Pittsburgh Railways was one of the predecessors of the Port Authority of Allegheny County. It had the third largest fleet in North America, it had 68 streetcar routes. With the Port Authority's Transit Development Plan, many route names will be changed to its original, such as the 41D Brookline becoming the 39 Brookline. Many of the streetcar routes have been remembered in the route names of many Port Authority buses. 1895 to 1905 was a time of consolidation for the numerous street railways serving Pittsburgh. On July 24, 1895 the Consolidated Traction Company was chartered and the following year acquired the Central Traction Company, Citizens Traction Company, Duquesne Traction Company and Pittsburgh Traction Company and converted them to electric operation. On July 27, 1896 the United Traction Company was chartered and absorbed the Second Avenue Traction Company, running electric cars since 1890; the Southern Traction Company acquired the lease of the West End Traction Company on October 1, 1900.
Pittsburgh Railway Company was formed on January 1, 1902, when STC acquired operating rights over CTC and UTC. The new company operated 1,100 trolleys on 400 miles of track, with 178.7 million passengers and revenues of $6.7 million on the year. PRC had over 20 car barns in the city as well as power stations. 1918 was the company's peak year. The lease and operate business model proved hard to support and the company declared bankruptcy twice, first in 1918 lasting for 6 years and again in 1938, this time lasting until January 1, 1951. Company costs rose in the early twentieth century. PRC faced constant pressure from the city to improve equipment and services. Workers walked out. On July 26, 1936, PRC took delivery of PCC streetcar No. 100 from the St. Louis Car Company, it was placed in the first revenue earning PCC in the world. Large scale abandonments of lines began in the late 1950s associated with highway or bridge work. Highway improvements in the Duquesne-McKeesport area resulted in the replacement of trolley services with buses on September 21, 1958.
The replacement of the Point Bridge with the Fort Pitt Bridge precipitated the abandonment of many routes to the West End, all on June 21, 1959. PRC was engaged in ongoing litigation over the failure of the Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission to provide streetcar tracks on the new bridge. In the end the company was allowed to abandon 27 miles of street track in situ and was awarded $300,000 as compensation; the litigation marked the beginning of significant abandonments: 90 percent of the network was dismantled over the next decade. PRC Interurban Division ran an interurban trolley system linking Pittsburgh with towns in Washington County such as Washington and Roscoe; the origins of the Charleroi interurban line began in 1895 in Monongahela City, with the construction of a small street railway by the Monongahela City Street Railway Company. In 1900 the line was extended north in 1901 extended south to Black Diamond Mine. Here it turned inland, south along Black Dam Hollow, it met the northern end of the newly constructed Charleroi & West Side Street Railway at the now-disused Lock number 4 in North Charleroi.
The Charleroi interurban line was cut back to the Allegheny County border at Library in June 1953 It continued to operate until the 1980s as 35 Shannon-Library and became the southern portion of 47L Library via Overbrook when Light Rail Vehicles replaced trolleys. The trolley loop was removed in 2004. In 2010 this line became the Blue Line – Library; the Washington line was cut back to the county boundary at Drake in August 1953 and became the 36 Shannon-Drake. This in turn became the southern portion of 42 South Hills Village; the final portion of the interurban from Dorchester to Drake was renamed 47 Drake closing in 1999 and bringing to an end PCC Streetcar operation in Pittsburgh. The company acquired G. Barr & Co. a manufacturer of aerosol cans, in 1962, bought Alarm Device Manufacturing Company in 1963. It received $16,558,000 for the sale of the streetcar system to the Port Authority in 1964. In 1967, it was renamed to Pittway Corporation. Pittway became best known as a manufacturer and distributor of professional fire and burglar alarms and other security systems.
