USC Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy
The USC Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy is a division of the Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry at the University of Southern California, focusing on research and practice related to physical therapy and rehabilitation. The division grants doctoral degrees in physical therapy and biokinesiology, as well as master's degrees in biokinesiology. In addition, the division offers residency programs in orthopedic physical therapy, neurologic physical therapy, sports physical therapy, as well as pediatric physical therapy; the precursor of the Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy was established as an apprenticeship program at the Orthopedic Hospital of Los Angeles in 1942. The physical therapy program was started by Dr. Charles Lowman, an orthopedic physician trained at USC, Susan Roen, the head physical therapist at the Orthopedic Hospital and an assistant instructor in the USC Physical Education Department, their successful cooperation in underwater therapy, drew international attention.
Catherine Worthingham - who graduated under their guidance - went on to contribute to the physical therapy profession through education and research, advanced the profession to a high level of influence in rehabilitation. The 1940s was an important period for physical and occupational therapy education with an increased focus on university-based baccalaureate programs. In 1945, the Physical Therapy department was established at USC’s University Park Campus with two programs offered: a certificate program for college graduates and a baccalaureate program. Charlotte W. Anderson, a core faculty in the War Emergency Program, was the first chairperson of the Physical Therapy department; the Physical Therapy program at USC was accredited by American Medical Association in 1946. The first class with a Certificate in Physical Therapy graduated from USC in the same year while the first BS degree candidate graduated in 1947. In order to prepare teachers for physical therapy schools, a post-professional graduate M.
A. program was established at USC in 1947 as the second program of its kind in the US. The first MA candidate graduated in 1950. While physical therapy was a new professional field for men at that time, the first male students were admitted to the physical therapy program in 1950; the physical therapy department at USC developed and expanded during the 1960s. Margret S. Rood became the chair of the department in 1960, she was a physical therapist and occupational therapist and proposed a well-known system of therapeutic exercises to treat neuromuscular dysfunction called the Rood approach. Margret S. Rood stepped down as chair in 1966. In 1966, the first faculty with a PhD degree, Frances Grover, was hired to teach anatomy. Margaret Bryce, who chaired the department until 1975, contributed to physical therapy management in lower extremity amputees.1971 was a landmark year for the department as it moved to Rancho Los Amigos Hospital in Downey to initiate a new paradigm in US rehabilitation medicine.
In 1971, USC established a master’s degree in clinical physical therapy including clinical fellows at Rancho Los Amigos. By moving the division to Rancho Los Amigos, students were not only able to access skillful physical therapists, but able to have better hands on experience in physical therapy practice. Helen Hislop was appointed chair of the department in 1975; the final BS class graduated in 1975 and all physical therapy graduate degrees were shifted from MA to MS In 1978, the department established the first physical therapy PhD program in the nation, accepted three PhD students. Dr. Jacquelin Perry, a director of the pathokinesiology lab at Rancho Los Amigos and a recognized expert in gait analysis and polio, tremendously contributed to the development of the PhD program in physical therapy at USC; the 1980s and 1990s were periods defined by many firsts in the division. The first doctoral degree in physical therapy from USC was awarded to Mary Beth Brown in 1984. In 1989, an independent faculty practice, USC Physical Therapy Associates, was established with Rob Landel as director.
The department changed its name to the Department of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy in 1993 to reflect its expanding research mission. Eighty-four students were admitted to the first entry-level DPT class in 1995 and graduated three years later. In 1996, 15 graduates were awarded the first post-professional DPT degrees from USC. After 23 years of service as department chair, Helen Hislop stepped down in 1998 and Sandra Howell was named acting chair in her place; this same year, the inaugural class of two residents was admitted to the Orthopedic Physical Therapy residency program at USC, the first academically based residency in the US. Dr. James Gordon became the new chair of the department in July 2000. In 2003, the Department of Nursing closed and the university provost announced that the Independent Health Professions would be phased out; this precipitated a major change for the department, which became the Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy of the Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry in 2006.
