A horse harness is a type of horse tack that allows a horse or other equine to be driven and to pull various horse-drawn vehicles such as a carriage, wagon or sleigh. Harnesses may be used to hitch animals to other such as a plow or canal boat. There are two categories of horse harness, the breaststrap or breastcollar design, and the collar. For light work, such as horse show competition where light carts are used and it can only be used for lighter hauling, since it places the weight of the load on the sternum of the horse and the nearby windpipe. This is not the heaviest skeletal area, heavy loads can constrict the windpipe, by contrast, the collar and hames harness places the weight of the load onto the horses shoulders, and without any restriction on the air supply. For heavy hauling, the harness must include a collar to allow the animal to use its full weight. Harness components designed for other animals are not suitable for horses, putting harness on a horse is called harnessing or harnessing up.
Attaching the harness to the load is called putting to or hitching, the order of putting on harness components varies by discipline, but when a horse collar is used, it is usually put on first. Parts of the include, A collar to allow the horse to push against the harness with its shoulders. Two main alternative arrangements, A horse collar, a padded loop fitting closely around the horses neck, pointed at the top to fit the crest of the neck. Used for heavier pulling, especially when used without a swingletree or whippletree, a padded strap running around the chest from side to side. Used for light work, or for heavier work it is used together with a swingletree evenly on each step without rubbing. Two metal or wooden strips which take the force of the pull. A strap around the horses haunches allowing it to set back and slow a vehicle, used for a single horse, a pair, or in a larger team, only for the wheelers. The leaders in a team do not have breeching, as they are in front of the shafts or pole, breeching may be omitted in fine harness, or when the cart is very light or has efficient brakes on the wheels.
The straps or chains which take the pull from the breastcollar or hames to the load, a small supportive piece of the harness that lies on the horses back, not the same as a riding saddle. A strap that goes firmly around the girth of the horse to attach the harness saddle, a strap that goes more loosely under the belly of the horse, outside the girth. Prevents the shafts rising up, especially on a two-wheeled vehicle, a strap going through the harness saddle to join the belly band either side
A postilion rider was the driver of a horse-drawn coach or post chaise, mounted on one of the drawing horses. By contrast, a coachman would be mounted on the vehicle along with the passengers, postilion riders normally rode the left horse of a pair because horses usually were trained only to be mounted from the left. With a double team, either there would be two postilions, one for each pair, or one postilion would ride on the rear horse in order to control all four horses. Postilions typically wore a special rigid boot on their right leg for protection from possible crushing injury due to contact with the wooden shaft. This style of travel was known as posting, the postilions and their horses would be hired from a postmaster at a post house. The carriage would travel from one post house to the next, in practice unless a return hire was anticipated a postilion of a spent team frequently was responsible for returning them to the originating post house. Posting was once both in England and in continental Europe.
In addition to a carriages obvious advantages on long trips it tended to be the most rapid form of passenger travel, individually mounted riders are subject to their personal endurance limits, while posting could continue indefinitely with brief stops for fresh horses and crew. In England, posting declined once railways became a method of transport. The gun detachments of the Kings Troop, Royal Horse Artillery are each driven by a team of three post riders and Senior Non-Commissioned Officers ride separately. The United States Armys Old Guard Caisson Platoon rides postilion, as their predecessors did in the 19th Century, the section sergeant, on a separate horse, is in charge of the team and there are 6 other horses teamed together, used at Arlington National Cemetery. Le postillon de Lonjumeau, an 1836 French comic opera by Adolphe Adam and my postillion has been struck by lightning. A comical phrase supposedly found in old-fashioned foreign language phrase books, der Postillon, German satirical news site
Vasily Makarovich Shukshin was a Soviet/Russian actor, writer and movie director from the Altay region who specialized in rural themes. Vasiliy Makarovich Shukshin was born on 25 July 1929 to a peasant family in the village of Srostki in Altai Krai, USSR, now Altai Krai, in 1933, his father, Makar Leontevich Shukshin, was arrested and shot during repressions associated with mandated collectivization. His mother, Maria Sergeyevna, had to look after the survival of the entire family, by 1943 Shukshin had finished 7 years of village school and entered an automobile technical school in Biysk. In 1945, after two and a half years at the school, but before finishing, he quit to work in a kolkhoz, in 1949, Shukshin was drafted into the Navy. He first served as a sailor in the Baltic Fleet, an operator on the Black Sea. In 1953 he was demobilized due to an ulcer and returned to his native village. Having passed an exam for high school graduation, he became a teacher of Russian. In 1954 Shukshin entered the department of the VGIK, studied under Mikhail Romm and Sergei Gerasimov.
