Simplified molecular-input line-entry system
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system is a specification in the form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules; the original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been extended. In 2007, an open standard called. Other linear notations include the Wiswesser line notation, ROSDAL, SYBYL Line Notation; the original SMILES specification was initiated by David Weininger at the USEPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division Laboratory in Duluth in the 1980s. Acknowledged for their parts in the early development were "Gilman Veith and Rose Russo and Albert Leo and Corwin Hansch for supporting the work, Arthur Weininger and Jeremy Scofield for assistance in programming the system." The Environmental Protection Agency funded the initial project to develop SMILES. It has since been modified and extended by others, most notably by Daylight Chemical Information Systems.
In 2007, an open standard called "OpenSMILES" was developed by the Blue Obelisk open-source chemistry community. Other'linear' notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation, ROSDAL and SLN. In July 2006, the IUPAC introduced the InChI as a standard for formula representation. SMILES is considered to have the advantage of being more human-readable than InChI; the term SMILES refers to a line notation for encoding molecular structures and specific instances should be called SMILES strings. However, the term SMILES is commonly used to refer to both a single SMILES string and a number of SMILES strings; the terms "canonical" and "isomeric" can lead to some confusion when applied to SMILES. The terms are not mutually exclusive. A number of valid SMILES strings can be written for a molecule. For example, CCO, OCC and CC all specify the structure of ethanol. Algorithms have been developed to generate the same SMILES string for a given molecule; this SMILES is unique for each structure, although dependent on the canonicalization algorithm used to generate it, is termed the canonical SMILES.
These algorithms first convert the SMILES to an internal representation of the molecular structure. Various algorithms for generating canonical SMILES have been developed and include those by Daylight Chemical Information Systems, OpenEye Scientific Software, MEDIT, Chemical Computing Group, MolSoft LLC, the Chemistry Development Kit. A common application of canonical SMILES is indexing and ensuring uniqueness of molecules in a database; the original paper that described the CANGEN algorithm claimed to generate unique SMILES strings for graphs representing molecules, but the algorithm fails for a number of simple cases and cannot be considered a correct method for representing a graph canonically. There is no systematic comparison across commercial software to test if such flaws exist in those packages. SMILES notation allows the specification of configuration at tetrahedral centers, double bond geometry; these are structural features that cannot be specified by connectivity alone and SMILES which encode this information are termed isomeric SMILES.
A notable feature of these rules is. The term isomeric SMILES is applied to SMILES in which isotopes are specified. In terms of a graph-based computational procedure, SMILES is a string obtained by printing the symbol nodes encountered in a depth-first tree traversal of a chemical graph; the chemical graph is first trimmed to remove hydrogen atoms and cycles are broken to turn it into a spanning tree. Where cycles have been broken, numeric suffix labels are included to indicate the connected nodes. Parentheses are used to indicate points of branching on the tree; the resultant SMILES form depends on the choices: of the bonds chosen to break cycles, of the starting atom used for the depth-first traversal, of the order in which branches are listed when encountered. Atoms are represented by the standard abbreviation of the chemical elements, in square brackets, such as for gold. Brackets may be omitted in the common case of atoms which: are in the "organic subset" of B, C, N, O, P, S, F, Cl, Br, or I, have no formal charge, have the number of hydrogens attached implied by the SMILES valence model, are the normal isotopes, are not chiral centers.
All other elements must be enclosed in brackets, have charges and hydrogens shown explicitly. For instance, the SMILES for water may be written as either O or. Hydrogen may be written as a separate atom; when brackets are used, the symbol H is added if the atom in brackets is bonded to one or more hydrogen, followed by the number of hydrogen atoms if greater than 1 by the sign + for a positive charge or by - for a negative charge. For example, for ammonium. If there is more than one charge, it is written as digit.
Herpes simplex virus
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 known by their taxonomical names Human alphaherpesvirus 1 and Human alphaherpesvirus 2, are two members of the human Herpesviridae family, a set of viruses that produce viral infections in the majority of humans. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 are common and contagious, they can be spread. About 67% of the world population under the age of 50 has HSV-1. In the United States more than one-in-six people have HSV-2. Although it can be transmitted through any intimate contact, it is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Many of those who are infected never develop symptoms. Symptoms, when they occur, may include watery blisters in the skin or mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, or genitals. Lesions heal with a scab characteristic of herpetic disease. Sometimes, the viruses cause mild or atypical symptoms during outbreaks. However, they can cause more troublesome forms of herpes simplex; as neurotropic and neuroinvasive viruses, HSV-1 and -2 persist in the body by hiding from the immune system in the cell bodies of neurons.