In 2017, the department began offering online DPT programs. The Doctor of Physical Therapy program has been ranked first among physical therapy schools by US News & World Report since 2004. See List of University of Southern California people Judy Burnfield, Director of the Athletic Performance Laboratory at University of Nebraska-Lincoln Judith E. Deutsch, Faculty member-Rutgers University USC Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy website USC Biokinesiology and Physica
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
National Socialism, more known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – the National Socialist German Workers' Party – in Nazi Germany, of other far-right groups with similar aims. Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but incorporated fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, eugenics into its creed, its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, it was influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after Germany's defeat in World War I, from which came the party's "cult of violence", "at the heart of the movement."Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community.
The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races. The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both Marxist international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization; the Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party – to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats and the Communists – and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization.
The National Socialist Program or "25 Points" was adopted in 1920 and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined the anti-Semitism and anti-Communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion; the Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, making them the largest party in the legislature by far, but still short of an outright majority. Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, in 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg, through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Through the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg, a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis had soon established a one-party state.
The Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives, including the leadership of the SA. After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer, meaning "leader". From that point, Hitler was the dictator of Nazi Germany, known as the "Third Reich", under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered. Many millions of people were exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust during World War II, including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe. Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced.
It is regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups referred to as neo-Nazis, describing themselves as followers of National Socialism. The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei for which they used the acronym NSDAP; the term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant, characterizing an awkward and clumsy person. In this sense, the word Nazi was a hypocorism of the German male name Ignatz – Ignatz being a common name at the time in Bavaria, the area from which the NSDAP emerged. In the 1920s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this and – using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist as an example – shortened NSDAP's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above; the first use of the term "Nazi" by the National Socialists occurred in 1926 in a publication by Joseph Goebbels called Der Nazi-Sozi.
In Goebbels' pamphlet, the word "Nazi" only appears when linked with the word "Sozi" as an abbreviation of
USC School of International Relations
The University of Southern California School of International Relations is the third-oldest school of international relations in the world. A subdivision within the USC Dana and David Dornsife College of Letters and Sciences, the school is known for teaching, hiring faculty who concentrate in a variety of worldviews; the school traces its origins to the early 1920s and then-University of Southern California president Rufus B. von KleinSmid who held a strong interest in developing the study of international relations. In 1922, USC hosted the Pan-American Conference on Education that brought together university officials from 22 countries to discuss the importance of international education and cooperation. In 1924, the Los Angeles University of International Relations was founded, to be renamed the USC School of International Relations; the founding occurred during the liberal-internationalist reaction to World War I. According to the school's website, its founding mission was "to furnish opportunities for the training of statesmen for consular and diplomatic service, of businessmen for commerce and business administration, of teachers in departments related to world affairs in colleges and universities".
The school continued to grow during the Cold War. It was one of the first schools of international relations in the country to offer a PhD, became a charter member of The Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs, helped to found the International Studies Association. For majors entering the school in 2013 or before, concentrations in the following courses were offered, of which international relations majors had to choose two: International Politics and Security Studies International Political Economy Foreign Policy Analysis Culture and Global Society Regional concentrations: European Union Post-Soviet and Eastern Europe Latin America The Middle East The Pacific Rim AfricaFor majors entering after 2013, there is no concentration requirement, though they can still choose to pursue one of the above concentrations if they wish. Since 2016, the Director of SIR has been Wayne Sandholtz. Sandholtz earned his MA from UC Berkeley; the preceding directors are Robert English, John Odell, Laurie Brand, Steven Lamy, Jonathan Aronson, Robert Friedheim, Thomas J. Biersteker, Gerald Bender, Michael Fry, Jay Savage, James N. Rosenau, Ross Berkes, Claude A. Buss, Rufus B. von KleinSmid.