On February 3, 2000, Pittway was acquired by Honeywell. Double deck cars were used by PRC between 1913 and 1924, a rarity for such cars in the U. S. Conventional single-deck stock formed the majority of the fleet. PRC operated 666 PCCs on 68 routes; the company took delivery of car 1600 in 1945, the prototype for the over 1,800 post-War “all-electric” PCCs built in North America. Cars 1700–1724, which were delivered in 1948, were equipped with special features for use on the interurban lines to Washington and Charleroi; these included B-3 a roof-mounted sealed-beam headlight. In 1950 the 100 was converted to instruction car M-11; because replacement parts were no longer available, cars 1784 and 1779 were rebuilt in 1976 and 1977 with LRV-style flat fronts. In 1981 PATransit co
Strip District, Pittsburgh
The Strip District is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the United States. It is a one-half square mile area of land northeast of the central business district bordered to the north by the Allegheny River and to the south by portions of the Hill District; the Strip District runs between 11th and 33rd Streets and includes three main thoroughfares — Smallman St. Penn Ave. and Liberty Ave. — as well as various side streets. In the early 19th century, the Strip District was home to many mills and factories as its location along the Allegheny River made for easy transportation of goods and shipping of raw materials, it was the home of the Fort Pitt Foundry, source of large cannons before and during the American Civil War, including a 20-inch bore Rodman Gun. Early industrial tenants of the Strip District included U. S. Steel, The Pittsburgh Reduction Company, The H. J. Heinz Company, famous ketchup and condiment manufacturer; the shipping infrastructure built around the manufacturing companies attracted other types of merchants to set up shop in the Strip.
By the early 20th century, the Strip District became a vibrant network of wholesalers—mostly fresh produce and poultry dealers. Soon, auction houses rose around the wholesale warehouses. Many restaurants and grocery stores opened to feed hungry shift workers at any hour of the day. By the 1920s, the Strip District was the economic center of Pittsburgh. By the mid-to-late 20th century, fewer of the Strip's products were being shipped by rail and boat, causing many produce sellers and wholesalers to leave the area for other space with easier access to highways, or where there was more land available for expansion. In the early 21st century, there are still several wholesalers and produce dealers in the Strip District, but some estimates say more than 80% of the produce industry left the area, preceded by the manufacturing plants and mills in the mid to late 20th century restructuring of industry. Today, many of the abandoned warehouses have been renovated as small specialty shops, restaurants and bars.
The historic St. Stanislaus Kostka Church, an 1891 landmark built in the ornate Polish Cathedral style, lies in the heart of the Strip District and served early generations of Polish immigrants. Since the late 20th century, the area has developed into a historic market district with many ethnic food purveyors, some art studios, antique dealers, unique boutiques, other businesses setting up shop where trains once delivered produce by the ton; the lack of weekday activity is in someways compensated by retail and leisure facilities which are used on weekends. In the summer months, there are open-air farmers' markets, a range of street vendors and facilities to enjoy open air drinks. Residential developers have begun to convert old factory and warehouse buildings into apartments and lofts. Examples include the Armstrong Cork Factory, Brake House Lofts, the Otto Milk Building. A mixed-use tower is planned for the Ayoob Fruit Warehouse site. More the area has attracted a number of technology companies and become a hotbed for autonomous vehicle and robotics technology.
The area is home to Uber's Advanced Technology Group, which leads the company's vehicular automation efforts, as well Argo AI and Aurora Innovation. Other technology companies with offices in the strip district include Apple, Robert Bosch GmbH, Target Corporation, Wombat Security, JazzHR, BossaNova Robotics; the Strip District has five land borders, including Downtown to the southwest, Crawford-Roberts, Bedford Dwellings and Polish Hill to the south, Lower Lawrenceville to the northeast. Across the Allegheny River, the Strip runs adjacent with the North Shore and Troy Hill with direct links to both neighborhoods via 16th Street and 31st Street Bridges, respectively. Wholey's Pittsburgh Public Market Enrico Biscotti Company Simcoach Games Heinz History Center Primanti Brothers Washington Post article Toker, Franklin. Pittsburgh: An Urban Portrait. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5434-6. Kadushin, Raphael. "15222: Come Hungry". National Geographic. Pp. 114–122. Retrieved 2007-08-26.