After the initial or primary infection, some infected people experience sporadic episodes of viral reactivation or outbreaks. In an outbreak, the virus in a nerve cell becomes active and is transported via the neuron's axon to the skin, where virus replication and shedding occur and cause new sores. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are transmitted by contact with an infected person who has reactivations of the virus. HSV-2 is periodically shed in the human genital tract, most asymptomatically. Most sexual transmissions occur during periods of asymptomatic shedding. Asymptomatic reactivation means that the virus causes atypical, subtle, or hard-to-notice symptoms that are not identified as an active herpes infection, so acquiring the virus is possible if no active HSV blisters or sores are present. In one study, daily genital swab samples found HSV-2 at a median of 12–28% of days among those who have had an outbreak, 10% of days among those suffering from asymptomatic infection, with many of these episodes occurring without visible outbreak.
In another study, 73 subjects were randomized to receive valaciclovir 1 g daily or placebo for 60 days each in a two-way crossover design. A daily swab of the genital area was self-collected for HSV-2 detection by polymerase chain reaction, to compare the effect of valaciclovir versus placebo on asymptomatic viral shedding in immunocompetent, HSV-2 seropositive subjects without a history of symptomatic genital herpes infection; the study found that valaciclovir reduced shedding during subclinical days compared to placebo, showing a 71% reduction. About 88% of patients treated with valaciclovir had no recognized signs or symptoms versus 77% for placebo. For HSV-2, subclinical shedding may account for most of the transmission. Studies on discordant partners show that the transmission rate is 5 per 10,000 sexual contacts. Atypical symptoms are attributed to other causes, such as a yeast infection. HSV-1 is acquired orally during childhood, it may be sexually transmitted, including contact with saliva, such as kissing and mouth-to-genital contact.
HSV-2 is a sexually transmitted infection, but rates of HSV-1 genital infections are increasing. Both viruses may be transmitted vertically during childbirth. However, the risk of infection transmission is minimal if the mother has no symptoms or exposed blisters during delivery; the risk is considerable when the mother is infected with the virus for the first time during late pregnancy. Herpes simplex viruses can affect areas of skin exposed to contact with an infected person. An example of this is herpetic whitlow, a herpes infection on the fingers; this was a common affliction of dental surgeons prior to the routine use of gloves when conducting treatment on patients. Animal herpes viruses all share some common properties; the structure of herpes viruses consists of a large, double-stranded, linear DNA genome encased within an icosahedral protein cage called the capsid, wrapped in a lipid bilayer called the envelope. The envelope is joined to the capsid by means of a tegument; this complete particle is known as the virion.
HSV-1 and HSV-2 each contain at least 74 genes within their genomes, although speculation over gene crowding allows as many as 84 unique protein coding genes by 94 putative ORFs. These genes encode a variety of proteins involved in forming the capsid and envelope of the virus, as well as controlling the replication and infectivity of the virus; these genes and their functions are summarized in the table below. The genomes of HSV-1 and HSV-2 are complex and contain two unique regions called the long unique region and the short unique region. Of the 74 known ORFs, UL contains 56 viral genes, whereas US contains only 12. Transcription of HSV genes is catalyzed by RNA polymerase II of the infected host. Immediate early genes, which encode proteins that regulate the expression of early and late viral genes, are the first to be expressed following infection. Early gene expression follows, to allow the synthesis of enzymes involved in DNA replication and the production of certain envelope glycoproteins.
Expression of late genes occurs last. Five proteins from form the viral capsid - UL6, UL18, UL35, UL38, the major capsid p
A topical medication is a medication, applied to a particular place on or in the body. Most topical administration means application to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including creams, gels and ointments. Many topical medications are epicutaneous. Topical medications may be inhalational, such as asthma medications, or applied to the surface of tissues other than the skin, such as eye drops applied to the conjunctiva, or ear drops placed in the ear, or medications applied to the surface of a tooth; the word topical derives from Greek τοπικός topikos, "of a place". The definition of the topical route of administration sometimes states that both the application location and the pharmacodynamic effect thereof is local. In other cases, topical is defined as applied to a localized area of the body or to the surface of a body part regardless of the location of the effect. By this definition, topical administration includes transdermal application, where the substance is administered onto the skin but is absorbed into the body to attain systemic distribution.