There are 24 permanent members of the faculty at the school. All have terminal degrees in their field, have published numerous working papers and books. In order to further the study of international relations, the school has created number of affiliates: Center for International Studies - CIS was established by the School of International Relations to promote advanced research and sustained discussion of theoretical and policy issues in international political and economic affairs. Center for Active Learning in International Studies - CALIS is a K-12 outreach program sponsored by the East Asian Studies Center and the School of International Relations Teaching International Relations Program - TIRP is a community outreach program operated by the School of International Relations USC Center on Public Diplomacy - The University of Southern California Center on Public Diplomacy is a joint academic research and training Center created and run jointly by the USC Annenberg School for Communication and the USC College of Letters and Sciences School of International Relations Official website USC Center on Public Diplomacy
1080i is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television and high-definition video. The number "1080" refers to the number of horizontal lines on the screen; the "i" is an abbreviation for "interlaced". A related display resolution is 1080p, which has 1080 lines of resolution; the term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, so the 1080 lines of vertical resolution implies 1920 columns of horizontal resolution, or 1920 pixels × 1080 lines. A 1920 pixels × 1080 lines screen has a total of 2.1 megapixels and a temporal resolution of 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. This format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard; the choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for "square pixels" to be used in HD video formats. Within the designation "1080i", the i stands for interlaced scan. A frame of 1080i video consists of two sequential fields of 540 vertical pixels; the first field consists of all odd-numbered TV lines and the second all numbered lines.
The horizontal lines of pixels in each field are captured and displayed with a one-line vertical gap between them, so the lines of the next field can be interlaced between them, resulting in 1080 total lines. 1080i differs from 1080p, where the p stands for progressive scan, where all lines in a frame are captured at the same time. In native or pure 1080i, the two fields of a frame correspond to different instants, so motion portrayal is good; this is true for interlaced video in general and can be observed in still images taken of fast motion scenes. However, when 1080p material is captured at 25 or 30 frames/second, it is converted to 1080i at 50 or 60 fields/second for processing or broadcasting. In this situation both fields in a frame do correspond to the same instant; the field-to-instant relation is somewhat more complex for the case of 1080p at 24 frames/second converted to 1080i at 60 fields/second. The field rate of 1080i is 60 Hz for countries that use or used System M as analog television system with 60 fields/sec, or 50 Hz for regions that use or used 625-lines television system with 50 fields/sec.
Both field rates can be carried by major digital television broadcast formats such as ATSC, DVB, ISDB-T International. The frame rate can be implied by the context, while the field rate is specified after the letter i, such as "1080i60". In this case 1080i60 refers to 60 fields per second; the European Broadcasting Union prefers to use the resolution and frame rate separated by a slash, as in 1080i/30 and 1080i/25 480i/30 and 576i/25. Resolutions of 1080i60 or 1080i50 refers to 1080i/30 or 1080i/25 in EBU notation. 1080i is directly compatible with some CRT HDTVs on which it can be displayed natively in interlaced form, but for display on progressive-scan—e.g. Most new LCD and plasma TVs, it must be deinterlaced. Depending on the television's video processing capabilities, the resulting video quality may vary, but may not suffer. For example, film material at 25fps may be deinterlaced from 1080i50 to restore a full 1080p resolution at the original frame rate without any loss. Preferably video material with 50 or 60 motion phases/second is to be converted to 50p or 60p before display.
Worldwide, most HD channels on satellite and cable broadcast in 1080i. In the United States, 1080i is the preferred format for most broadcasters, with Inc.. Viacom, AT&T, Comcast owned networks broadcasting in the format. Only Fox-owned television networks and Disney-owned television networks, along with MLB Network and a few other cable networks use 720p as the preferred format for their networks. Many ABC affiliates owned by Hearst Television and former Belo Corporation stations owned by TEGNA, along with some individual affiliates of those three networks, air their signals in 1080i and upscale network programming for master control and transmission purposes, as most syndicated programming and advertising is produced and distributed in 1080i, removing a downscaling step to 720p; this allows local newscasts on these ABC affiliates to be produced in the higher resolution to match the picture quality of their 1080i competitors. Some cameras and broadcast systems that use 1080 vertical lines per frame do not use the full 1920 pixels of a nominal 1080i picture for image capture and encoding.