While studying at VGIK in 1958, Shukshin had his first leading role in Marlen Khutsiyevs film Two Fedors, in 1958 Shukhin published his first short story Two on the cart in the magazine Smena. His first collection of stories Сельские жители was published in 1963 and that same year, he became staff director at the Gorky Film Studio in Moscow. He wrote and directed Живёт такой парень, the film premiered in 1965, winning top honours at the All-Union Film Festival in Leningrad and the Golden Lion at the XVI International Film Festival in Venice. Shukshin was decorated with the Order of the Red Banner of Labour, Shukshin died suddenly on 1974-10-02, on the motor ship Dunai, on the Volga river, while filming They fought for their motherland. He is buried in Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow, I Want to Live, Progress Publishers,1978. Snowball Berry Red and Other Stories, Ardis Publishers,1979, roubles in Words, Kopeks in Figures, Marion Boyars,1994. Stories from a Siberian Village, Northern Illinois University Press,1996
Dead Souls is a novel by Nikolai Gogol, first published in 1842, and widely regarded as an exemplar of 19th-century Russian literature. The purpose of the novel was to demonstrate the flaws and faults of the Russian mentality, Gogol portrayed those defects through Pavel Ivanovich Chichikov and the people whom he encounters in his endeavours. These people are typical of the Russian middle-class of the time, Gogol himself saw it as an epic poem in prose, and within the book as a novel in verse. Despite supposedly completing the second part, Gogol destroyed it shortly before his death. Although the novel ends in mid-sentence, it is regarded as complete in the extant form. The original title, as shown on the illustration, was The Wanderings of Chichikov, which contracted to merely Dead Souls. In the Russian Empire, before the emancipation of the serfs in 1861, serfs were for most purposes considered the property of the landowner, who could buy, sell or mortgage them, as any other chattel. To count serfs, the word soul was used, e. g. six souls of serfs.
The plot of the novel relies on dead souls which are accounted for in property registers. On another level, the title refers to the souls of Gogols characters. It is described as a novel, the literary genre virtually non-existent in Russian literature of the times. The first part of the novel was intended to represent a modern-day Inferno of the Divine Comedy, Gogol reveals to his readers an encompassing picture of the ailing social system in Russia after the war of 1812. As in many of Gogols short stories, the criticism of Dead Souls is communicated primarily through absurd. Unlike the short stories, Dead Souls was meant to offer solutions rather than simply point out problems. This grander scheme was largely unrealized at Gogols death, the work was never completed, and it is primarily the earlier, darker part of the novel that is remembered. In their studies of Gogol, Andrey Bely, D. S. Mirsky, Vladimir Nabokov, the novel has a circular structure, following Chichikov as he visits the estates of landowners living around the capital of a guberniya.
Every reader of The Iliad was struck by this device, Nabokov pointed out the Homeric roots of the complicated absurdist technique of Gogols comparisons and digressions. Of all Gogols creations, Chichikov stands out as the incarnation of poshlost and his psychological leitmotiv is complacency, and his geometrical expression roundness
A horse-drawn vehicle is a mechanized piece of equipment pulled by one horse or by a team of horses. These vehicles typically had two or four wheels and were used to carry passengers and/or a load and they were once common worldwide, but they have mostly been replaced by automobiles and other forms of self-propelled transport. A two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle is a cart, four-wheeled vehicles have many names – one for heavy loads is most commonly called a wagon. Very light carts and wagons can be pulled by donkeys, other smaller animals are occasionally used, such as large dogs and goats. Heavy wagons and agricultural implements can be pulled by other large animals such as oxen, water buffalo, yaks or even camels. Vehicles pulled by one animal have two shafts which attach either side of the rearmost animal, Vehicles which are pulled by a pair have a pole which attaches between the wheel pair. Other arrangements are possible, for example three or more abreast, a wheel pair with a single lead animal, or a wheel pair with three lead animals abreast.
