Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy. The region coincides with the Italian Riviera and is popular with tourists for its beaches and cuisine; the name Liguria predates Latin and is of obscure origin, however the Latin adjectives Ligusticum and Liguscus reveal the original -sc- in the root ligusc-, which shortened to -s- and turned into -r- in the Latin name Liguria according to rhotacism. The formant -sc- is present in the names Etruscan, Gascony and is believed by some researchers to relate to maritime people or sailors. Compare Greek Lígus λίγυς, a Ligurian, a person from Liguria, whence Ligustikḗ λιγυστική, the name of the place Liguria. Liguria is bordered by France to the west, Piedmont to the north, Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany to the east, it lies on the Ligurian Sea. The narrow strip of land is bordered by the Alps and the Apennines mountains; some mountains rise above 2,000 m. The highest point of the region is the summit of Monte Saccarello; the winding arched extension goes from Ventimiglia to La Spezia.
Of this, 3,524.08 km2 are mountainous and 891.95 km2 are hills. Liguria's natural reserves cover 600 km2 of land, they are made up of one national reserve, six large parks, two smaller parks and three nature reserves. The continental shelf is narrow, so steep it descends immediately to considerable depths along its 350-kilometre coastline. Except for the Portovenere and Portofino promontories, the coast is not jagged, is high. At the mouths of the biggest watercourses are small beaches, but there are no deep bays and natural harbours except at Genoa and La Spezia; the hills lying beyond the coast together with the sea account for a mild climate year-round. Average winter temperatures are 7 to 10 °C and summer temperatures are 23 to 24 °C, which make for a pleasant stay in the dead of winter. Rainfall can be abundant at times, as mountains close to the coast create an orographic effect. Genoa and La Spezia can see up to 2,000 mm of rain in a year. According to classical sources, the Ligurians once lived in a far broader territory than present-day Liguria.
For example, the Greek colony of Massalia, modern Marseille, was recorded to lie in Ligurian territory. During the first Punic War, the ancient Ligurians were divided, some of them siding with Carthage and a minority with Rome, whose allies included the future Genoese. Under Augustus, Liguria was designated a region of Italy stretching from the coast to the banks of the Po River; the great Roman roads helped increase communication and trade. Important towns developed on the coast, of which evidence is left in the ruins of Albenga and Luni. Between the 4th and the 10th centuries Liguria was dominated by the Byzantines, the Lombards of King Rothari and the Franks, it was invaded by Saracen and Norman raiders. In the 10th century, once the danger of pirates decreased, the Ligurian territory was divided into three marches: Obertenga and Aleramica. In the 11th and 12th centuries the marches were split into fees, with the strengthening of the bishops’ power, the feudal structure began to weaken; the main Ligurian towns on the coast, became city-states, over which Genoa soon extended its rule.
Inland, fiefs belonging to noble families survived for a long time. Between the 11th century and the 15th century, the Republic of Genoa experienced an extraordinary political and commercial success, it was one of the most powerful maritime republics in the Mediterranean from the 12th to the 14th century: after the decisive victory in the battle of Meloria, it acquired control over the Tyrrhenian Sea and was present in the nerve centres of power during the last phase of the Byzantine empire, having colonies up to Black Sea and Crimean. After the introduction of the title of doge for life and the election of Simone Boccanegra, Genoa resumed its struggles against the Marquis of Finale and the Counts of Laigueglia and it conquered again the territories of Finale and Porto Maurizio. In spite of its military and commercial successes, Genoa fell prey to the internal factions which put pressure on its political structure. Due to the vulnerable situation, the rule of the republic went to the hands of the Visconti family of Milan.
After their expulsion by the popular forces under Boccanegra’s lead, the republic remained in Genoese hands until 1396, when the internal instability led the doge Antoniotto Adorno to surrender the title of Seignior of Genoa to the king of France. The French were driven away in 1409 and Liguria went back under Milanese control in 1421, thus remaining until 1435; the alternation of French and Milanese dominions over Liguria went on until the first half of the 16th century. The French influence ceased in 1528, when Andrea Doria allied with the powerful king of Spain and imposed an aristocratic government, which gave the republic a relative stability fo
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Piedmont is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country. It borders the Liguria region to the south, the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna regions to the east and the Aosta Valley region to the northwest, it has an area of 25,402 square kilometres and a population of 4,377,941 as of 30 November 2017. The capital of Piedmont is Turin; the name Piedmont comes from medieval Latin Pedemontium or Pedemontis, i.e. ad pedem montium, meaning “at the foot of the mountains” attested in documents of the end of the 12th century. Other towns of Piedmont with more than 20,000 inhabitants sorted by population: Piedmont is surrounded on three sides by the Alps, including Monviso, where the Po rises, Monte Rosa, it borders with France and the Italian regions of Lombardy, Aosta Valley and for a small fragment with Emilia Romagna. The geography of Piedmont is 43.3 % mountainous, along with extensive areas of plains. Piedmont is the second largest of Italy's 20 regions, after Sicily, it is broadly coincident with the upper part of the drainage basin of the river Po, which rises from the slopes of Monviso in the west of the region and is Italy's largest river.
