Princeton High School (New Jersey)
Princeton High School is a four-year comprehensive public high school in Princeton, New Jersey, United States, operating as part of the Princeton Public Schools district, which serves all public school students in Princeton. Students from Cranbury Township attend PHS as part of a sending/receiving relationship with the Cranbury School District; the school has been accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Secondary Schools since 1932. As of the 2015-16 school year, the school had an enrollment of 1,578 students and 126.2 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 12.5:1. There were 25 eligible for reduced-cost lunch. PHS is notable for its high academic standards and strong arts programs that rival many of the nation's private schools; the school ranks amongst the top open-admissions public high schools in the state concerning SAT scores, was ranked first in the state amongst open-admissions schools in 2009. Princeton High is located between Walnut Lane.
The district middle school, John Witherspoon Middle School, is located across from the high school athletic fields on Walnut Lane. The school offers 200 courses in many subjects and levels, including most of the courses in the Advanced Placement Program. More than 70 % of students take at least one accelerated course. Additionally, the High School Program at Princeton University permits qualified juniors and seniors to take free courses at Princeton University if they have exhausted all high school course alternatives within a discipline, receiving only high school credit for any university courses completed; the school contains over 250 classrooms, several equipped science labs, two gymnasiums, a performing arts center, a fitness center, a garden, athletic turf and tennis courts. Some of this came from significant reconstruction from 2003 to 2007 as part of an $86 million project to renovate the district's school buildings including a new mathematics wing and renovated library; the school's principal is Gary R. Snyder, its assistant principals are Jessica Baxter, Angela Siso-Stentz and Jared Warren.
Nationally, Princeton High School ranked in Newsweek's top high school list in 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009. In The Washington Posts's "Most Challenging High Schools" list, PHS ranked in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014. In U. S. News & World Report, Princeton High School was ranked in 2009, 2010 and 2014. In 2007, The Wall Street Journal, ranking the country's high schools based on a percentage of 2007 high school seniors sent to eight selective colleges, placed Princeton High School at #27. PHS was the second highest ranked publicly funded school, with a total of 31 students matriculating to those schools. Statewide, New Jersey Monthly's "Top Public High Schools" has ranked Princeton High in 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014. Schooldigger ranked the school in 2011, 2013 and 2014; the 2009 U. S News & World Report ranked Princeton High as the highest ranked open-admissions high school in New Jersey. School is held Monday through Friday from 8:20 a.m. - 3:20 p.m. for 180 days per year. The daily schedule consists of eight academic periods.
There are four minutes between each class period for the students to get to their next class. Every Wednesday, on days when special events are planned, the school day is shortened and ends at 1:49 p.m. Students attend 35 minute class periods, homeroom and break periods are not shortened. Short Wednesdays exist to permit the operation of the mandatory freshmen Peer Group program between 1:49 and 2:51; this period of time is used for community service group meetings for sophomores, other extracurricular activities, school-wide events such as pep rallies, the Fall Festival, Spring Fling. The school days are assigned letter labels, cycling from A through F; because of a partial-block schedule, only days A–D contain all eight academic periods. Days E and F consist of only four academic periods, each 88 minutes long, with 10 minutes in between each period. Periods 3, 1, 7, 5 occur on E days, while periods 4, 2, 8, 6 occur on F days, in the order listed. In addition to this, the order of periods cycles throughout letter days A–D, with periods 1–4 cycling independently from periods 5–8.
An example is shown below. In order to receive a diploma from Princeton High School, students must complete a minimum of 120 credits from grade 9 to grade 12; each year-long class counts for 5 credits. The exception is science classes that have one or two lab periods count for 5.7 and 6.4 credits, respectively. Additionally, each student must have completed 50 hours of community service completed during a students sophomore year. Required courses include English I and English II and two more years of English. In addition, students must show proficiency in the PARCC assessment; the school used the HSPA 11 - the class of 2015 is the last class to rely on this. Students must pass the Biology State Assessment the year they
Princeton Day School
Princeton Day School is a private coeducational day school located in Princeton, New Jersey, serving students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. The largest division is the Upper School, with an enrollment of 400; the school has been accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Secondary Schools since 1989. As of the 2015-16 school year, the school had an enrollment of 926 students and 121.1 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 7.7:1. Of the 2011 graduating class of Princeton Day School seniors, a third were honored as semi-finalists or commended scholars in the National Merit Scholarship Program. In the five years through 2018, the most common schools for members of the PDS graduating classes were Duke University, Princeton University, Lehigh University, University of Chicago, New York University and Boston College; the school is a member of the National Association of Independent Schools, New Jersey Association of Independent Schools and the Association of Delaware Valley Independent Schools.