Very heavy loads sometimes had a team behind to slow the vehicle down steep hills. Sometimes at a hill with frequent traffic such a team would be hired to passing wagons to help them up or down the hill. Two-wheeled vehicles are balanced by the distribution of weight of the load over the axle, four-wheeled vehicles remain level on their own, and so the shafts or pole are hinged vertically, allowing them to rise and fall with the movement of the animals. A four-wheeled vehicle is steered by the shafts or pole, which are attached to the front axle. Ambulance, much the purpose as the modern sense. Details of the varied but would be a lightly built and well-sprung, enclosed vehicle with provision for seated casualties. Barouche, an elegant, high-slung, open carriage with a seat in the rear of the body and a bench at the front for the driver. Berlin Brake Britzka Brougham Buckboard Bus, see omnibus Buggy, a light, four-wheeled carriage, joseph Hansom based the design of his public hire vehicle on the cabriolet so the name cab stuck to vehicles for public hire.
Cabriolet Calash or Calèshe, see barouche, cape cart Cariole Carriage, in the late eighteenth century, roughly equivalent to the modern word vehicle. It came to be restricted to vehicle and even to private. This last is the adopted by the linked article
Palekh miniature is a Russian folk handicraft of a miniature painting, which is done with tempera paints on varnished articles made of papier-mâché. Palekh Russian lacquer art on papier-mâché first appeared in 1923 in the village of Palekh, located in the Palekhsky District, the technology of making a semi-finished product was borrowed from the lacquer handicraft masters of Fedoskino. The Palekh miniatures usually represent characters from life, literary works, fairy tales, bylinas. Poetic magic of the Palekh characters, decorativeness of landscapes and architecture, the miniatures are usually set off with a complicated pattern made with gold dissolved in aqua regia. Palekh is the most renowned of four famous villages, the others being Kholuy and Fedoskino, each producing similar. The art of painting is still alive today. Nowadays there are workshops of the Artistic Fund of Russia, as well as small private studios, Palekh miniature artists are trained at the Palekh Art College founded in 1935.
Works by Palekh masters are kept in museums of Russia. The State Palekh Art Museum in Palekh boasts the biggest miniature painting collection, comprising over two thousand works
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France and Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires.
The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation
Often, elements of the heraldry relating to the individual or corporate body feature in the livery. Alternatively, some kind of an emblem or badge, or a distinctive colour, is featured. The word itself derives from the French livrée, meaning dispensed, handed over. Most often it would indicate that the wearer of the livery was a servant, follower or friend of the owner of the livery, or, in the case of objects, that the object belonged to them. In the late medieval phenomenon of bastard feudalism, livery badges worn by the retainers of great lords, sometimes in effect private armies, in the 14th century, livery referred to an allowance of any kind, but especially clothes provided to servants and members of the household. Such things might be kept in a livery cupboard, during the 14th century, specific colours denoting a great person began to be used for both his soldiers and his civilian followers, and the modern sense of the term began to form. Usually two different colours were used together, but the ways in which they were combined varied with rank, often the colours used were different each year.
As well as embroidered badges, metal ones were sewn on to clothing and corporations copied the behaviour of the great households. The grandest of these is the livery collar, Lord Hastings the favourite of King Edward IV of England had a Coller of gold of K. Edwards lyverys valued at the enormous sum of £40 in an inventory of 1489. This would have similar to the collars worn by Hastings sister and her husband Sir John Donne in the Donne Triptych by Hans Memling. Lords gave their servants lead or pewter badges to sew onto their clothes, in the 15th century European royalty sometimes distributed uniform suits of clothes to courtiers, as the House of Fugger, the leading bankers, did to all employees. This practice contracted to the provision of standardized clothing to male servants, the term most notably referred to the embroidered coats, knee breeches and stockings in 18th-century style, worn by footmen on formal occasions in grand houses. Plainer clothing in dark colours and without braiding was worn by footmen, for reasons of economy the employment of such servants, and their expensive dress, died out after World War I except in royal households.