The Po drains the semicircle formed by the. From the highest peaks, the land slopes down to hilly areas, to the upper, to the lower great Padan Plain; the boundary between the two is characterised by resurgent springs—typical of the Padan Plain—which supply fresh water to the rivers and a dense network of irrigation canals. The countryside is diverse: from the rugged peaks of the massifs of Monte Rosa and of Gran Paradiso, to the damp rice paddies of Vercelli and Novara, from the gentle hillsides of the Langhe and of Montferrat to the plains. 7.6% of the entire territory is considered protected area. There are 56 different national or regional parks, one of the most famous is the Gran Paradiso National Park located between Piedmont and the Aosta Valley. Piedmont was inhabited in early historic times by Celtic-Ligurian tribes such as the Taurini and the Salassi, they were subdued by the Romans, who founded several colonies there including Augusta Taurinorum and Eporedia. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was successively invaded by the Burgundians, the Ostrogoths, East Romans and Franks.
In the 9th -- 10th centuries there were further incursions by the Saracens. At the time Piedmont, as part of the Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire, was subdivided into several marches and counties. In 1046, Oddo of Savoy added Piedmont with a capital at Chambéry. Other areas remained independent, such as the powerful comuni of Asti and Alessandria and the marquisates of Saluzzo and Montferrat; the County of Savoy was elevated to a duchy in 1416, Duke Emanuele Filiberto moved the seat to Turin in 1563. In 1720, the Duke of Savoy became King of Sardinia, founding what evolved into the Kingdom of Sardinia and increasing Turin's importance as a European capital; the Republic of Alba was created in 1796 as a French client republic in Piedmont. A new client republic, the Piedmontese Republic, existed between 1798 and 1799 before it was reoccupied by Austrian and Russian troops. In June 1800 a third client republic, the Subalpine Republic, was established in Piedmont, it fell under full French control in 1801 and it was annexed by France in September 1802.
In the congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of Sardinia was restored, furthermore received the Republic of Genoa to strengthen it as a barrier against France. Piedmont was a springboard for Italy's unification in 1859–1861, following earlier unsuccessful wars against the Austrian Empire in 1820–1821 and 1848–1849; this process is sometimes referred to as Piedmontisation. However, the efforts were countered by the efforts of rural farmers; the House of Savoy became Kings of Italy, Turin became the capital of Italy. However, when the Italian capital was moved to Florence, to Rome, the administrative and institutional importance of Piedmont was reduced and the only remaining recognition to Piedmont's historical role was that the crown prince of Italy was known as the Prince of Piedmont. After Italian unification, Piedmont was one of the most important regions in the first Italian industrialization. Lowland Piedmont is a fertile agricultural region; the main agricultural products in Piedmont are cereals, including rice, representing more than 10% of national production, grapes for wine-making and milk.
With more than 800,000 head of cattle in 2000, livestock production accounts for half of final agricultural production in Piedmont. Piedmont is one of the great winegrowing regions in Italy. More than half of its 700 square kilometres of vineyards are registered with DOC designations, it produces prestigious wines as Barolo, from the Langhe near Alba, the Moscato d'Asti as well as the sparkling Asti from the vineyards around Asti. Indigenous grape varieties include Nebbiolo, Dolcetto, Freisa and Brachetto; the region contains major industrial centres, the main of, Turin, home to the FIAT automobile works. Olivetti, once a major electronics industry whose plant was in Scarmagno, near Ivrea, has now turned into a small-sc
Trezzo sull'Adda is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Milan in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 30 kilometres northeast of Milan on the Adda River. The Naviglio Martesana canal starts from the Adda in Trezzo's territory. Trezzo sull'Adda borders the following municipalities: Cornate d'Adda, Capriate San Gervasio, Grezzago, Vaprio d'Adda. Trezzo received the honorary title of city with a presidential decree on 8 July 2008. Trezzo's main attraction is the massive castle which belonged to the Visconti family in the 14th century. Protected by the Adda on two sides, it had a 42-metre high square tower on the third one, its fortified bridge was 72 metres long, the longest bridge span for several centuries, built on three different levels, passing 25 metres over the waters. Due to its strategic position, the castle was contested first by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and Milan, in the 12th century, by the Visconti and the Torriani families; the castle was rebuilt on each occasion. The last reconstruction dates from 1370.