Such medications are hydrophobic chemicals, such as steroid hormones. Specific types include transdermal patches which have become a popular means of administering some drugs for birth control, hormone replacement therapy, prevention of motion sickness. One example of an antibiotic that may be applied topically is chloramphenicol. If defined as having local effect, the topical route of administration can include enteral administration of medications that are poorly absorbable by the gastrointestinal tract. One poorly absorbable antibiotic is vancomycin, recommended by mouth as a treatment for severe Clostridium difficile colitis. A medication's potency is changed with its base. For example, some topical steroids will be classified one or two strengths higher when moving from cream to ointment; as a rule of thumb, an ointment base is more occlusive and will drive the medication into the skin more than a solution or cream base. The manufacturer of each topical product has total control over the content of the base of a medication.
Although containing the same active ingredients, one manufacturer's cream might be more acidic than the next, which could cause skin irritation or change its absorption rate. For example, a vaginal formulation of miconazole antifungal cream might irritate the skin less than an athlete foot formulation of miconazole cream; these variations can, on occasion, result in different clinical outcomes though the active ingredient is the same. No comparative potency labeling exists to ensure equal efficacy between brands of topical steroids. Studies have confirmed that the potency of some topical steroid products may differ according to manufacturer or brand. An example of this is the case of brand name Valisone cream and Kenalog cream in clinical studies have demonstrated better vasoconstrictions than some forms of this drug produced by generic drug manufacturers. However, in a simple base like an ointment, much less variation between manufacturers is common. In dermatology, the base of a topical medication is as important as the medication itself.
It is important to receive a medication in the correct base, before applying to the skin. A pharmacist should not substitute an ointment for a cream, or vice versa, as the potency of the medication can change; some physicians use a thick ointment to replace the waterproof barrier of the inflamed skin in the treatment of eczema, a cream might not accomplish the same clinical intention There are many general classes, with no clear dividing line between similar formulations. As a result, what the manufacturer's marketing department chooses to list on the label of a topical medication might be different from what the form would be called. For example, Eucerin "cream" is more appropriately described as an ointment than as a cream. Topical solutions can be marketed as rinses, sprays, or drops, are of low viscosity and use water or alcohol in the base; the solution can cause drying of the skin. These are a powder dissolved in water and sometimes oil. Alcohol in topical steroids can cause drying if it is used as a base ingredient.
There is significant variability between brands. There is a risk of irritation, depending on the preservative and fragrances used in the base; some examples of topical solutions are given below: Aluminium acetate topical solution: This is colorless, with a faint acetous odour and sweetish taste. It is applied topically as an astringent after dilution with 10-40 parts of water; this is used in many types of dermatologic lotions and pastes. Commercial packed tablets and powders are available for this preparation. Povidone iodine topical solution: This is a chemical complex of iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone, the agent being a polymer having an average molecular weight of 40,000; the povidone iodine contains 10% available iodine released when applied to skin. This preparation is employed topically as a surgical scrub and non irritating antiseptic solution, with its effectiveness being directly attributed to the presence and release of iodine from the complex. Commercial product: Betadine solution.
Lotions are similar to solutions but are thicker and tend to be more emollient in nature than solution. They are an oil mixed with water, more than not have less alcohol than solutions. Lotions can be drying. There is a significant variability in the ingre
The Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, no longer under active development. While Jmol has many features that Chime lacks, it does not claim to reproduce all Chime functions, most notably, the Sculpt mode. Chime requires plug-in installation and Internet Explorer 6.0 or Firefox 2.0 on Microsoft Windows, or Netscape Communicator 4.8 on Mac OS 9. Jmol operates on a wide variety of platforms. For example, Jmol is functional in Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Safari. Chemistry Development Kit Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling Jmol extension for MediaWiki List of molecular graphics systems Molecular graphics Molecule editor Proteopedia PyMOL SAMSON Official website Wiki with listings of websites and moodles Willighagen, Egon. "Fast and Scriptable Molecular Graphics in Web Browsers without Java3D". Doi:10.1038/npre.2007.50.1
Adamantane is a colorless, crystalline chemical compound with a camphor-like odor. With a formula C10H16, it is a cycloalkane and the simplest diamondoid. Adamantane molecules consists of three connected cyclohexane rings arranged in the "armchair" configuration, it is unique in that it is both rigid and stress-free. Adamantane is the most stable among all the isomers with formula C10H16, which include the somewhat similar twistane; the spatial arrangement of carbon atoms in the adamantane molecule is the same as in the diamond crystal. This motivates the name adamantane, derived from the Greek adamantinos; the discovery of adamantane in petroleum in 1933 launched a new field of chemistry dedicated to studying the synthesis and properties of polyhedral organic compounds. Adamantane derivatives have found practical application as drugs, polymeric materials, thermally stable lubricants; the possibility of the existence of a hydrocarbon with the C10H16 formula and diamond-like structure of the molecule was suggested by H. Decker at a conference in 1924.