Founded in 1899, Miss Fine's School in Princeton prepared girls for college with a curriculum including English, Latin and mathematics, at a time when women were not expected to attend college, when only one out of eight children in America went to school at all. For years, the institution was, quite Miss Fine's School. John Finley, editor of The New York Times during the 1910s, wrote of her, "So was the school under her wise and gentle rule a place where happy children grew into her spirited likeness." Fine died two years later. Miss Fine's School moved into what had been The Princeton Inn on Bayard Lane in 1924, included boys from kindergarten through 3rd grade. In 1924, a group of parents established a 4–9 grade school for boys on Bayard Lane, next to Miss Fine's School; the boys' school was known as Princeton Junior School. The school moved in 1932 to an independent campus with purpose-built buildings at 171 Broadmead in another section of Princeton not far from Palmer Stadium; the name was changed to Princeton Country Day School, although in honor of its founding name the school magazine was called the "Junior Journal."
It had large playing fields across the street for soccer. In the winter, there was skating on Carnegie Lake nearby and while ice hockey was played at Princeton University's Baker Rink. In the spring, there was an annual school fair held as a fundraiser; the school had an excellent academic reputation and most graduates went on to New England boarding schools for secondary education. The buildings and campus of PCD are now part of Princeton University and used as a nursery school. Princeton Country Day merged with Miss Fine's School in 1965 to become Princeton Day School. Princeton Day School's campus along The Great Road in Princeton opened in 1965, thanks to the contributions of Dean Mathey. In September 2005, the school launched the public phase of a five-year $50 million capital campaign, "Investing in Excellence" to support new and renovated facilities and increased endowment for faculty salaries and financial aid that raised a total of $53 million from more than 4,000 contributors. Over the years, Princeton Day School enjoyed many traditions.
These include an Upper School pie-eating competition that continued until the eighties, an annual sophomore-junior canoeing trip, intended to bridge the gap between two grades that traditionally do not share many classes, legendary English teacher Anne Shepherd's wreathmaking assembly. The wreathmaking rite started in Miss Fine's School in 1900, since, by the 1980s, participation in the event had dwindled, it was cancelled. A December 1982 article in PDS's student-run newspaper, The Spokesman, explained that "This raised such an uproar that, by popular demand, the was given one last chance." By the 1990s, wreathmaking was gone, indicative of the passing of certain traditions over time. New traditions have joined the Maypole Dance in recent years, including the annual Powder Puff game, a fiercely competitive flag football match between the junior and senior girls, held since 2004, Dr. Seuss Day, a day of boisterous noise and frosted cake in the otherwise tightly-run Upper School library. Two of PDS's most celebrated current traditions are the Halloween Parade, Blue & White Day.
For at least 20 years, the senior challenge, or the Halloween Challenge, had been a yearly PDS tradition. A collection of four Halloween-themed skits performed by each Upper School grade in front of the extended Lower School, Middle School and faculty each Halloween, the competition was introduced each October during announcement period, where the seniors would unexpectedly take control of the microphone and issue a public challenge to the other three grades. More the four Upper School grades have each picked a theme, each member of the class follows that theme in dressing up, to compete for the most spirited and cohesive cos
Princeton Academy of the Sacred Heart
Princeton Academy of the Sacred Heart is an independent school for boys in Kindergarten through Grade 8. Located in Princeton, New Jersey the school is part of the Network of Sacred Heart Schools; the school is divided into two sections: a Middle School. As of the 2012-13 school year, the school had an enrollment of 219 students and 27 classroom teachers, for a student-teacher ratio of 8:1. Princeton Academy has been accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools since 2003, it is overseen by the New Jersey Department of Education and is a member of the Network of the Sacred Heart Schools, the National Association of Independent Schools, the New Jersey Association of Independent Schools, the Association of Delaware Valley Independent Schools, the International Boys’ Schools Coalition, the Council for Spiritual and Ethical Education, the Council for Advancement and Support of Education, the Educational Records Bureau. Princeton Academy's mission is to develop young men with active and creative minds, a sense of understanding and compassion for others, the courage to act on their beliefs.
The school stresses the total development of each child: spiritual, intellectual, social and physical. The school's philosophy is rooted in the tradition of the Society of the Sacred Heart, which educates children to become leaders of a just society by adhering to the following five goals: A personal and active faith in God A deep respect for intellectual values A social awareness which impels to action The building of community as a Christian value Personal growth in an atmosphere of wise freedom The instruction at Princeton Academy is designed to build on skills and knowledge gained in the preceding grades, in a way both developmentally appropriate and progressively challenging; the foundation of the Princeton Academy language arts curriculum is the belief that language arts are integral to the learning process of any subject at any level. Boys at Princeton Academy have ample opportunity and time to read and write independently, as well as to experience excellent modeling of reading and writing.
The Junior Great Books program assists in reinforcing high-level comprehension skills. The Lower School employs Word Journeys and Words Their Way, developmental spelling and phonics programs based on the philosophy that understanding of the printed word occurs in clear stages. Instruction is designed to meet the specific needs of each boy. Handwriting Without Tears meets the fine motor needs of boys through its clear, simple letter formation and interactive learning style. Everyday Math emphasizes a balance between learning concepts and problem solving. In each grade level, content is divided into six strands: number and numeration and computation, data and chance, measurement and patterns, algebra. Through FOSS inquiry-based science, the boys develop skills of observation, data collection, data analysis. Curriculum connections to science and social studies units that are studied in the regular classroom assist in developing content knowledge through varied means. Students are introduced to Spanish beginning in Kindergarten, by third grade are attending classes four days a week for 30 minutes.
Instruction occurs through games and literature, with a focus on conversational skills. Students are introduced to the printed word and in third grade begin to read and write in Spanish. All Princeton Academy students attend religion, music and physical education for two periods a week; the Middle School program consists of five core academic subjects: English, science, social studies, Spanish. There are four special subjects: religion, music and physical education; the English program promotes an understanding and appreciation of literature and strengthens basic writing skills. Students read and study fiction of various genres, non-fiction, short stories from the Junior Great Books program, plays and films. In response to literature, students acquire thinking, planning and editing skills through expository and creative writing. Students continue to study English grammar and vocabulary; the Middle School mathematics program uses the University of Chicago Mathematics Project. This program uses a multi-dimensional approach emphasizing skills, properties and representations.
The program stresses the use of real-life applications. The science program promotes an active learning process where students build a strong knowledge of scientific processes and ideas, as well as develop inquiry skills for problem solving in both an analytical and creative manner. A highlight of the Princeton Academy science program is the Independent Science Project; the social studies program aims to develop and strengthen students’ skills in reading and research and listening, recording and organization and analysis, clarity in written work. Students are encouraged to think critically, formulate their own opinions about the past, apply what they have learned to the present day; the Middle School Spanish program presents an integrated skills approach to Spanish. Both receptive and productive proficiencies are developed. Students in Princeton Academy’s 8th grade participate in the International Sacred Heart Exchange Program with a Sacred Heart school in Barcelona, the Colegio Sagrado Corazon de Sarria.
Princeton Academy offers competitive sports teams for students in the Middle School. The mission of the athletic program is to provide opportunities in which students can acquire skills, experience
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
A microbrewery or craft brewery is a brewery that produces small amounts of beer much smaller than large-scale corporate breweries, is independently owned. Such breweries are characterized by their emphasis on quality and brewing technique; the microbrewing movement began in the United Kingdom in the 1970s, although traditional artisanal brewing existed in Europe for centuries and subsequently spread to other countries. As the movement grew, some breweries expanded their production and distribution, the more encompassing concept of craft brewing emerged. A brewpub is a pub. Although the term "microbrewery" was used in relation to the size of breweries, it came to reflect an alternative attitude and approach to brewing flexibility, adaptability and customer service; the term and trend spread to the US in the 1980s and was used as a designation of breweries that produce fewer than 15,000 U. S. beer barrels annually. Microbreweries have adopted a marketing strategy that differs from those of the large, mass-market breweries, offering products that compete on the basis of quality and diversity instead of low price and advertising.