It was commissioned by Bernabò Visconti, imprisoned there until his death. On 23 October 1404, the castle was captured by Paolo Colleoni, father of the important condottiere Bartolomeo; the Visconti general Francesco Bussone recaptured it demolishing it and starting its decline. In the 19th century it was used as a quarry for the construction of the Arena di Milano. In the frazione of Concesa is the Sanctuary of the Divine Maternity of Mary, built by Cardinal Cesare Monti from 1641. Another attraction is a 17th-century villa built on the Adda with fine terraced gardens. Today it is the seat of the Adda Nord Regional Park. Trezzo sull'Adda is twinned with: Cevo, Italy Official website Page about the castle
Umbria is a region of central Italy. It includes Lake Trasimeno and Marmore Falls, is crossed by the River Tiber; the regional capital is Perugia. Umbria is known for its landscapes, history, culinary delights, artistic legacy, influence on culture; the region is characterized by hills, mountains and historical towns such as the university centre of Perugia, Assisi, a World Heritage Site associated with St. Francis of Assisi, the Basilica of San Francesco and other Franciscan sites, works by Giotto and Cimabue, Terni; the hometown of Santa Rita, the hometown of St. Valentine, the hometown of St. Benedict, Città di Castello, main center of the early Renaissance situated in the Tiber High Valley, the hometown of St. Ubaldo, Orvieto, Castiglione del Lago, Narni and other small cities. Umbria is bordered by Tuscany to Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. Hilly and mountainous, flat and fertile owing to the valley of the Tiber, its topography includes part of the central Apennines, with the highest point in the region at Monte Vettore on the border of the Marche, at 2,476 metres.
It is the only Italian region having a common border with other countries. The comune of Città di Castello has an exclave named Monte Ruperto within Marche. Contained within Umbria is the hamlet of Cospaia, a tiny republic from 1440 to 1826, created by accident. Umbria is crossed by two valleys: the Umbrian valley, stretching from Perugia to Spoleto, the Tiber Valley and west of the first one, from Città di Castello to the border with Lazio; the Tiber River forms the approximate border with Lazio, although its source is just over the Tuscan border. The Tiber's three principal tributaries flow southward through Umbria; the Chiascio basin is uninhabited as far as Bastia Umbra. About 10 kilometres farther on, it joins the Tiber at Torgiano; the Topino, cleaving the Apennines with passes that the Via Flaminia and successor roads follow, makes a sharp turn at Foligno to flow NW for a few kilometres before joining the Chiascio below Bettona. The third river is the Nera, flowing into the Tiber further south, at Terni.
The upper Nera cuts ravines in the mountains. In antiquity, the plain was covered by a pair of shallow, interlocking lakes, the Lacus Clitorius and the Lacus Umber, they were drained by the Romans over several hundred years. An earthquake in the 4th century and the political collapse of the Roman Empire resulted in the refilling of the basin, it was drained a second time a thousand years during a 500-year period: Benedictine monks started the process in the 13th century, the draining was completed by an engineer from Foligno in the 18th century. The eastern part of the region, being crossed by many faults, has been hit by earthquakes: the last ones have been that of 1997 and those of 2016. In literature, Umbria is referred to The green heart of Italy; the phrase is taken from a poem by Giosuè Carducci, the subject of, the source of the Clitunno River in Umbria. The region is named for the Umbri people, an Italic people, absorbed by the expansion of the Romans; the Umbri's capital city was Gubbio, where today is housed the longest and most important document of any of the Osco-Umbrian group of languages, the Iguvine Tablets.
Pliny the Elder recounted a fanciful derivation for the tribal name from the Greek ὄμβρος "a shower", which had led to the confused idea that they had survived the Deluge familiar from Greek mythology, giving them the claim to be the most ancient race in Italy. In fact, they belonged to a broader family of neighbouring peoples with similar roots, their language was one of the Italic languages, related to Latin and Oscan. The northern part of the region was occupied by Gallic tribes; the Umbri sprang, like neighboring peoples, from the creators of the Terramara, Proto-Villanovan culture in northern and central Italy, who entered north-eastern Italy at the beginning of the Bronze Age. The Etruscans were the chief enemies of the Umbri; the Etruscan invasion went from the western seaboard towards the north and east from about 700 to 500 BC driving the Umbrians towards the Apennine uplands and capturing 300 Umbrian towns. The Umbrian population does not seem to have been eradicated in the conquered districts.