H. J. Heinz Company complex
The H. J. Heinz Company complex, part of, known as Heinz Lofts, is a historic industrial complex in the Troy Hill neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the buildings were built by the H. J. Heinz Company from 1907 through 1958; the complex is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and five of the buildings are listed as a Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation Historic Landmark. The complex contains eleven buildings; the contributing buildings, built between 1907 and 1937, are the Administration Building, Bean Building, Power Building, Shipping Building, Meat Building, Cereal Building, Reservoir Building and Auditorium Building, the Administration Annex. The Administration Building is built of terra cotta and brick in the Beaux-Arts style and its annex is built of blond brick in the Commercial style. All the other contributing buildings are built of red brick and stone in the Romanesque Revival style; the two non-contributing buildings in the complex are the Riley Research Building — an International style building from 1958 — and a guard booth.
The Heinz Company was founded in 1876 and leased several buildings until 1890. In 1884, Henry J. Heinz purchased several lots on the north bank of the Allegheny River in Pittsburgh. From 1888 through 1906 twenty buildings were built or purchased of wood and beam construction. From 1906 through 1930, new buildings in the complex were made of steel and concrete instead of wood; the buildings from this period reflected Henry Heinz's Romanesque Revival influence, in contrast with the modern industrial style at the time after his death in 1919. Through the 1930s and 1940s, many surrounding houses and small commercial buildings were demolished to accommodate parking lots for the plant. In the 1950s, several of the Romanesque Revival buildings were demolished and new buildings were built in modern industrial and International style. From 1999 to 2001, Heinz built a 70,000-square-foot warehouse on the east side and moved its headquarters to downtown Pittsburgh. By 2001, many of the historic buildings had been vacant for five to eight years.
Heinz sold them to a residential developer. On July 10, 2002, the historic complex was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the "H. J. Heinz Company". In 2005, the complex was documented as part of the Historic American Engineering Record. In 2005, the Cereal, Meat and Shipping Buildings opened as Heinz Lofts; the Shipping Building houses the other four house apartments. In 2007, the five buildings of the Heinz Lofts were listed as a Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation Historic Landmark. In 2014, Heinz Lofts sought to expand by purchasing the Service Building. In 2016, a different residential developer purchased the Administration Building, the Administration Annex, the Riley Research Building. National Register of Historic Places listings in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Borland, Karen. "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Heinz, H. J. Company". National Park Service. Heinz Lofts official website
Allegheny City was a Pennsylvania municipality, now reorganized and merged into the modern city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Allegheny City was a right bank municipality located west across the Allegheny River from downtown Pittsburgh, with its southwest border formed by the Ohio River and is known today as the North Side of Pittsburgh, it was annexed by Pittsburgh in 1907. Its waterfront district, along the Allegheny and Ohio rivers, is known as Pittsburgh's North Shore — it is along the north side of the confluence of the Allegheny River with the Monongahela, where they form the Ohio River — the locale achieved fame as the riverside site of Three Rivers Stadium; the area of Allegheny City included the present Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Allegheny Center, Allegheny West, Brighton Heights, California-Kirkbride, Central Northside, East Allegheny, Manchester, Marshall-Shadeland, North Shore, Northview Heights, Perry North, Perry South, Spring Garden, Spring Hill–City View, Summer Hill, Troy Hill.
The City of Allegheny was laid out in 1788 according to a plan by John Redick. The lots were sold in Philadelphia by the State government or given as payment to white Revolutionary War veterans, it was incorporated as a borough in 1828 and as a city in 1840. Prior to the 1850s, most of the area was still farmland, but was subdivided into residential lots, first for the growing German population and for Croat immigrants, it was referred to as "Deutschtown," derived from the German word Deutsch, referring to the language and ethnicity. The annexation of Allegheny City by Pittsburgh began in 1906 and was effected in 1907, authorized by the U. S. Supreme Court in a landmark decision Hunter v. City of Pittsburgh that year, it was approved by the United States Government in 1911. The annexation was controversial at the time, as an overwhelming majority of Allegheny City residents were opposed to the merger. Previous Pennsylvania law had directed that a majority of the voters in each merging municipality had to approve an annexation agreement.
In 1906, the State Assembly passed a new law that authorized annexations if a majority of the total voters in both combined municipalities approved the merger. The annexation was rejected by the residents of Allegheny City by a 2:1 margin, but was approved by much more populous Pittsburgh residents, the annexation bill passed into law. Allegheny City residents tried unsuccessfully for years to have the annexation overturned in court; the population of Pittsburgh rose from 321,616 in 1900 to 533,905 in 1910, which included the 132,283 who lived in Allegheny in 1910, when the last separate census of Allegheny was taken. When the two cities were joined, both of the old ward systems were discarded. A new ward system was established made up of 27 wards. In the new ward system, Allegheny was divided into wards 21 to 27, its past territory is seen by viewing a map of the city wards. In the 1960s Pittsburgh undertook a massive urban redevelopment project that demolished the historic core of Allegheny City, leaving only the Commons of Allegheny Center and its surrounding neighborhoods.
The Carnegie Library, the Old Post Office Building, the Buhl Planetarium buildings were not demolished. Major portions of the neighborhoods of Allegheny West, Central Northside, California-Kirkbride, East Allegheny are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, including the Mexican War Streets in Central Northside. Allegheny was an industrial city and had numerous commercial areas and social organizations, packing houses, soap factories and glue factories that provided opportunities for employment to the German immigrants who settled there; the H. J. Heinz Company built its factory in Allegheny City, close to the Chestnut Street bridge. Heyl & Patterson Inc. a manufacturer of railcar dumpers and ship unloaders established a factory in Allegheny City. The surviving structures are now occupied by a bus garage. By the middle of the nineteenth century, the "Made in Allegheny" label could be found not only on basic iron but on rope, cotton cloth, food, paint, steam engines and carts, soap, lumber, linseed oil, furniture and a host of other diversified products.
Railroad lines were built along the north side of the Allegheny for the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago and the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati & St. Louis railroads in Allegheny City; when workers in Pittsburgh struck against the Pennsylvania Railroad after wage cuts in July 1877, railroad workers on these lines went on strike. The Teutonia Männerchor Hall in the East Allegheny neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is a building constructed in 1888, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. The Teutonia Männerchor is a private membership club with the purpose of furthering choral singing, German cultural traditions and good fellowship; the club features a number of heritage activities and celebrations, including choral singing in German and folk dancing. The Priory is two historic landmarks – the 1852 St. Mary's German Catholic Church and the adjacent 1888 home for Bavarian Benedictine priests and brothers. Once a German parish, the church merged with nearby Italian and Polish congregations.
The church and rectory have since closed. The buildings are operated as a bed-and-breakfast. Although Penn Brewery began in 1987, it is housed in the old Ober Brewery buildings. Penn Brewery makes a number of other specialty beers; the "tied house" features live music. Saint Nicholas Cro
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
The H. J. Heinz Company, better known as Heinz, is an American food processing company based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the company was founded by Henry John Heinz in 1869. Heinz manufactures thousands of food products in plants on six continents, markets these products in more than 200 countries and territories; the company claims to have 150 number-two brands worldwide. Heinz ranked first in ketchup in the US with a market share in excess of 50%. Since 1896, the company has used its "57 Varieties" slogan. In February 2013, Heinz agreed to be purchased by Berkshire Hathaway and the Brazilian 3G Capital for $23 billion. On March 25, 2015, Kraft announced its merger with Heinz, arranged by Berkshire Hathaway and 3G Capital; the resulting Kraft Heinz Company is the fifth largest food company in the world. Berkshire Hathaway became a majority owner of Heinz on June 18, 2015. After exercising a warrant to acquire 46 million shares of common stock for a total price of over $461 million, Berkshire increased its stake to 52.5%.
The companies completed the merger on July 2, 2015. Heinz was founded by and is named for Henry J. Heinz, born in the United States to German immigrants, his father was from Kallstadt, the son of a Heinz and Charlotte Louisa Trump, a great-great-aunt of 45th United States president, Donald Trump. His mother Anna was from Bavaria, they met in Pittsburgh. Henry J. Heinz began packing foodstuffs on a small scale at Sharpsburg, Pennsylvania, in 1869. There he founded Heinz Noble & Company with a friend, L. Clarence Noble, began marketing horseradish; the first product in Heinz and Noble's new Anchor Brand was his mother Anna Heinz's recipe for horseradish. The young Heinz manufactured it in the basement of his father's former house; the company went bankrupt in 1875. The following year Heinz founded another company, F & J Heinz, with his brother John Heinz and a cousin, Frederick Heinz. One of this company's first products was Heinz Tomato Ketchup; the company continued to grow. In 1888, Heinz reorganized the company as the H. J. Heinz Company.
Its slogan, "57 varieties", was introduced by Heinz in 1896. Inspired by an advertisement he saw while riding an elevated train in New York City, Heinz picked the number more or less at random because he liked the sound of it, selecting "7" because, as he put it, of the "psychological influence of that figure and of its enduring significance to people of all ages." In 1905, H. J. Heinz was incorporated, Heinz served as its first president, holding that position for the rest of his life. Under his leadership, the company pioneered processes for sanitary food preparation, led a successful lobbying effort in favor of the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906. In 1908 he established a processing plant in Leamington, Canada for tomatoes and other products. Heinz operated it until 2014. Heinz was a pioneer in both scientific and "technological innovations to solve problems like bacterial contamination." He worked to control the "purity of his products by managing his employees", offering hot showers and weekly manicures for the women handling food.
During World War I, he worked with the Food Administration. In 1914, Heinz Salad Cream was invented in England. In 1930, Howard Heinz, son of Henry Heinz, helped to fight the downturn of the Great Depression by selling ready-to-serve quality soups and baby food, they became top sellers. During World War II, "Jack" Heinz led the company as president and CEO to aid the United Kingdom and offset food shortages, its plant in Pittsburgh was converted for a time to manufacture gliders for the War Department. In the postwar years, Jack Heinz expanded the company to develop plants in several nations overseas expanding its international presence, he acquired Ore-Ida and Starkist Tuna. In 1959, long-time Heinz employee Frank Armour Jr. was elected president and COO of H. J. Heinz Co. succeeding H. J. Heinz II, he was the first non-family member to hold the job since the company started in 1869. He became vice chairman in 1966, became chairman and CEO of Heinz subsidiary, Ore-Ida Foods Inc. In 1969, Tony O'Reilly joined the company's UK subsidiary.
He moved to Pittsburgh in 1971 when he was promoted to Senior Vice President for the North America and Pacific region. By 1973, board members Robert Burt Gookin and Jack Heinz selected him as President, he became CEO in 1979 and chairman in 1987. Between 1981 and 1991, Heinz returned 28% annually, doubling the Standard & Poor's average annual return for those years. By 2000, the consolidation of grocery store chains, the spread of retailers such as Walmart, growth of private-label brands caused competition for shelf space, put price pressure on the company's products; the decline was attributed to an inadequate response to broad demographic changes in the United States the growth in population among Hispanic and increased spending power of African Americans. On April 4, 1991, former U. S. Senator Henry John Heinz III, the third-generation successor to the Heinz fortune, six other people were killed when a Bell 412 helicopter and a Piper Aerostar with Heinz aboard collided in mid-air above Merion Elementary School in Lower Merion Township, Pennsylvania.
His fortune passed to Teresa Heinz. In 1998, Tony O'Reilly left Heinz after issues with the company