Common subsampling ratios include 3/4 and 1/2. Where used, the lower horizontal resolution is scaled to capture and/or display a full-sized picture. Using half horizontal resolution and only one field of each frame results in the format known as qHD, which has fram
USC School of Cinematic Arts
The USC School of Cinematic Arts —formerly the USC School of Cinema-Television, otherwise known as CNTV—is a private media school within the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California. The school offers multiple undergraduate and graduate programs covering film production, screenwriting and media studies and digital arts, media arts + practice, interactive media & games. Additional programs include the Business of Entertainment, it is the oldest and arguably most reputable such school in the United States, established in 1929 as a joint venture with the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Having been ranked as one of the best film schools in the world on several occasions, SCA has most notably topped THR's ranking for seven consecutive years; as such, admissions into the school are competitive, with an estimated 2–3% acceptance rate. The school's founding faculty include Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, William C. DeMille, Ernst Lubitsch, Irving Thalberg, Darryl Zanuck.
Notable professors include the Alma and Alfred Hitchcock Professor of American Film. In April 2006, the USC Board of Trustees voted to change the school's name to the USC School of Cinematic Arts. On September 19, 2006, USC announced that alumnus George Lucas had donated US$175 million to expand the film school with a new 137,000-square-foot facility; this represented the largest single donation to the largest to any film school in the world. His previous donations resulted in the naming of two existing buildings after him and his then-wife, though Lucas was not fond of the architecture used in those buildings. An architectural hobbyist, Lucas laid out the original designs for the project, inspired by the Mediterranean Revival Style, used in older campus buildings as well as the Los Angeles area; the project received another $50 million in contributions from Warner Bros. 20th Century Fox and The Walt Disney Company. In fall 2006, the school, together with the Royal Film Commission of Jordan, created the Red Sea Institute of Cinematic Arts in Aqaba, Jordan.
The first classes were held in 2008, the first graduating class for the university was in 2010. Donations from film and game industry companies and alumni have enabled the school to build the following facilities: School of Cinematic Arts Complex, completed in 2010, which includes: 20th Century Fox soundstage George Lucas and Steven Spielberg Buildings, featuring the Ray Stark Family Theatre, equipped for 3D presentation, as well as two digital theatres, the Albert and Dana Broccoli Theatre and Fanny Brice Theatre Marcia Lucas Post-Production Center Marilyn & Jeffrey Katzenberg Center for Animation Sumner Redstone Production Building Interactive building, home the USC Interactive Media & Games Division, the USC Division of Media Arts and Practice, several research labs Robert Zemeckis Center for Digital Arts, home of Trojan Vision, USC's student television station Eileen Norris Cinema Theatre Complex, featuring a 365-seat theatre that serves as a classroom with USC faculty member and Academy Award winner Tomlinson Holman's THX audiovisual reproduction standard used in film venues worldwide.
The Frank Sinatra Hall, dedicated in 2002, houses a public exhibit and collection of extensive memorabilia commemorating Sinatra's life and contributions to American popular culture. David L. Wolper Center at Doheny Memorial Library Louis B. Mayer Film and Television Study Center at Doheny Memorial Library Hugh M. Hefner Moving Image ArchiveAt the center of the new television complex is a statue of founder Douglas Fairbanks, he is seen holding a fencing weapon in one hand to reflect his strong ties with the USC Fencing Club. Since 1973, at least one alumnus of SCA has been nominated for an Academy Award annually, totaling 256 nominations and 78 wins. Since 1973, at least one SCA alumnus or alumna has been nominated for the Emmy Award annually, totalling 473 nominations and 119 wins; the top 17 grossing films of all time have had an SCA graduate in a key creative position. The Princeton Review has ranked the Interactive Media and Games Division's video game design program best in North America multiple years in a row.
Both The Hollywood Reporter and USA Today have ranked SCA the number one film program in the world, with its unmatched facilities, proximity to Hollywood, numerous industry connections being the primary rationale. Awards for USC Cinema short filmsIn 1956, producer Wilber T. Blume, a USC Cinema instructor at the time, received an Academy Award for best live action short film for a film he created entitled The Face of Lincoln. Blume received an Academy Award nomination that year for documentary short. In 1968, George Lucas won first prize in the category of Dramatic films at the third National Student Film Festival held at Lincoln Center, New York for his futuristic Electronic Labyrinth: THX 1138 4EB. In 1970, producer John Longenecker received an Academy Award for best live action short film for a film he produced while attending USC Cinema 480 classes as an undergraduate—The Resurrection of Broncho Billy; the film's crew and cast included cinematographer. In 1973, Robert Zemeckis wo