The border between Etruria and Umbria was the Tiber river: the ancient name of Todi, remembers that. After the downfall of the Etruscans, Umbrians aided the Samnites in their struggle against Rome. Communications with Samnium were impeded by the Roman fortress of Narnia. Romans defeated their Gallic allies in the battle of Sentinum. Allied Umbrians and Etruscans had to return to their territories to defend against simultaneous Roman attacks, so were unable to help the Samnites in the battle of Sentinum; the Roman victory at Sentinum started a period of integration under the Roman rulers, who established some colonies and built the via Flaminia. The via Flaminia became a principal vector for Roman development in Umbria. During Hannibal's invasion in the second Punic war, the battle of Lake Trasimene was fought in Umbria, but the local people did not aid the invader. During the Roman civil war between Mark Antony and Octavian, the city of Perugia supported Antony
The Aosta Valley is a mountainous autonomous region in northwestern Italy. It is bordered by Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France, to the west, Switzerland, to the north and by the Metropolitan City of Turin in the region of Piedmont, Italy, to the south and east. Covering an area of 3,263 km2 and with a population of about 128,000 it is the smallest, least populous, least densely populated region of Italy, it is the only Italian region, not sub-divided into provinces. Provincial administrative functions are provided by the regional government; the region is divided into 74 comuni. Italian and French are the official languages, though much of the native population speak Valdôtain, a dialect of Arpitan, as their home language; the regional capital is Aosta. The Aosta Valley is an Alpine valley which with its tributary valleys includes the Italian slopes of Mont Blanc, Monte Rosa, Gran Paradiso and the Matterhorn; this makes it the highest region in Italy by list of Italian regions by highest point. The valleys above 1,600 metres, annually have a Cold Continental Climate.
In this climate the snow season is long, as long as 8 or 9 months at the highest points. During the summer, mist occurs every day; these areas are the wettest in the western Alps. Temperatures are low, between −7 °C and −3 °C in January, in July between 20 °C and 35 °C. In this area is the town of Rhêmes-Notre-Dame, which may be the coldest town in the Western Alps and where the winter average temperature is around −7 °C. Areas between 2,000 and 3,500 metres have a Tundra Climate, where every month has an average temperature below 10 °C; this climate may be a kind of more severe Cold Oceanic Climate, with a low summer average but mild winters, sometimes above −3 °C near lakes, or a more severe Cold Continental Climate, with a low winter average. Temperature averages in Pian Rosà, at 3,400 metres high, are − 1.4 °C in July. It is the coldest place in Italy. In the past, above 3,500 metres, all months had an average temperature below freezing, with a Perpetual Frost Climate. In recent years though there was a rise in temperatures.
See as an example the data for Pian Rosà. The first inhabitants of the Aosta Valley were Celts and Ligures, whose language heritage remains in some local placenames. Rome conquered the region from the local Salassi around 25 BC and founded Augusta Prætoria Salassorum to secure the strategic mountain passes, they went on to build bridges and roads through the mountains. Thus, the name Valle d'Aosta means "Valley of Augustus". In 1031–1032, Humbert I of Savoy, the founder of the House of Savoy, received the title Count of Aosta from Emperor Conrad II of the Franconian line and built himself a commanding fortification at Bard. Saint Anselm of Canterbury was born in Aosta in 1033 or 1034; the region was divided among fortified castles, in 1191, Thomas I of Savoy found it necessary to grant to the communes a Charte des franchises which preserved autonomy—rights that were fiercely defended until 1770, when they were revoked in order to tie Aosta more to Piedmont, but which were again demanded during post-Napoleonic times.
In the mid-13th century, Emperor Frederick II made the County of Aosta a duchy, its arms charged with a lion rampant were carried in the Savoy arms until the reunification of Italy in 1870. The region remained part of Savoy lands, with the exceptions of French occupations from 1539 to 1563 in 1691 between 1704 and 1706, it was ruled by the First French Empire between 1800 and 1814. During French rule, it was part of Aoste arrondissement in Doire department; as part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, it joined the new Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The region gained special autonomous status after the end of World War II. For more than 20 years the valley has been dominated by autonomist regional parties; the last regional election was held in May 2018. On 27 June 2018 Nicoletta Spelgatti of the Lega Nord was elected president by the region's cabinet, she is the first Lega Nord member to hold the position. The population density of Aosta Valley is by far the lowest of the Italian regions. In 2008, 38.9 inhabitants per km2 were registered in the region, whereas the average national figure was 198.8, though the region has extensive uninhabitable areas of mountain and glacier, with a substantial part of the population living in the central valley.
Migration from tributary valleys has now been stemmed by generous regional support for agriculture and tourist development. The population is growing but steadily. Negative population growth since 1976 has been more than offset by immigration; the region has one of Italy's lowest birth rates, with a rising average age. This, too, is compensated by immigration, since most immigrants arriving in the region are younger people working in the tourist industry. Between 1991 and 2001, the population of Aosta Valley grew by 3.1%, the highest growth among the Italian regions. With a negative natural population growth, this is due to positive net migration
Veneto is one of the 20 regions of Italy. Its population is ranking fifth in Italy; the region's capital is Venice. Veneto was part of the Roman Empire until the 5th century AD. After a feudal period, it was part of the Republic of Venice until 1797. Venice ruled for centuries over one of the largest and richest maritime republics and trade empires in the world. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it was merged with the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Besides Italian, most inhabitants speak Venetian, divided into five varieties. Since 1971 the Statute of Veneto has referred to the region's citizens as "the Venetian people". Article 1 defines Veneto as an "autonomous Region", "constituted by the Venetian people and the lands of the provinces of Belluno, Rovigo, Venice and Vicenza", while maintaining "bonds with Venetians in the world". Article 2 sets forth the principle of the "self-government of the Venetian people" and mandates the Region to "promote the historical identity of the Venetian people and civilisation".
Despite these affirmations, approved by the Italian Parliament, Veneto is not among the autonomous regions with special statute, differently from its north-eastern and north-western neighbours, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol respectively. Veneto is home to a notable nationalist movement, known as Venetian Venetism; the region's largest party is a founding component of the Lega Nord. The current President of Veneto is Luca Zaia, re-elected in 2015 with 50.1% of the vote. Zaia II Government includes Forza Italia and is externally supported by Independence We Veneto and the Brothers of Italy. An autonomy referendum took place in 2017: 57.2% of Venetians turned out, 98.1% voting "yes" to "further forms and special conditions of autonomy". Having been for a long period in history a land of mass emigration, Veneto is today one of the greatest immigrant-receiving regions in the country, with 487,493 foreigners, notably including Romanians, Chinese and Albanians. Veneto is the 8th largest region in Italy, with a total area of 18,398.9 km2.
It is located in the north-eastern part of Italy and is bordered to the east by Friuli-Venezia Giulia, to the south by Emilia-Romagna, to the west by Lombardy and to the north by Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. At its northernmost corner it borders on Austria; the north-south extension of Veneto is 210 km from the Austrian border to the mouth of the River Po. By area, 29% of its surface is mountainous; the highest massif in the Dolomites is the Marmolada-massif at 3,342 m. Other dolomitic peaks are the Pale di San Martino; the Venetian Prealps range between 700 m and 2,200 m. A distinctive characteristic of the Pre-alps are the cave formations, including chasms and sink holes. Fossil deposits are abundant there; the Po Valley, covering 57% of Veneto, extends from the mountains to the Adriatic sea, broken only by some low hills: Euganean Hills, Berici Hills Colli Asolani and Montello, which constitute the remaining 14% of the territory. The plain itself is subdivided into the lower plain; the lower plain is both a mainstay of agricultural production and the most populated part of the region.
Several rivers flow through the region: the Po, Brenta, Livenza and Tagliamento. The eastern shore of the largest lake in Italy, Lake Garda, belongs to Veneto; the coastline covers 200 km, of which 100 km are beaches. The coasts of the Adriatic Sea are characterised by the Venetian Lagoon, a flat terrain with ponds and islands; the Po Delta to the south features dunes along the coastline. The inland portion contains cultivable land reclaimed by a system of canals and dykes. Fish ponds have been created there as well; the delta and the lagoon are a stopping-point for migratory birds. Veneto's morphology is characterised by its: mountains: 5,359.1 km2,. The climate changes from one area to another: while it is continental on the plains, it is milder along the Adriatic coast; the lowlands are covered by thick fog. Between the 2nd and 1st millennium BC, the region was inhabited by the Euganei. According to ancient historians, who wanted to link Venetic origins to legend of Roman origins in Troy, the Veneti came from Paphlagonia in Anatolia at the time of the Fall of Troy, led by prince Antenor, a comrade of Aeneas.
Other historians links Venetic origins with Celts. In the 7th–6th centuries BC th