A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Galdakao is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. It is located in the Greater Bilbao, in the valley of the Ibaizabal river, near the Ganguren mountain range, it is surrounded by some summits such as Arrezurriaga and Santa María in the north and Upo and Mandoia in the south. It is conterminous with Zamudio and Larrabetzu in the north, with Zaratamo and Zeberio in the south, with Amorebieta and Bedia in the east and with Etxebarri and Basauri in the west. Aperribai Arteta Bekea Bengoetxe Berezikoetxe Elexalde Erletxe Olabarrieta-Txistulanda Urreta Usansolo Tximelarre Bekoa Tximelarre Goikoa Muguru Zabalea GALDAKAO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Official website
Muskiz is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. Muskiz is administratively divided into six neighborhoods or wards: In the 1970s the petrochemical company Petronor built a refinery with a 222 metres tall chimney called La Catalítica. Nicolás de la Quadra MUSKIZ in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Official website
Santurtzi is a port town in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, Spain. It is located in the Bilbao Abra bay, near the mouth of the Nervión river, on its left bank, 14 km downriver from Bilbao and forms part of the Greater Bilbao agglomeration, it has a population of 47,320 and a land area of 6.77 km². The district of Santurce of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico derives its name from Santurtzi. Santurce has a rough orography although excluding Mount Serantes - one of its most symbolic topographic elements, it is not at high altitude, the significant heights being spurs of the Serantes: The Mallet and the Fortified heights, its relief is within the north flank of the anticline of Biscay. It is a relief of a structural type corresponding to a series of materials of the Cretaceous period throughout Punta Lucero-Serantes smoothly inclined towards the Estuary of Bilbao; the climate in Santurce is of the humid oceanic climate type. The temperatures are moderate throughout the year, with more frequent rains in spring and autumn, winters are benign and summers not excessively warm.
The average temperature is 8 °C in winter. The beauty of the landscape and the quality of the gastronomy along with the hospitality of the Santurtziarrak are some of the attractions which the visitor can enjoy. Santurce is a marine town that has succeeded in conserving many of its traditions, in spite of its great growth; the life in this area is focused on the sea, which inspires its leisure. Fishing boat and rowing boat races, the celebrations of the Virgin of the Carmen keep their traditions alive. Gastronomy is based on fish sardines. Easter Monday - Pascua - Cornites April 23, San Jorge June 24, San Juan, San Juan neighbourhood June 29, San Pedro July 16, Virgen del Carmen September 8, Virgen del Mar San Jorge church House Toasts Town Hall Monument to Cristóbal Murrieta Patronato Santa Eulalia Home and clinical San Juan de Dios Oriol Palace Science of navigation school and Hijas de la Cruz college Virgen del Mar church Fishermen Confraternity Town Park and Central Kiosk Mamariga fountain Monument to the Sardinera Fishing Port and Virgin of Carmen Museum of Sculptures Monument to Miguel de Unamuno Señorío de Vizcaya Square Official website Santurce-Santurtzi in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Balmaseda is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country. Balmaseda is the capital city of the comarca of Enkarterri, in western Biscay and serves an important role in the province thanks to its proximity to the capital city of Bilbao and the regions of Cantabria and Castile and León, its toponomy comes from a union of the Spanish word val, meaning "valley", the Basque mahatseta, which means "vineyard", Val-Mahatseta would mean "valley of vineyards", which would evolve into Valmaseda in use in Spanish, Balmaseda, following the orthographic rules of the Basque language. The lands in which Balmaseda is located had been inhabited since centuries before its official foundation, with evidence of ancient pastoral activity. In the eastern end of the municipality there is a Roman milestone which belonged to the Pisorica-Flaviobriga road, which connected the present-day cities of Castro Urdiales and Herrera de Pisuerga; this road is believed to have been in use at least since the 1st Century, as the milestone is dated 238.
Though the town's old bridge could have been built there are not any evidences of its existence until some centuries later. The territory in which today is located Balmaseda belonged to the valley of Mena, included in the Kingdom of Castile in the 9th Century. Although it was conquered by the Kingdom of Navarre, the Castilians recovered it in 1175, moment when the king handed over the territory to Lope Sánchez de Mena, Lord of Bortedo and kin of the Lord of Biscay. Lope Sánchez founded the village on the same location of a previous settlement, in one of the banks of the river Kadagua, granting the village the fuero of Logroño. Among the reasons for the foundation of the village were its protected location between mountains and the existence of a commercial road connecting to Castile and Biscay; the village was incorporated to the lands of the Lord of Biscay when the Lord Lope Díaz II de Haro married the daughter of Alfonso IX, thus obtaining the territories of Balmaseda and Orduña. In 1234, Lope confirmed the municipal charter establishing Balmaseda as a town.
However, this first union with Biscay would not last much. In 1274 it was given back to Biscay to be once more handed back to Castile in 1288 after the murder of Lope Díaz III in Alfaro following the orders of Sancho IV. Diego López IV would once more reinstate Balmaseda into Biscay. In 1312, after the disputes between Biscay and Castile, Balmaseda was once more reintegrated into the kingdom; the town would be incorporated again in Biscay in 1388. On 5 November 1808 the city was the theatre of the Battle of Valmaseda, part of the Peninsular War, between French and Spanish armies; the municipality of Balmaseda is located in mountainous territory, in southwestern Biscay and 30 kilometers away from the province capital city Bilbao. Balmaseda is located in the comarca of Enkarterri and it borders Artzentales, in the west, with Sopuerta in the north and Zalla in the east. In the south Balmaseda borders with the autonomous community of León, it is surrounded by the Ordunte mountains. Nature park of Valley of Karrantza with Pozalagua Cave situated not far from Balmaseda.
The main river of the municipality is the river Kadagua, which forms the narrow valley where the town is located. The river is joined by several minor streams as the Acebo, Coliza and Angostura; the river Kadagua has had historical importance for the town and still today has an important symbolism, as it is present on the town's coat of arms. Amongst city's landmarks are Puente Viejo Roman Bridge, Ayuntmiento-Town Hall, Cathedral Iglesia de San Severino, Church of Sagrado Corazón, Iglesia San Juan, Iglesia de Santa Clara with museum, Palacio Horcasitas, Balmaseda historical museum, La Encartada beret factory museum, modern court of justice. Balmaseda carries Medieval market in San Severino festival on 23 October. Balmaseda has Sociedad Deportiva Balmaseda Fútbol Club with home La Baluga camp stadium. Balmaseda is connected with the rest of the province of Enkarterri region and the capital city of Bilbao by the BI-636 road and by the narrow-gauge railway Feve and by bus. Pedro Hurtado de Mendoza, an important Jesuit author of theological and philosophical textbooks.
Tifariti, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic San Severino Marche, Italy Balmaceda, Chile Balmaceda, an alternate spelling found in Spanish surnames. BALMASEDA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Bakio is a municipality in the province of Biscay. It is a small valley, drained inland by the River Estepona; this valley is surrounded by mountains to the east and west. The municipality adjoins the sea to the north, the town of Bermeo to the east, the town of Mungia to the south, the towns of Maruri-Jatabe and Lemoiz to the west; the town is well connected to the regional capital, with regular Bizkaibus services. The town was known as Básigo de Baquio, this being the name of its main neighbourhood. In 1927, two neighbourhoods that until had belonged to Bermeo, San Pelayo and Zubiaur, were added to the municipality. Despite its coastal location and its origin as a fishing village, Bakio does not have a seafaring tradition anymore and, in contrast, it has turned into a more traditional agricultural town. Nonetheless, the town has undergone significant urban renewal with the construction of new blocks of flats, it has a special microclimate, with abundant rainfall and a warm climate with any snow or frost, which favours the cultivation of grapevines and the production of a wine called Txacoli.
EAJ-PNV: 5 councillors Bildu: 4 councillors BakioBai: Because of the distinctive architectural style of its buildings northern, Bakio is a town of a unique beauty. The Parish Church of Andra Mari of Gothic style, located in the neighborhood of Básigo must be mentioned as well as the chapels of St. Martin, Saint Úrsula, St. Esteban, St. Cristóbal and Saint Catalina, all located in rural areas and built in a popular style. Regarding civil architecture, Bakio has a set of interesting architectural elements, constructed from the 17th century onwards, which can be known through some paths signposted by the Town Council. From the Baroque Period it has to be enhanced the stately mansions of Elexpuru and Ormatza, rural palaces belonging to important local families reflecting the transition between the rural and the residential styles of those times. At the beginning of the 20th century, new architectural forms were introduced in the locality; the rise of the coast as a holiday town for the privileged classes of Bilbao favoured the building of mansions on the road connecting the church and the sea.
The key feature of these residential houses is the wide variety of styles, whose aim was to highlight the economic and social position of their owners by means of using different aesthetic options. The oldest were replicas such as Feliena and Quintatorre. Others, built a bit took as reference baroque constructions like the Itxas-Ondo Palace, dated in 1930. Subsequently, other models were applied: neo-Cantabrian buildings such as Rosario Enea, neo-Basque buildings such as Loraldia or Isabela, etc. Nowadays, innovative single-family houses have been built in Baquio with the architectural style of the 1960s, such as Aretaetxekosolo or Aristondo. Traditionally the main sources of revenue for Bakio have been farming and stockbreeding activities, being those enterprises related to the sea a secondary matter; the core of the old economic model was the "caserío", a hamlet dedicated to the housing of families and their livestock. A wide range of farmhouses can be visited, dating from different eras and styles: with a trabeated porch, with an arcuated porch, with a cubic structure.
Agriculture remains today being an important sector in Bakio, where high quality and traditional products are grown, epitomized in the famous "txakoli". Many buildings from Bakio retain structures and facilities that reflect the traditional grape growing on trellises, they represent the oldest evidence of the usage/exploitation of hydropower in rural areas. In Bakio's basin there proliferated from the 18th century many establishments around its river, mounting up to eight mills and three forges. Forges transformed iron ore arriving by barges to the shore of Bakio from the neighbouring county of Encartaciones, its property was in the hands of the great local families that leased mills and foundries for generations. The mills of Bakio remained active until some decades ago; some of them still retain their facilities and characteristics, some of them have been turned into running restaurants that can be visited. During the summer many events are organized in the municipality, helping to make more enjoyable vacationers' stay and provide the little town with an interesting cultural life.
Amongst these events we have to remark the following: the Bakio Music Week, the International Folklore Festival, the outdoor cinema, the Jai alai Championship, the handicraft market, a photography contest, the farmers' market, the different patron saint's days, the Surfing Championship, etc. FESTIVITIES: The patron saint's days of Bakio are San Agustín and San Juan Doloz in the summer, San José in the winter. There are some other festivities such as San Ignacio de Loyola, Andra Mari, San Miguel, and Bakio celebrates the feast days of the hermitages of neighbourhoods such as Santa Kattalin, Santa Úrsula, San Martín, San Cristóbal, San Esteban, San Pelaio. Bakio Town Council
Etxebarri, Doneztebeko Elizatea is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Autonomous Basque Community, in the North of Spain. Since 13 January 2005, the name of "Etxebarri, Doneztebeko Elizatea" has been changed to "Etxebarri" to simplify the name, it translates as "new home/house". Prior to the introduction of Standard Basque, the town's name was spelled Echevarri. Etxebarri has an area of 33.38 square kilometres and a population of 10,337 people, with a density of 2421.72 inhabitants/km2. Being so close to Bilbao has had a direct effect on Etxebarri; until a few decades ago, Etxebarri was a small nucleus in which its rural population worked in industrial areas. Both the population and the industrial land increased because of the congestion of Bilbao and the need for space for the installation of industries. Therefore, there was a significant increase in new population in the locality. In addition, since 2004, the Metro Bilbao underground train has reached Etxebarri.
In fact, the threshold stipulated. It has a metro station of the rapid transit service Metro Bilbao and a train station of the commuter rail service EuskoTren. ETXEBARRI, ANTEIGLESIA DE SAN ESTEBAN - ETXEBARRI DONEZTEBEKO ELIZATEA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Etxebarri city council