click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tros (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Tros was the founder of Troy and the son of Erichthonius by Astyoche or of Ilus I, from whom he inherited the throne. Tros was the father of three sons: Ilus and Ganymede and lastly a daughter, Cleopatra, he is the eponym of Troy named Ilion for his son Ilus. Tros's wife was said to be Callirrhoe, daughter of the river god Scamander, or Acallaris, daughter of Eumedes; the following excerpts from Homer's Iliad recounts Tros' ancestors and descendants: "Howbeit, if thou wilt, hear this that thou mayest know well my lineage, many there be that know it: at the first Zeus, the cloud-gatherer, begat Dardanus, he founded Dardania, for not yet was sacred Ilios builded in the plain to be a city of mortal men, but they still dwelt upon the slopes of many-fountained Ida. And Dardanus in turn begat king Erichthonius, who became richest of mortal men. Three thousand steeds had he. Rejoicing in their tender foals. Of these as they grazed the North Wind became enamoured, he likened himself to a dark-maned stallion and covered them.

And Erichthonius begat Tros to be king among the Trojans, from Tros again three peerless sons were born and Assaracus, godlike Ganymedes, born the fairest of mortal men. And Ilus again begat a son, peerless Laomedon, Laomedon begat Tithonus and Priam and Clytius, Hicetaon, scion of Ares, and Assaracus begat Capys, he Anchises. This is the lineage amid the blood wherefrom I avow me sprung." The ancient author Apollodorus in his book, Bibliotheca gives Tros' lineage: "And he had sons born to him and Erichthonius, of whom Ilus died childless, Erichthonius succeeded to the kingdom and marrying Astyoche, daughter of Simoeis, begat Tros. On succeeding to the kingdom, Tros called the country Troy after himself, marrying Callirrhoe, daughter of Scamander, he begat a daughter Cleopatra, sons, Ilus and Ganymede; this Ganymede, for the sake of his beauty, Zeus caught up on an eagle and appointed him cupbearer of the gods in heaven. Another writer, named Dionysius of Halicarnassus, wrote a passage about Tros' ancestry that gives us back to Dardanus proving that the Trojan race was indeed of Greek origin.

"But the subject requires that I relate how Aeneas was descended: this, too, I shall do briefly. Dardanus, after the death of Chrysê, the daughter of Pallas, by whom he had his first sons, married Bateia, the daughter of Teucer, by her had Erichthonius, said to have been the most fortunate of all men, since he inherited both the kingdom of his father and that of his maternal grandfather. Of Erichthonius and Callirrhoê, the daughter of Scamander, was born Tros, from whom the nation has received its name; when Zeus abducted Ganymedes, Tros grieved for his son. Sympathetic, Zeus sent Hermes with two horses so swift. Hermes assured Tros that Ganymede was immortal and would be the cupbearer of the gods, a position of great distinction. In Homer's Iliad, Book V, 265 the described the horses given by Zeus to Tros as a compensation for his abduction of the youth: "As for these twain, their swift horses shall not bear both back from us again if one or the other escape, and another thing will I tell thee, do thou lay it to heart.

If so be Athene, rich in counsel, shall vouchsafe me this glory, to slay them both do thou hold here these swift horses, binding the reins taut to the chariot rim. For they are of that stock where from Zeus, whose voice is borne afar, gave to Tros recompense for his son Ganymedes, for that they were the best of all horses that are beneath the dawn and the sun. Of this stock the king of men Anchises stole a breed, putting his mares to them while Laomedon knew naught thereof, and from these a stock of six was born him in his palace. Could we but take these twain, we should win us goodly renown."In variant versions, Ganymede is son of Laomedon son of Ilus son of Tros. It was from Tros that the Dardanians were called the land named the Troad. Another Tros was a Trojan warrior. According to Homer's Illiad, he is the son of the Lycian Alastor and he was slain by Achilles. Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F. B. A. F. R. S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Homer, The Iliad with an English Translation by A. T. Murray, Ph. D. in two volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts

Racial literacy

Racial literacy is a concept developed by sociologist France Winddance Twine. She describes it as "a form of racial socialization and antiracist training that... parents of African-descent children practiced in their efforts to defend their children against racism" in her research done in the United Kingdom with mixed-race families. She further describes it as "cultural strategies and practices designed and employed by parents to teach children of African and Caribbean heritage detect and name antiblack racist ideologies and practices. Twine's concept of racial literacy is to be distinguished from the term'race literacy' as conceptualized by Lani Guinier, a professor of law and critical race scholar at Harvard University; the concept of racial literacy as conceptualized by Twine refers to a set of practices designed by parents and others to teach their children how to recognize, respond to and counter forms of everyday racism. The emphasis here is on teaching children as well as adults how to identify routine forms of racism and to develop strategies for countering it and coping with it.

1999a. "Bearing Blackness in Britain: the meaning of racial difference for white birth mothers of African-descent children," in Social Identities: Journal of Race and Culture, Vol. 5, no.2: 185–210. 1999b. "Transracial Mothering and Antiracism: The Case of White Birth Mothers of'Black' Children in Britain." Feminist Studies 25, no. 3: 729–46. 2003. "Racial Literary in Britain: Antiracist Projects, Black Children and White Parents," in Contours: A Journal of the African Diaspora, Vol, 1, no. 2: 129–153. "A White Side of Black Britain: The Concept of Racial Literacy," in Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 27, no. 6: 1–30. Guiner, L.. "From racial liberalism to racial literacy: Brown v. Board of Education and the interest-divergence dilemma," Journal of American History, 91, 92–118. Advancing Racial Literacy in Tech, a project under Data & Society’s Fellowship Program

Emanoil B─âleanu

Emanoil Băleanu, was a Wallachian statesman and industrialist who served as Caimacam in October 1858–January 1859. Descending from an old family of boyars, he was one of two sons born to Ban Grigore III Băleanu. Although prone to displays of Romanian nationalism, the family was prominent under the cosmopolitan Phanariotes, young Băleanu was educated in Greek. Prince Alexandros Soutzos became his father-in-law. At that stage, Băleanu's participation in the spoils system was signaled by his controversial claim to ownership of Târgoviște city, by his monopoly on handkerchief manufacture, his father hoped to steer the anti-Phanariote revolt of 1821, but both he and Emanoil were driven into exile when Bucharest fell to the rebels. In exile, Băleanu Jr began gravitating toward liberalism, before becoming curious about utopian socialism. Under the Regulamentul Organic regime, he was made Polkovnik in the Wallachian military forces and served two terms in the Ordinary National Assembly, he and Ioan Câmpineanu emerged as leaders of the "National Party", which mounted the opposition to Alexandru II Ghica and uncovered constitutional irregularities.

Băleanu was sent into internal exile in 1841, but reinstated following interventions by his friends in the Russian Empire and the Wallachian Church. He ran in the princely election of 1842, but conceded defeat in favor of his friend Gheorghe Bibescu, who made him his Postelnic; as such, Băleanu contributed directly to the modernization of Wallachia, to the early stages of abolitionism—though he himself remained a slave owner to 1855. Băleanu joined the conservative camp during the Wallachian Revolution of 1848. For a few days in June–July of that year, he proclaimed himself Caimacam, heading a reactionary administration alongside Metropolitan Neofit II. Before being deposed and driven out of Wallachia, he gave the order to destroy revolutionary symbols, including the "Statue of Liberty". Returning with the Ottoman Army, he was again promoted under Prince Barbu Dimitrie Știrbei, during the late stages of the Crimean War, which removed Russian tutelage, his focus fell on obtaining a close alliance between the Austrian Empire.

Băleanu's second, internationally recognized, term as Caimacam was within a triumvirate that included Ioan Filipescu-Vulpache and Ioan Manu. They organized the legislative elections of 1859, but were outmaneuvered by liberals and nationalists, who managed to push through their agenda. Băleanu was brutalized and shunned during events leading up to the establishment of the United Principalities, which put an end to his political career, his only literary work was a manuscript chronicle, exposed as plagiarized. The Băleanus, whose history is linked to an an eponymous estate in Dâmbovița County, belonged to Wallachia's older lineage of boyar nobility, claimed kinship with the ancient House of Basarab; the family patriarch was Udrea Băleanu. His nephew, Ivașco I Băleanu, emerged as a powerful player in 1630s Wallachia, having backed Matei Basarab for Wallachia's throne, he was prominent into the 1670s, when his family feuded with the Cantacuzinos. Emanoil was Ivașco II's great-great-grandson, he was born in 1793 or 1794 as the son of Ban Grigore III Băleanu and his wife Maria, née Brâncoveanu.

On his mother's side, he was a collateral descendant of Wallachian Prince Constantin Brâncoveanu. His maternal grandmother was a member of the Sturdzas. Emanoil's siblings included Zoe. In 1811–1815, she was married to the aristocrat Matei Ghika, but divorced when he fell ill with tuberculosis. One contemporary account suggests that she the became the wife of Dimitri Caragea, a relative of Prince John Caradja. Zoe's last husband was entrepreneur Ștefan Hagi-Moscu. Zoe and Emanoil had a brother, Nicolae, as well as two other sisters: Elena, married to Constantin Năsturel-Herescu. Emanoil's childhood and youth coincided with the closing stages of the Phanariote era, during which Wallachia and Moldavia were more integrated with the Ottoman Empire, Greek immigration became more significant. Father Grigore was involved with the Phanariote administration of Bucharest and owned houses just west of Turnul Colței, he was first propelled to the high office of Spatharios and Logothete during the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–1812, when he supported occupation by the Russian Empire, receiving the Order of Saint Anna.

A patron of literature, he donated from his collection of books, paid for a translation of Condillac's essays, began writing a Romanian dictionary. In 1816, he sponsored Pete Efesiul's print shop—Wallachia's first publisher of sheet music. Emanoil was home-schooled in the city by the Greek tutor Kirkireu, who introduced him to the Phanariote court. Although one late record suggests that he was raised in Germany, Greek remained his favorite language of expression later in life. At some point in his youth

Subu people

The Isubu are an ethnic group who inhabit part of the coast of Cameroon. Along with other coastal peoples, they belong to Cameroon's Sawa ethnic groups, they were one of the earliest Cameroonian peoples to make contact with Europeans, over two centuries, they became influential traders and middlemen. Under the kings William I of Bimbia and Young King William, the Isubu formed; the predominant Isubu oral history holds that the ethnic group hails from Mboko, the area southwest of Mount Cameroon. Tradition makes them the descendants of Isuwu na Monanga, who led their migration to the west bank of the Wouri estuary; when a descendant of Isuwu named Mbimbi became king, the people began to refer to their territories as Bimbia. Portuguese traders reached the Wouri estuary in 1472. Over the next few decades, more Europeans came to explore the estuary and the rivers that feed it, to establish trading posts; the Isubu carved out a role for themselves as middlemen, trading ivory, kola nuts, peppers from the interior.

However, a major commodity was slaves, most bound for plantations on nearby islands such as Annobon, Fernando Po, Príncipe, São Tomé. By the 16th century, the Isubu were second only to the Duala in trade; the earliest Isubu merchants were chiefs or headmen. Bimbia, the primary Isubu settlement, grew quickly. Europeans traders did their best to support friendly chiefs against their rivals, adulating them with titles such as King, Prince, or Chief. In exchange, these indigenes sometimes ceded land. An Isubu chief named Bile became leader of the Isubu as King William, although Dick Merchant of Dikolo village and other chiefs opposed his dominance. British traders became the dominant European presence in the region by the mid-19th century, the Crown used them to enforce abolition of the slave trade in the Gulf of Guinea. In 1844 and 1848, King William signed anti-slavery treaties. In exchange, the traders provided him with annual gifts of alcohol, guns and other goods. William was asked to forbid practices the British viewed as barbaric, such as sacrificing a chief's wife upon his death.

With William's blessing, Bimbia became a haven for repatriated slaves and escapees from the illicit trade, which continued for many more years. The British endeavored to educate and Christianise the Bimbians. King William rebuffed the earliest missionaries because he did not agree with their insistence on prayer and opposition to polygamy. In 1844, Joseph Merrick convinced William to let him open a church and school in Bimbia. In 1858, the Spanish ousted Protestant missionaries from their base at Fernando Po. King William sold a portion of his domains to the missionary Alfred Saker, who founded Victoria. By 1875, numerous missions and schools sprung up in other settlements. Victoria came to be a mixture of freed slaves, working Cameroonians, Christianised Cameroonians from the various coastal groups. Cameroonian Pidgin English began to develop at this time. Isubu society was changed fundamentally by the European trade. European goods became status symbols, some rulers appointed Western traders and missionaries as advisors.

Large numbers of Isubu grew wealthy. Competition escalated between coastal groups and between related settlements. Between 1855 and 1879, the Isubu alone engaged in at least four conflicts, both internal and with rival ethnic groups. Traders exploited this atmosphere, beginning in 1860, German and Spanish merchants had established contacts and weakened the British monopoly; the Duala had gained a virtual hegemony over trade through the Wouri estuary, the Isubu had little power left. Young King William was powerless when he succeeded his father in 1878. In July 1884, the Isubu found themselves part of the German Empire after annexation by Gustav Nachtigal. Coastal territory became the heart of the new colony, but Bimbia and the Isubu lands had passed their prime. German arrival on the mainland meant. Most Isubu turned to subsistence fishing to survive. However, years of contact with Westerners and a high level of literacy had allowed a literate upper class of Isubu clerks and traders to emerge in Victoria and Buea.

This class were familiar with European law and conventions, which allowed them to pressure the German colonial government with petitions, legal proceedings, special interest groups to oppose unpopular or unfair policies. In 1918, Germany lost World War I, her colonies became mandates of the League of Nations; the British became the new colonial rulers of Isubu lands. Great Britain integrated its portion of Cameroon with the neighbouring colony of Nigeria, setting the new province's capital at Buea; the British practiced a policy of indirect rule, entrusting greater powers to Bakweri and Isubu chiefs in Buea and Victoria. Chief Manga Williams of Victoria became one of two representatives to the Nigerian Eastern House of Assembly, he was succeeded by John Manga Williams. The Isubu are concentrated in the Fako division of Cameroon's Southwest Province, their settlements lie along the coast or just inland, east of Limbe and west of Douala. They occupy the coast directly east of the Wovea, with their main settlement at Bimbia.

The town of Limbe is a mixture of other ethnic groups. The Isubu today are divided into the rural; those who live in the cities earn a living at a number of unskilled professions. The rural Isubu work as fishermen and farmers at the subsistence level. Isu is the Isubu language. In addition, many Isubu speak Duala or Mokpwe, the languag

Politics of Alderney

Politics of Alderney takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic British Crown dependency, whereby the President of the States of Alderney is the head of government. Alderney is part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey but is self-governing. Before the 1949 reforms, Alderney's legislature had no political affiliation as all positions in the States of Alderney were appointed, it consisted of the Governor of Alderney, until the holder in 1825 sold it back to the Crown and no further appointments were made, the Judge of Alderney, six Jurats, Alderney's court officers, a Douzainier-Delegate and four Douzainiers appointed by the Alderney ratepayers. In 1923, the first democratically elected members were created with three People's Deputies being added to the States of Alderney; until the reform of 1948, the States of Alderney consisted of: Governor of Alderney the Judge 6 Jurats the officers of the Court of Alderney 4 Douzainiers a Douzainier-Delegate 3 People's Deputies In 1949, a new constitution for Alderney was instituted with Alderney becoming part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey.

The States of Alderney's membership was changed because of the law. The States of Alderney was made up of the President of the States of Alderney and nine elected members. Two members of the States of Alderney are selected to represent Alderney in the States of Guernsey. While Alderney enjoys full autonomy in law, under the provisions of a formal agreement entered into between the Government of Alderney and the Government of Guernsey, certain matters have been delegated to Guernsey; these are known as'the transferred services'. Transferred services include policing and excise, airport operations, education, social services and adoption.. In return for the cost of providing the transferred services, Guernsey levies various taxes and duties on Alderney; the States of Alderney now consists of: President, directly elected every four yearsThe President of the States of Alderney is William Tate. Ten States Members, half elected every two years for a four-year mandate; the whole island is a single constituency.

Notes: Note Alderney representatives to the States of Guernsey An election for President is scheduled for 2020 as well as an ordinary election for 2020. There are no political parties in Alderney mirroring a similar situation in fellow Channel Islands and Guernsey where all people standing for election are non-affiliated. In 2005, the President Sir Norman Browse made a call for members not to become affiliated with "pressure groups and single issue causes". Elections in Alderney President of the States of Alderney States of Alderney Member Leader of Alderney

Billund Airport

Billund Airport is an airport in Denmark. Located 1 nautical mile northeast of Billund, it serves as one of the country's busiest air cargo centres, as well as a charter airline destination. Most major european airports are connected to Billund via multiple daily scheduled flights. Nearby Legoland Billund park is the largest tourist attraction in Denmark outside Copenhagen. Billund Airport had its beginning in 1961 when the son of the founder of the Lego Group, Godtfred Kirk Christiansen, established a private 800-meter long runway and hangar north of his factory in Billund. With Christiansen as a key driver, more of the neighbouring municipalities were included in the group of owners, it was planned that the airport should be expanded to a regular public airport; the construction of the new airport was carried out during 1964 and the airport opened on 1 November, with one runway at 1660 meters in length and 45 meters width, a small platform where aircraft could be served, a control tower to the controller.

Hans Erik Christensen, the former chief pilot at LEGO became director, the passengers were handled in LEGO's hangar until the first terminal building was opened in the spring of 1966. The airport was continuously expanded the following years, with new facilities, terminal buildings, tax-free area and hangars where LC Johansen's studio participated as an architect, while other work was carried out by the airport's own studio. In 1997 they had an architectural competition for a new 430,000 ft² passenger terminal, designed to serve 3.5 million passengers a year, north of the original airport. KHR Architects won the assignment and completed the construction in co-operation with COWI, at the end of May 2002 the new passenger terminal was put to use, as the first phase of the future expansion, scheduled to take place north of the start and runway, while air cargo services and private aviation will continue to be served from the existing buildings south of the runway. In connection with this expansion, the largest since the beginning of the airport, it was with effect from 1 January 1997 turned into a Joint-stock company, Billund Airport A/S, with the former members Vejle County and municipalities Vejle, Grindsted and Give as shareholders.

In 2008, the entire runway was renovated and paved, a new taxiway was built, nicknamed "Mike". This major task only took 14 hours; the runway was closed over night between the hours 23:00 and 06:00. This did not prevent a Boeing 737-800 from Ryanair landing at one end of the runway, while they worked at the other end; the same year was a record year for the airport. 2,546,856 passengers passed through the terminals, an increase of 12.7 percent compared with 2007. From mid-2009, the airport was served by 9 airlines flying regular flight service, of which KLM had the busiest route with over 200,000 annual passengers to Amsterdam Schiphol. In 2011, Ryanair announced that Billund Airport with effect from 25 March 2012 would be the base for two Boeing 737 aircraft. At the same time Ryanair published 5 new routes, so that, from the summer of 2012, they would fly to 19 destinations. From 1 January 2007 the owners are: Vejle Municipality, Kolding Municipality, Billund Municipality, Horsens Municipality, Fredericia Municipality, Hedensted Municipality, Brande Municipality and Skanderborg Municipality.

In 2014, LEGO produced a special Lego Architecture kit, which could only be bought in the departure hall of the airport. A new terminal is slated for opening in the fall of 2019, it cost more than 100 million Danish kroner. The airport handles an average of more than three million passengers a year, millions of pounds of cargo; the airport's main runway can handle airliners as large as the Boeing 747, although most passengers arrive on smaller aeroplanes, such as ATR-72s, Boeing 737s and Airbus A320s. Boeing 747 activity at this airport is exclusively limited to cargo flights; the following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights to and from Billund: The road distance is to Billund 3 kilometres, to Vejle 28 kilometres, to Kolding 41 kilometres, to Esbjerg 61 kilometres and to Aarhus 98 kilometres. There are airport buses to Horsens and Aarhus. Eight additional bus services operate from the airport. There are six parking zones named after countries of the world, USA, Kenya, Spain and Greenland.

Three of the zones are connected by the other three being within walking distance. A rail link to Billund via the airport is In planning stages. List of the largest airports in the Nordic countries AIP Denmark: Billund – EKBI VFR Flight Guide Denmark: Billund – EKBI Media related to Billund Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Current weather for EKBI at NOAA/NWS Accident history for BLL at Aviation Safety Network