Most European royal courts still use their state liveries on formal occasions and these are generally in traditional national colours, and are based on 18th century clothing with fine gold embroidery. Only male royal servants normally wear livery, knee breeches are worn, normally with white silk stockings, one exception being the Spanish court which prescribes red. At the British royal court red state livery are still worn by pages, coachmen, the state livery worn by footmen includes foils. The scarlet coats are handmade, and embroidered in gold braid with the cypher of the monarch. Gold buttons and other trimmings are of designs and patterns which date from the 18th century, unlike the tailor-made uniform clothing issued to full-time royal staff, the seldom-worn full-state dress reserved for court pages is not bespoke
Combined driving is an equestrian sport involving carriage driving. In this discipline, the driver sits on a vehicle drawn by a single horse, the sport has three phases, cross-country marathon and obstacle cone driving, and is most similar to the mounted equestrian sport of eventing. It is one of the ten international equestrian sport horse disciplines recognized by the Fédération Equestre Internationale, the FEI classification system denotes driving competitions as Concours dAttelage, which may be either National or International. A National Event is limited to competitors of that nation, who take part according to the regulations of their National Federation. Foreign athletes may take part by invitation, an International Event must be organised under the FEI Statutes, General Regulations and Sport Rules, and may be open to competitors of all NFs. CAIs are primarily for individual athletes, however, at World Championships, competitions for national teams of three or four members run concurrently with the individual competition.
There are two categories of international competitions – CAI-A and CAI-B, the CAI-A category denotes a higher level of organisation and facilities provided. Normally, it is assumed that a CA classified competition is for horses, if pony classes are involved, the letter P is added to the classification. Numbers denote the arrangement of horses in the class, World championships are denoted as Championnat du Monde Attelage. There are three World Championships for horses – Singles and Four-in-Hand and these are held every two years, with Single Horse and Four-in-Hand Championships in an even-numbered year and Horse Pairs every odd year. In addition, a World Combined Pony Championships are held every odd-numbered year, FEI World Cup Driving, is a series of competitions for four-in-hand horse teams. Introduced in 2001, it provides a style of competition which takes place in an indoor arena. The course combines marathon and cone driving obstacles, five or six drivers, each with a team of four horses take turns to drive the course against the clock.
World Cup Driving events are classified as CAI-W and take place throughout the winter months, competitions for drivers with disabilities are classified as CPEAI and the championships are held in every odd-numbered year. At the National level the sport is governed by each countrys National Federation, sometimes through a body, which will have rules based on the FEI Rulebook. Most countries hold their own National Championships, most people will start driving by joining a local organisation or club, who organise training sessions and one- or two-day competitions. Keen drivers can qualify to take part in events from which they may put themselves forward to be selected to represent their country at international competitions or World Championships. Because a driver needs a groom, its possible to take part as such
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area. Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city, Moscow is a major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth and it is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe, the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and the Moscow International Business Center. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, the city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basils Cathedral with its brightly colored domes. Moscow is the seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city.
Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city and it is recognized as one of the citys landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. In old Russian the word meant a church administrative district. The demonym for a Moscow resident is москвич for male or москвичка for female, the name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river and its cognates include Russian, музга, muzga pool, Lithuanian and Latvian, mazgāt to wash, majjati to drown, mergō to dip, immerse. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa, the original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, Moskva, in a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it as well came English Muscovy, various other theories, having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists.
The surface similarity of the name Russia with Rosh, an obscure biblical tribe or country, the oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic. Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered, on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc. The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi, the Moskva River was incorporated as part of Rostov-Suzdal into the Kievan Rus in the 11th century. By AD1100, a settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a place of Yuri Dolgoruky. At the time it was a town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality
The horse is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, into the large, humans began to domesticate horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, colors, breeds and behavior. Horses anatomy enables them to use of speed to escape predators and they have a well-developed sense of balance. Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait, female horses, called mares, carry their young for approximately 11 months, and a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth. Most domesticated horses begin training under saddle or in harness between the ages of two and four and they reach full adult development by age five, and have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years.
There are more than 300 breeds of horse in the world today, horses were historically used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control. Many products are derived from horses, including meat, hide, bone, humans provide domesticated horses with food and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers. Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomy, different life stages, depending on breed and environment, the modern domestic horse has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years. Uncommonly, a few animals live into their 40s and, the oldest verifiable record was Old Billy, a 19th-century horse that lived to the age of 62. In modern times, Sugar Puff, who had listed in Guinness World Records as the worlds oldest living pony. The exception is in endurance riding, where the age to compete is based on the animals actual calendar age. The following terminology is used to describe horses of various ages, Colt, a common terminology error is to call any young horse a colt, when the term actually only refers to young male horses.
Filly, A female horse under the age of four, foal, A horse of either sex less than one year old. A nursing foal is sometimes called a suckling and a foal that has been weaned is called a weanling, most domesticated foals are weaned at five to seven months of age, although foals can be weaned at four months with no adverse physical effects. Gelding, A castrated male horse of any age, mare, A female horse four years old and older
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians