Saint-Martin-sur-le-Pré is a commune in the Marne department in north-eastern France. Communes of the Marne department INSEE commune file
Banalités is a set of five mélodies for voice and piano composed by Francis Poulenc in 1940 on poems by Guillaume Apollinaire. Composed in 1940, the mélodies were premiered at salle Gaveau, on 14 December 1940, by Pierre Bernac and the composer. Chanson d’Orkenise Hôtel Fagnes de Wallonie Voyage à Paris Sanglots "Chanson d'Orkenise", "Fagnes de Wallonie" and "Sanglots" are taken from the collection Il y a. "Hôtel", written in 1913, was published in the posthumous collection Le Guetteur mélancolique. "Voyage à Paris" was published in the Poèmes retrouvés from the Œuvres poétiques by Apollinaire in 1956. "Chanson d'Orkenise" is dedicated to Claude Rostand, "Hôtel" to Marthe Bosredon, "Fagnes de Wallonie" to Ms. Henri Frédéricq, "Voyage à Paris" to Paul Éluard, "Sanglots" to Suzette Chanlaire. Pierre Bernac and Francis Poulenc in 1950. 1 and 2: Régine Crespin and John Wustman in 1967. Nathalie Stutzmann and Inger Södergren. Michel Piquemal and Christine Lajarrige. Véronique Gens and Roger Vignoles.
One song of the Pink Martini band, "Sympathique", is inspired by the poem "Hotel" by Apollinaire and its setting to music by Poulenc. Banalités on IMSLP Pierre Bernac sings "Banalites" of Poulenc with Poulenc on YouTube
Éric Alfred Leslie Satie, who signed his name Erik Satie after 1884, was a French composer and pianist. Satie was an influential artist in the late 19th- and early 20th-century Parisian avant-garde, his work was a precursor to artistic movements such as minimalism, repetitive music, the Theatre of the Absurd. An eccentric, Satie was introduced as a "gymnopedist" in 1887, shortly before writing his most famous compositions, the Gymnopédies, he referred to himself as a "phonometrician", preferring this designation to that of "musician", after having been called "a clumsy but subtle technician" in a book on contemporary French composers published in 1911. In addition to his body of music, Satie was "a thinker with a gift of eloquence" who left a remarkable set of writings, having contributed work for a range of publications, from the dadaist 391 to the American culture chronicle Vanity Fair. Although in life he prided himself on publishing his work under his own name, in the late 19th century he appears to have used pseudonyms such as Virginie Lebeau and François de Paule in some of his published writings.
Erik Satie was born on 17 May 1866, the son of Alfred Satie and his wife Jane Leslie, born in London to Scottish parents. Erik was born at Honfleur in Normandy; when Satie was four years old, his family moved to Paris, his father having been offered a translator's job in the capital. After his mother's death in 1872, he was sent, together with his younger brother, back to Honfleur to live with his paternal grandparents. There he received his first music lessons from a local organist. In 1878, when he was 12 years old, his grandmother died, the two brothers were reunited in Paris with their father, who remarried shortly afterwards. From the early 1880s onwards, Satie started publishing salon compositions by his step-mother and himself, among others. In 1879, Satie entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he was soon labelled untalented by his teachers. Georges Mathias, his professor of piano at the Conservatoire, described his pupil's piano technique in flatly negative terms, "insignificant and laborious" and "worthless".
Émile Decombes called him "the laziest student in the Conservatoire". Years Satie related that Mathias, with great insistence, had told him that his real talent lay in composing. After being sent home for two and a half years, he was readmitted to the Conservatoire at the end of 1885, but was unable to make a much more favourable impression on his teachers than he had before, and, as a result, resolved to take up military service a year later. However, Satie's military career did not last long. Satie moved from his father's residence to lodgings in Montmartre in 1887, when he became 21. By this time he had started what was to be an enduring friendship with the romantic poet Patrice Contamine, had his first compositions published by his father, he soon integrated with the artistic clientele of the Le Chat Noir Café-cabaret, started publishing his Gymnopédies. Publication of compositions in the same vein followed. In the same period he befriended Claude Debussy, he moved to a smaller room, still in Montmartre, in 1890.
By 1891 he was the official composer and chapel-master of the Rosicrucian Order "Ordre de la Rose-Croix Catholique, du Temple et du Graal", led by Sâr Joséphin Péladan, which led to compositions such as Salut drapeau!, Le Fils des étoiles, the Sonneries de la Rose+Croix. Satie gave performances at the Salon de la Rose + Croix, organized by Péladan. By mid-1892, Satie had composed the first pieces in a compositional system of his own making, provided incidental music to a chivalric esoteric play, had his first hoax published, broken from Péladan, starting that autumn with the Uspud project, a "Christian Ballet", in collaboration with Contamine de Latour. While the comrades from both the Chat Noir and Miguel Utrillo's Auberge du Clou sympathised, a promotional brochure was produced for the project, which reads as a pamphlet for a new esoteric sect. Satie and Suzanne Valadon began an affair early in 1893. After their first night together, he proposed marriage; the two did not marry. Satie became obsessed with her, calling her his Biqui and writing impassioned notes about "her whole being, lovely eyes, gentle hands, tiny feet".
During their relationship, Satie composed the Danses gothiques as a means of calming his mind, Valadon painted a portrait of Satie, which she gave to him. After six months she moved away. Afterwards, he said that he was left with "nothing but an icy loneliness that fills the head with emptiness and the heart with sadness", it is believed this was the only intimate relationship Satie had. In 1893, Satie met the young Maurice Ravel for the first time, Satie's style emerging in the first compositions of the youngster. One of Satie's own compositions of that period, was to remain undisclosed until after his death. By the end of the year he had founded the Église Métropolitaine d'Art de Jésus Conducteur; as its only member, in the role of "Parcier et Maître de Chapelle", he started
Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery and sometimes dance or ballet; the performance is given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor. Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition. Understood as an sung piece, in contrast to a play with songs, opera has come to include numerous genres, including some that include spoken dialogue such as musical theater, Singspiel and Opéra comique. In traditional number opera, singers employ two styles of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style and self-contained arias; the 19th century saw the rise of the continuous music drama. Opera originated in Italy at the end of the 16th century and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Heinrich Schütz in Germany, Jean-Baptiste Lully in France, Henry Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century.
In the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Christoph Willibald Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his "reform" operas in the 1760s; the most renowned figure of late 18th-century opera is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for his Italian comic operas The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, Così fan tutte, as well as Die Entführung aus dem Serail, The Magic Flute, landmarks in the German tradition. The first third of the 19th century saw the high point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini all creating works that are still performed, it saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer. The mid-to-late 19th century was a golden age of opera and dominated by Giuseppe Verdi in Italy and Richard Wagner in Germany; the popularity of opera continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini and Richard Strauss in the early 20th century.
During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and eastern Europe in Russia and Bohemia. The 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism and Minimalism. With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso and Maria Callas became known to much wider audiences that went beyond the circle of opera fans. Since the invention of radio and television, operas were performed on these mediums. Beginning in 2006, a number of major opera houses began to present live high-definition video transmissions of their performances in cinemas all over the world. Since 2009, complete performances are live streamed; the words of an opera are known as the libretto. Some composers, notably Wagner, have written their own libretti. Traditional opera referred to as "number opera", consists of two modes of singing: recitative, the plot-driving passages sung in a style designed to imitate and emphasize the inflections of speech, aria in which the characters express their emotions in a more structured melodic style.
Vocal duets and other ensembles occur, choruses are used to comment on the action. In some forms of opera, such as singspiel, opéra comique and semi-opera, the recitative is replaced by spoken dialogue. Melodic or semi-melodic passages occurring in the midst of, or instead of, are referred to as arioso; the terminology of the various kinds of operatic voices is described in detail below. During both the Baroque and Classical periods, recitative could appear in two basic forms, each of, accompanied by a different instrumental ensemble: secco recitative, sung with a free rhythm dictated by the accent of the words, accompanied only by basso continuo, a harpsichord and a cello. Over the 18th century, arias were accompanied by the orchestra. By the 19th century, accompagnato had gained the upper hand, the orchestra played a much bigger role, Wagner revolutionized opera by abolishing all distinction between aria and recitative in his quest for what Wagner termed "endless melody". Subsequent composers have tended to follow Wagner's example, though some, such as Stravinsky in his The Rake's Progress have bucked the trend.
The changing role of the orchestra in opera is described in more detail below. The Italian word opera means "work", both in the sense of the labour done and the result produced; the Italian word derives from the Latin opera, a singular noun meaning "work" and the plural of the noun opus. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Italian word was first used in the sense "composition in which poetry and music are combined" in 1639. Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, it was writt
La voix humaine
La voix humaine is a forty-minute, one-act opera for soprano and orchestra composed by Francis Poulenc in 1958. The work is based on the play of the same name by Jean Cocteau, along with French soprano Denise Duval, worked with Poulenc in preparation for the opera's premiere. Poulenc's tragédie lyrique was first performed at the Théâtre National de l'Opéra-Comique in Paris on 6 February 1959, with Duval singing the female role and Georges Prêtre conducting; the libretto consists of a woman's last phone conversation with her lover, who now loves someone else. During the call, the woman reveals that she has attempted suicide because her lover has abandoned her; the work has been revived. Sopranos from France, other continental European countries, the UK and the US have performed the solo role, several of them, beginning with Duval, have recorded it. Cocteau finished writing La voix humaine in 1928, the monodrama was premiered two years later. Having been criticized for using mechanical effects in his plays, Cocteau sought to reduce his drama to the "simplest of forms".
Indeed, the one-act play involves a single character in a single room with a telephone. The character—an anonymous woman referred to only as "Elle" —has been abandoned by her lover and reveals that she has attempted to commit suicide; the play consists of her last conversation with her lover. As a one-act play, the drama lacks the breaks. Instead, Cocteau suggests that the actress's different poses represent different "phases" of the monologue; the structure of the play is further delineated by the phone cutting off without warning. Upon the success of his second opera Dialogues des Carmélites in 1957, Poulenc was encouraged to compose more works in the genre. Hervé Dugardin, the Paris director of Ricordi Publishers, suggested that Poulenc set Cocteau's monodrama to music, with Greek-American soprano Maria Callas singing the role of Elle. Poulenc, wrote the opera for Denise Duval, who had starred as Blanche de la Force in the Paris Opéra premiere of Dialogues. Poulenc's close work with Duval helped his compositional process because he "knew the details of the soprano's stormy love life, this helped to cultivate a sense of specificity in the opera."
Poulenc identified with Elle's situation, which allowed him to "pour immense anguish into his opera… Like her he abused sleeping pills and anti-depressants." He thus immersed himself in a personal project with which he connected. Poulenc met Cocteau early in his career because of the latter's close relationship with Les Six, a group of six French composers of which Poulenc was a member; the two maintained a close friendship throughout their lives, but Poulenc did not set many of Cocteau's texts prior the composition of La voix humaine, about forty years after their first encounter. Poulenc himself explained that he waited so many years to set Cocteau's play because he felt that he needed a great deal of experience to construct such a work. In composing La voix humaine, Poulenc strove to maintain the emotional effectiveness of Cocteau's original drama, he carefully adapted Cocteau's text, omitting only those passages that he believed would reduce the emotional tension of the opera. In his article on Poulenc and Cocteau, Denis Waleckx proposes that there are five types of "phases" in Cocteau's play.
These phases deal with chronology, psychological evolution, social interaction, telephone problems, the "remembrance of past happiness." Poulenc left the chronology, telephone problem, past happiness phases intact, but cut down on or omitted many of the psychological or social phases. This resulted in a protagonist, "quieter, more modest, less hysterical, less unbearable, thereby more touching than Cocteau's." Poulenc thereby focused on the relationship of the woman and her lover, while still retaining the key points and overall character of Cocteau's play. Poulenc viewed the soprano singing the role of Elle as "a co-composer" of the part; because Poulenc wrote the role for Duval, the French soprano was his original "co-composer." Duval helped Poulenc with his adaptation of Cocteau's text. Upon the opera's completion and Duval visited Cocteau, responsible for directing and designing costumes and stage décor for the premiere. Cocteau worked with Duval and adapted his directions for lighting and costuming to complement her physical attributes.
Poulenc finished his score for voice and piano on 2 June 1958 and spent the next two months orchestrating the work, completing the version for full orchestra on 7 August 1958. The tragédie-lyrique was premiered on 6 February 1959 at the Opéra-Comique, with Georges Prêtre conducting and Duval performing the role of Elle; the opera met immediate success and went on to be performed at La Scala in Milan, as well as in Portugal and the United States. The curtain opens to reveal a bedroom, she changes position once before rising. Although she makes to leave the room, the phone rings and she returns to answer it; the woman receives two wrong numbers. She lies to him, saying that she went out with her friend Marthe the previous night, that she took one pill to help her fall asleep when she returned; the couple discuss their past relationship, Elle blames herself for their problems, claiming, "Tout est ma faute." Throughout their conversation, they experience numerous telephone problems, their connection cuts out completely.
When Elle calls her lover
Alfred Denis Cortot was a Franco-Swiss pianist and teacher, one of the most renowned classical musicians of the 20th century. He was valued for his poetic insight into Romantic piano works those of Chopin, Saint-Saëns and Schumann. Cortot was born in Nyon, Vaud, in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, to a French father and a Swiss mother, his first cousin was the composer Edgard Varèse. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire with Émile Decombes, with Louis Diémer, taking a premier prix in 1896, he made his debut at the Concerts Colonne in 1897, playing Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 3. Between 1898 and 1901 he was a choral coach and subsequently an assistant conductor at the Bayreuth Festival. In 1902 he conducted the Paris premiere of Wagner's Götterdämmerung, he formed a concert society to perform Wagner's Parsifal, Beethoven's Missa solemnis, Brahms' German Requiem, new works by French composers. In 1905, Cortot formed a trio with Jacques Thibaud and Pablo Casals, which established itself as the leading piano trio of its era.
In 1907, he was appointed Professor by Gabriel Fauré at the Conservatoire de Paris, replacing Raoul Pugno. He continued to teach at the Paris Conservatoire until 1923, where his pupils included Yvonne Lefébure, Vlado Perlemuter, Simone Plé-Caussade and Marguerite Monnot. In 1919 Cortot founded the École Normale de Musique de Paris, his courses in musical interpretation were legendary. For his many notable students, see here; as a leading musical figure, Cortot traveled for many international music events. The French government sponsored two promotional tours to the United States, one to the new Soviet Russia in 1920, he conducted several orchestras and was called upon to provide piano accompaniment for touring artists when in Paris. Involved in music until his health failed, like Franz Liszt in his advanced years he taught master classes in piano. On 21 March 1925, working with Victor Records, made the world's first electrical recording of classical music: Chopin's Impromptus and Schubert's Litanei.
During World War II Cortot supported the German occupation of France. He accepted the position of Haut-Commissaire for arts in the Vichy government and served twice as a member of the Vichy's Conseil national, he participated in official concerts in Paris during the occupation as well as in Germany in 1942. After the war's conclusion, Cortot was found guilty by a French government panel of collaboration with the enemy and was suspended from performing for a year. Once the suspension expired he returned to performing more than 100 concerts a season. Cortot died on 15 June 1962, aged 84, of uremia from kidney failure in Switzerland. Cortot, Alfred, La musique française de piano, 1930–48 —, Cours d’interprétation, 1934 —, Aspects de Chopin, 1949 Gavoty, Alfred Cortot, 1977 Manshardt, Aspects of Cortot, 1994 Guide to Alfred Cortot Collection, 1491-1853 housed at the University of Kentucky Libraries Special Collections Research CenterRecordingsPiano Rolls Recording list Recordings and discography
Ricardo Viñes y Roda was a Spanish pianist. He gave the premieres of works by Ravel, Satie and Albéniz, he was the piano teacher of the composer Francis Poulenc and the pianists Marcelle Meyer, Joaquín Nin-Culmell and Léo-Pol Morin. Viñes was born in Spain, he studied the piano at the Paris Conservatoire under Charles-Wilfrid de Bériot, composition and harmony with Benjamin Godard and Albert Lavignac. In 1895 Viñes made his début at the Salle Paris. From 1900 he had an international career, touring throughout Europe and South America. Between 1930 and 1936 he lived in Argentina, returning to Paris in 1936 where he continued to play until the final year of his life. According to Charles Timbrell and Esperanza Berrocal in the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Viñes's keyboard technique was magnificent and his repertoire extensive. In addition to the established classics he championed new works by the many composers of whom he was a close friend, they included Ravel, Satie, Granados, Albéniz and Déodat de Séverac.
He was a proponent of Russian music, introduced to France pieces by Mussorgsky and Prokofiev. Grove lists among the many works dedicated to him Ravel's Oiseaux tristes, Debussy's Poissons d’or and Falla's Noches en los jardines de España. Viñes composed a small number of works, the best known of which are the two Hommages, for Séverac and Satie, he wrote several articles on Spanish music, his diaries are much quoted by biographers of his musical contemporaries. His piano students included Joaquín Nin-Culmell, Léo-Pol Morin and Francis Poulenc. Poulenc said of his teacher: I admired him madly, because, at this time, in 1914, he was the only virtuoso who played Debussy and Ravel; that meeting with Viñes was paramount in my life: I owe him everything. … In reality it is to Viñes that I owe my fledgling efforts in music and everything I know about the piano. Viñes was a delightful character, some kind of strange Hidalgo with an enormous moustache, a brown sombrero in true Barcelona style, button boots with which he used to kick me in the shins whenever I was clumsy at the pedals.
No one could teach the art of using the pedals, an essential feature of modern piano music, better than Viñes. He somehow managed to extract clarity from the ambiguities of the pedals, his staccato playing was remarkable. Marcelle Meyer, his most brilliant pupil, declared that he made Petrushka seem easy. An annual International piano competition "Ricard Viñes" has been held since 1995 in his birth town Lleida; the city council named one of the city's most popular squares the "Plaça Ricard Vinyes", the main room of the Llotja de Lleida theatre and congress centre is named after him. Viñes died in Barcelona at the age of 68, he was unmarried. Viñes had an intense dislike for the recording process, but nonetheless left 25 recordings dating from the 1930s. In Grove's view, the playing as recorded reveals "an unforced virtuosity, charming rhythmic pointing and shimmering pedal effects."All the recordings listed below were released by Marston Records in 2007 as "Ricardo Viñes: The Complete Recordings".
Other releases are listed below the individual compositions. Isaac Albéniz Granada, Op.47 No.1 Torre bermeja, Op.92 No.12 Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Orientale, Op.232 No.2 Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Seguidillas, Op.232 No.5 Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Serenata española, Op.181 Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Tango in A minor, Op.164 No.2 Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Pedro Humberto Allende Dos Tonadas Chilenas Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Manuel Blancafort L'Orgue du Carroussel Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Polka de l'Equilibriste Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Alexander Borodin Scherzo in Ab Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Claude Debussy Soirée dans Grenade Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Poissons d'or Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Naxos, "A-Z of Pianists - by Jonathan Summers", 4-CD set, 2007 Ysaÿe Records, "Claude Debussy - Images Pour Piano", 2008 Hommage à Rameau Arbiter Records, "Masters of the French piano tradition", 2007 Etude No.10, "Pour les sonorités opposées" Arbiter Records, "Masters of the French piano tradition", 2007 Viñes speaks on Debussy Manuel de Falla Dance of Terror Récit du Pêcheur Introduction and Ritual Fire Dance Gluck-Brahms Gavotte in A Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Carlos López-Buchardo Bailecito Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Domenico Scarlatti Sonata in D, K.29 Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Cayetano Troiani Milonga Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Joaquín Turina Miramar Opal, "Ricardo Viñes and Francis Planté", 1994 Dans les Jardins de Murcia Opal