Decker was surprised that it had not been synthesized yet. The first attempted laboratory synthesis was made in 1924 by German chemist Hans Meerwein using the reaction of formaldehyde with diethyl malonate in the presence of piperidine. Instead of adamantane, Meerwein obtained 1,3,5,7-tetracarbomethoxybicyclononane-2,6-dione: this compound was named Meerwein's ester and used in the synthesis of adamantane and its derivatives. Another German chemist D. Bottger tried to obtain adamantane using Meerwein's ester as precursor. However, the product, tricyclo- decane ring system, was again an adamantane derivative. Other researchers attempted to synthesize adamantane using phloroglucinol and derivatives of cyclohexanone, but failed. Adamantane was first synthesized by Vladimir Prelog in 1941 from Meerwein's ester; the process was impractical, as it contained five stages and had a yield of about 0.16%. However, it was sometimes used to synthesize certain derivatives of adamantane. Prelog's method was refined in 1956.
The decarboxylation yield was increased by the addition of the Heinsdecker pathway and the Hoffman reaction that raised the total yield to 6.5%. The process was still too complex, a more convenient method was found in 1957 by Paul von Ragué Schleyer: dicyclopentadiene was first hydrogenated in the presence of a catalyst and transformed into adamantane using a Lewis acid as another catalyst; this method provided an affordable source of adamantane. The adamantane synthesis yield was increased to 60% and 98% by ultrasound and super acid catalysts. Today, adamantane is an affordable chemical compound with a cost of about $1 a gram. All the above methods yield adamantane as a polycrystalline powder. Using this powder, single crystals can be grown from the melt, vapor phase. Melt growth results in the worst crystalline quality with a mosaic spread in the X-ray reflection of about 1°; the best crystals are obtained from the liquid phase, but the growth is impracticably slow – several months for a 5–10 mm crystal.
Growth from the vapor phase is a reasonable compromise in terms of quality. Adamantane is sublimed in a quartz tube placed in a furnace, equipped with several heaters maintaining a certain temperature gradient along the tube. Crystallization starts at one end of the tube, kept near the freezing point of adamantane. Slow cooling of the tube, while maintaining the temperature gradient shifts the melting zone producing a single-crystal boule. Before adamantane was synthesized, it was isolated from petroleum by the Czech chemists S. Landa, V. Machacek and M. Mzourek in 1932, they used fractional distillation, which separates the organic molecule components of petroleum based on their boiling points. Landa et al. could produce only a few milligrams of adamantane, but noticed its high boiling and melting points. Because of the similarity of its structure to that of diamond, the new compound was named adamantane. Petroleum remains the only natural source of adamantane. Beside adamantane, petroleum contains more than thirty of its derivatives.