Their influence has been much greater than their market share, which amounts to only 2% in the UK, indicated by the introduction by large commercial breweries of new brands for the craft beer market. However, when the strategy failed, the corporate breweries invested in microbreweries or, in many cases, acquired them outright. Microbreweries appeared in other countries, such as New Zealand and Australia. Craft beer and microbreweries were cited as the reason for a 15 million L drop in alcohol sales in New Zealand over 2012, with New Zealanders preferring higher-priced premium beers over cheaper brands; the website The Food Section defines a "nanobrewery" as "a scaled-down microbrewery run by a solo entrepreneur, that produces beer in small batches." The US Department of the Treasury defines nanobreweries as "very small brewery operations" that produce beer for sale. The term "farm brewery" or "farmhouse brewery" has been around for centuries. Several beer styles are considered "farmhouse" stemming from farmers brewing low ABV beer as an incentive for field workers.
Farm breweries were not large scale. This had different effects on the overall product; the term "farm brewery" has more found its way into several local and state laws, in order to give farm breweries certain agriculturally related, privileges not found under standard brewery laws. These privileges come at a price: some portion of the ingredients used in the beer must be grown on the given licensed farm brewery. "Craft brewing" is a more encompassing term for developments in the industry succeeding the microbrewing movement of the late 20th century. The definition is not consistent but applies to small, independently-owned commercial breweries that employ traditional brewing methods and emphasize flavor and quality; the term is reserved for breweries established since the 1970s but may be used for older breweries with a similar focus. A United States trade group, the Brewers Association, interested in brand transparency, offers a definition of craft breweries as "small and traditional"; the craft brewing process can be considered an art by the brewmasters.
In the United Kingdom, the "Assured Independent British Craft Brewer" initiative is run by the Society of Independent Brewers, who ensure that any beers which carry the Independent Craft Brewer logo are small and brewing quality beer. The use of cans by craft brewers in the US has doubled since 2012, with over 500 companies using cans to package their beverages. Associated with the major brewing corporations, cans are now favored by craft brewers for numerous reasons: cans are impervious to oxygen, beer-degrading light does not affect canned beer, canned beer is more portable since less room is required for storage or transportation, canned beer cools more and cans have a greater surface area for wraparound designs and decorations; the perception that bottles lead to a taste, superior to canned beer is outdated, as most aluminum cans are lined with a polymer coating that protects the beer from the problematic metal. However, since drinking directly from a can may still result in a metallic taste, most craft brewers recommend pouring beer into a glass prior to consumption.
In June 2014, the BA estimated 3% of craft beer is sold in cans, 60% is sold in bottles, kegs represent the remainder of the market. Brewpub is an abbreviated term combining the ideas of a pub or public-house. A brewpub can be a restaurant that brews beer on the premises. Beer arrived in Australia at the beginning of British colonisation. In 2004, Australia was ranked fourth internationally in per capita beer consumption, at around 110 L per year, though lower in terms of total per capita alcohol consumption; the most popular beer style in modern-day Australia is lager. The oldest brewery still in operation is the Cascade Brewery, established in Tasmania in 1824; the largest Australian-owned brewery is the family-owned Coopers, as the other two major breweries, Foster's and Lion Nathan are owned by the British-South African SABMiller and the Japanese Kirin Brewing Company respectively. Foster's Lager is made for export or under licence in other countr
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci
James A. Michener Art Museum
The James A. Michener Art Museum is a private, non-profit museum in Doylestown, Bucks County, founded in 1988 and named for the Pulitzer Prize–winning writer James A. Michener, a Doylestown resident, it is situated within the old stone walls of a historic 19th-century prison and houses a collection of Bucks County visual arts, along with holdings of 19th- and 20th-century American art. It is noted for its Pennsylvania Impressionism collection, an art colony centered in nearby New Hope during the early 20th century, as well as its changing exhibitions, ranging from international touring shows to regionally focused exhibitions; the Museum has 40,000 square feet of public space, including a landscaped courtyard, a glass-enclosed, state-of-the-art event pavilion, an outdoor sculpture garden and terrace built in the original prison yard and conference facilities, a museum shop and café, the George Nakashima Reading Room. The Martin Wing includes preparation areas and collection storage spaces; the idea of a museum in Doylestown dedicated to the works of the Pennsylvania Impressionists has been around at least since 1949, when local artist Walter Emerson Baum founded an informal committee along with Bucks County Superintendent of Schools Dr. Charles H. Boehm, The Daily Intelligencer editor George Hotchkiss to explore the possibilities of the establishment of such an institution.
In the 1970s Bucks County commissioners established the Bucks County Council on the Arts, an agency set up to manage federal funded artwork intended to be included in government building projects. Some of the artwork they collected was put on display at their headquarters in the Neshaminy Manor office in Doylestown Township. In 1974 the Council helped establish a mobile art exhibit, the "Artmobile" of Bucks County Community College. In mid-1988 the Bucks County commissioners approved $650,000 to build an art museum in the closed Bucks County Prison. Bucks County Council on the Arts became the organization charged with running the institution and their collected works became part of the museum collection. James A. Michener, who grew up in Doylestown, took the lead in establishing the endowment, donating $500,000 as well as some of the paintings from his own private collection; the site was renovated by Inc. from Doylestown, Pennsylvania. The warden's house and the control buildings were converted to exhibition space.
Part of the prison walls remain, which now provide a backdrop to the Museum's outdoor sculpture and event pavilion. The Museum was named the James A. Michener Art Museum, opened to the public on September 15, 1988 at a ceremony presided over by Michener and his wife, Mari Sabusawa Michener. In 1993, the museum had its first major expansion designed by Lynn Taylor Associates from Doylestown, Pennsylvania which included larger exhibitions galleries and a storage vault. A few years in 1996, the Museum had its second major expansion which included the installation of the Mari Sabusawa Michener Wing designed by Lynn Taylor Associates. In 1999 there was a major expansion in the museums collection when Gerry and Marguerite Lenfest donated 54 Pennsylvania Impressionist paintings along with $3 million for the museum's endowment. In 2007, the Museum opened the Syd and Sharon Martin Wing, designed by architects RMJM Hillier from Princeton, NJ; this included additional administrative offices. The museum opened the new Edgar N. Putman Event Pavilion designed by KieranTimberlake, from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
This new 2,700-square-foot all-glass structure with a solid roof and sliding doors on its east and west sides hosts Jazz Nights and special events. The Michener opened a satellite site in 2003, in New Hope, designed by architects Minno & Wasko; this facility closed in 2009. The Bucks County Prison, once on the site of the Michener Art Museum opened in 1884. Philadelphia architect Addison Hutton designed an expanded facility that included a three-story warden's house and guardhouse control center in a “T” shape, using a combination of Italianate and Romanesque Revival styles; the architecture was inspired by Quaker ideas of reflection and penitence that dominated the American prison system in the 19th century. The overall design concept of the prison was modeled after the Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia, built in 1829; the Bucks County Prison closed in 1985. The warden's house is a significant contributing property in the Doylestown Historic District, listed by the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.
The museum collection includes more than 2,700 paintings and works on paper from the Bucks County visual arts tradition, dating from Colonial times to the present. The collection includes works by painters of the Pennsylvania Impressionist or New Hope school, American primitive painters and modernists. Works by abstract expressionists are on long-term loan from the Jack S. Blanton Museum of Art, University of Texas at Austin, where James A. Michener and his wife, donated a major portion of their private art collection. In addition to the permanent exhibitions, the Museum presents 15 changing exhibitions each year; these exhibitions feature a broad spectrum of artistic mediums. The museum has a collection of works by painters of the school of Pennsylvania Impressionism, a movement from the first half of the 20th century centered on Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Artists in this movement include John Fulton Folinsbee, Walter Emerson Baum, George Sotter, Nate Dunn, Fern Coppedge, Edward Redfield, Daniel Garber and Walter E. Schofield.
Similar to the French impressionist movement