An army marches past in the distance. Faust doesn't understand why the soldiers are so enthusiastic about fame. Depressed, Faust has returned to his study; the search for wisdom can no longer inspire him. Tired of life, he is about to commit suicide when the sound of church bells and an Easter hymn remind him of his youth, when he still had faith in religion. Méphistophélès appears commenting on Faust's apparent conversion, he offers to take him on a journey, promising him the restoration of his youth and the fulfillment of all his wishes. Faust accepts. Méphistophélès and Faust arrive at Auerbach's tavern in Leipzig, where Brander, a student, sings a song about a rat whose high life in a kitchen is ended by a dose of poison; the other guests offer an ironic "Amen," and Méphistophélès continues with another song about a flea that brings his relatives to infest a whole royal court. Disgusted by the vulgarity of it all, Faust demands to be taken somewhere else.
On a meadow by the Elbe, Méphistophélès shows Faust a dream vision of a beautiful woman named Marguerite, causing Faust to fall in love with her. He calls out her name, Méphistophélès promises to lead Faust to her. Together with a group of students and soldiers, they enter the town. Faust and Méphistophélès hide in Marguerite's room. Faust feels that he will find in her, his ideal of a pure and innoce