Their isolation from a complex mixture of hydrocarbons is possible due to their high melting point and the ability to distill with water vapor and form stable adducts with thiourea. Pure adamantane is a colorless, crystalline solid with a characteristic camphor smell, it is insoluble in water, but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. Adamantane has an unusually high melting point for a hydrocarbon. At 270 °C, its melting point is much higher than other hydrocarbons with the same molecular weight, such as camphene, ocimene, terpinene or twistane, or than a linear C10H22 hydrocarbon decane. However, adamantane sublimes at room temperature. Adamantane can be distilled with water vapor; the adamantane molecule consists of three condensed cyclohexane rings fused in the armchair conformation. The molecular parameters were deduced by electron X-ray crystallography; the carbon–carbon bond length is 1.54 Å identical to that of diamond, the carbon–hydrogen distance is 1.112 Å. At ambient conditions, adamantane crystallizes in a face-centered cubic structur
A gel is a solid jelly-like soft material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough. Gels are defined as a dilute cross-linked system, which exhibits no flow when in the steady-state. By weight, gels are liquid, yet they behave like solids due to a three-dimensional cross-linked network within the liquid, it is the crosslinking within the fluid that gives a gel its structure and contributes to the adhesive stick. In this way gels are a dispersion of molecules of a liquid within a solid in which liquid particles are dispersed in the solid medium; the word gel was coined by 19th-century Scottish chemist Thomas Graham by clipping from gelatine. Gels consist of a solid three-dimensional network that spans the volume of a liquid medium and ensnares it through surface tension effects; this internal network structure may result from physical bonds or chemical bonds, as well as crystallites or other junctions that remain intact within the extending fluid. Any fluid can be used as an extender including water and air.
Both by weight and volume, gels are fluid in composition and thus exhibit densities similar to those of their constituent liquids. Edible jelly is a common example of a hydrogel and has the density of water. Polyionic polymers are polymers with an ionic functional group; the ionic charges prevent the formation of coiled polymer chains. This allows them to contribute more to viscosity in their stretched state, because the stretched-out polymer takes up more space; this is the reason gel hardens. See polyelectrolyte for more information. A hydrogel is a network of polymer chains that are hydrophilic, sometimes found as a colloidal gel in which water is the dispersion medium. A three-dimensional solid results from the hydrophilic polymer chains being held together by cross-links; because of the inherent cross-links, the structural integrity of the hydrogel network does not dissolve from the high concentration of water. Hydrogels are absorbent natural or synthetic polymeric networks. Hydrogels possess a degree of flexibility similar to natural tissue, due to their significant water content.
As responsive "smart materials," hydrogels can encapsulate chemical systems which upon stimulation by external factors such as a change of pH may cause specific compounds such as glucose to be liberated to the environment, in most cases by a gel-sol transition to the liquid state. Chemomechanical polymers are also hydrogels, which upon stimulation change their volume and can serve as actuators or sensors; the first appearance of the term'hydrogel' in the literature was in 1894. Common uses for hydrogels include: Scaffolds in tissue engineering; when used as scaffolds, hydrogels may contain human cells to repair tissue. They mimic 3D microenvironment of cells. Hydrogel-coated wells have been used for cell culture Environmentally sensitive hydrogels; these hydrogels have the ability to sense changes of pH, temperature, or the concentration of metabolite and release their load as result of such a change. Sustained-release drug delivery systems Providing absorption and debriding of necrotic and fibrotic tissue Hydrogels that are responsive to specific molecules, such as glucose or antigens, can be used as biosensors, as well as in DDS.
Disposable diapers where they absorb urine, or in sanitary napkins Contact lenses EEG and ECG medical electrodes using hydrogels composed of cross-linked polymers Water gel explosives Rectal drug delivery and diagnosis Encapsulation of quantum dots Breast implants Glue Granules for holding soil moisture in arid areas Dressings for healing of burn or other hard-to-heal wounds. Wound gels are excellent for helping to maintain a moist environment. Reservoirs in topical drug delivery. Materials mimicking animal mucosal tissues to be used for testing mucoadhesive properties of drug delivery systemsCommon ingredients include polyvinyl alcohol, sodium polyacrylate, acrylate polymers and copolymers with an abundance of hydrophilic groups. Natural hydrogel materials are being investigated for tissue engineering. Hydrogels show promise for use in agriculture, as they can release agrochemicals including pesticides and phosphate fertiliser increasing efficacy and reducing runoff, at the same time improve the water retention of drier soils such as sandy loams.
An organogel is a non-crystalline, non-glassy thermoreversible solid material composed of a liquid organic phase entrapped in a three-dimensionally cross-linked network. The liquid can be, for an organic solvent, mineral oil, or vegetable oil; the solubility and particle dimensions of the structurant are important characteristics for the elastic properties and firmness of the organogel. These systems are based on self-assembly of the structurant molecules. Organogels have potential for use in a number of applications, such as in pharmaceuticals, art conservation, food. A xerogel is a solid formed from a gel by drying with unhindered shrinkage. Xerogels retain high porosity and enormous surface area, along with small pore size; when solvent removal occurs under supercritical conditions, the network doe
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly