Heidelberg University is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Founded in 1386 on instruction of Pope Urban VI, Heidelberg is Germany's oldest university and one of the world's oldest surviving universities, it was the third university established in the Holy Roman Empire. Heidelberg has been a coeducational institution since 1899; the university consists of twelve faculties and offers degree programmes at undergraduate and postdoctoral levels in some 100 disciplines. Heidelberg comprises three major campuses: the humanities are predominantly located in Heidelberg's Old Town, the natural sciences and medicine in the Neuenheimer Feld quarter, the social sciences within the inner-city suburb Bergheim; the language of instruction is German, while a considerable number of graduate degrees are offered in English. As of 2017, 56 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university. Modern scientific psychiatry, psychopharmacology, psychiatric genetics, environmental physics, modern sociology were introduced as scientific disciplines by Heidelberg faculty.
1,000 doctorates are completed every year, with more than one third of the doctoral students coming from abroad. International students from some 130 countries account for more than 20 percent of the entire student body. Internationally renowned and ranked among Europe's top universities, Heidelberg is one of the most prestigious universities in the world, a German Excellence University, part of the U15, as well as a founding member of the League of European Research Universities and the Coimbra Group; the university's noted alumni include eleven domestic and foreign Heads of State or Heads of Government. The Great Schism of 1378 made it possible for Heidelberg, a small city and capital of the Electorate of the Palatinate, to gain its own university; the Great Schism was initiated by the election of two popes after the death of Pope Gregory XI in the same year. One successor the other in Rome; the German secular and spiritual leaders voiced their support for the successor in Rome, which had far-reaching consequences for the German students and teachers in Paris: they lost their stipends and had to leave.
Rupert I recognized the opportunity and initiated talks with the Curia, which led to a Papal Bull for foundation of a university. After having received, on 23 October 1385, permission from pope Urban VI to create a school of general studies, the final decision to found the university was taken on 26 June 1386 at the behest of Rupert I, Count Palatine of the Rhine; as specified in the papal charter, the university was modelled after University of Paris and included four faculties: philosophy, theology and medicine. On 18 October 1386 a special Pontifical High Mass in the Heiliggeistkirche was the ceremony that established the university. On 19 October 1386 the first lecture was held. In November 1386, Marsilius of Inghen was elected first rector of the university; the rector seal motto was semper apertus—i.e. "the book of learning is always open." The university grew and in March 1390, 185 students were enrolled at the university. Between 1414 and 1418, theology and jurisprudence professors of the university took part in the Council of Constance and acted as counselors for Louis III, who attended this council as representative of the emperor and chief magistrate of the realm.
This resulted in establishing a good reputation for its professors. Due to the influence of Marsilius, the university taught the nominalism or via moderna. In 1412, both realism and the teachings of John Wycliffe were forbidden at the university but around 1454, the university decided that realism or via antique would be taught, thus introducing two parallel ways; the transition from scholastic to humanistic culture was effected by the chancellor and bishop Johann von Dalberg in the late 15th century. Humanism was represented at Heidelberg University by the founder of the older German Humanistic School Rudolph Agricola, Conrad Celtes, Jakob Wimpfeling, Johann Reuchlin. Æneas Silvius Piccolomini was chancellor of the university in his capacity of provost of Worms, always favored it with his friendship and good-will as Pope Pius II. In 1482, Pope Sixtus IV permitted laymen and married men to be appointed professors in the ordinary of medicine through a papal dispensation. In 1553, Pope Julius III sanctioned the allotment of ecclesiastical benefice to secular professors.
Martin Luther's disputation at Heidelberg in April 1518 made a lasting impact, his adherents among the masters and scholars soon became leading Reformationists in Southwest Germany. With the Electorate of the Palatinate turn to the Reformed faith, Otto Henry, Elector Palatine, converted the university into a calvinistic institution. In 1563, the Heidelberg Catechism was created under collaboration of members of the university's divinity school; as the 16th century was passing, the late humanism stepped beside Calvinism as a predominant school of thought. It developed into a cultural and academic center. However, with the beginning of the Thirty Years' War in 1618, the intellectual and fiscal wealth of the university declined. In 1622, the then-world-famous Bibliotheca Palatina was stolen from the University Cathedral and taken to Rome; the reconstruction e
Marxists Internet Archive
Marxists Internet Archive is a non-profit website that hosts a multilingual library of the works of Marxist, communist and anarchist writers, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg, Che Guevara, Mikhail Bakunin, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, as well as that of writers of related ideologies, unrelated ones. The collection is maintained by volunteers, is based on a collection of documents that were distributed by email and newsgroups collected into a single gopher site in 1993, it contains over 53,000 documents from over 600 authors in 61 languages. The archive was created in 1990 by a person — known only by his Internet tag, Zodiac — who started archiving Marxist texts by transcribing the works of Marx and Engels into E-text, starting with the Communist Manifesto. In 1993 the accumulated text was posted on a gopher site at csf.colorado.edu. Volunteers mirror the main archive. However, the main site and its mirrors were hosted on academic servers and by the end of 1995 all had been shut down.
By 1996 the website, Marx.org, was hosted by a commercial ISP. This was followed by an increased activity from the volunteers. In the following years, however, a conflict developed between the volunteers working on the website and Zodiac, who retained control of the project and domain name; as the scope of the archive expanded, Zodiac feared that the opening toward diverse currents of Marxism was a "slippery slope" toward sectarianism. The volunteers, undertaking the work of transcribing texts resented having little influence over the way in which the archive was organized and run. In early 1998 Zodiac decided that Marx.org would return to its roots and that all writers other than Marx and Engels would be removed. In July 1998 the present form of the Marxists Internet Archive was created by volunteers transferring files and archives from Marx.org. This led to an enlargement of the scope of the archive; as for Marx.org, Zodiac closed it down in 1999, in 2002 he gave up the domain name, purchased by the MIA.
Along with marx.org and marxists.org, the MIA can be reached by two other domain names: lenin.org and trotsky.org. The site, the group of volunteers working on it, has changed since its early beginnings. By 2014 it had grown to encompass 62 volunteers in 33 different countries, held over 50,000 items in 54 languages covering the works of over 600 authors. Today the Marxists Internet Archive is a recognized repository for both Marxist and non-Marxist writers, it is listed in the OCLC WorldCat catalog, has been selected for archiving by institutions such as the British Library and Ireland's University College Cork. As with many politically oriented internet sites, MIA has had problems with malicious attacks from online sources. Beginning in November 2006, the Marxists Internet Archive faced a number of serious denial-of-service attacks, attempting to exploit a misconfiguration in their server's operating system. By January 2007 the attacks had crippled much of the archive, left volunteers with CPU issues.
That the majority of systems involved in the attack were either in China or belonging to Chinese institutions led to speculation that the attacks may have been politically motivated and directed by the People's Republic of China. The severity of the attack, coupled with other hosting issues, led to the closure of the Marxists Internet Archive's main server and several of its mirrors for a number of weeks in February and March 2007; the problem was rectified. In late April 2014, the small British publishers Lawrence and Wishart chose to revoke their permission for their English language version of the Marx/Engels Collected Works to be reprinted in part on MIA. In an email in late April 2014, L&W asked MIA to delete the contested material from their website by the end of April or face litigation. MIA chose to follow the request. An online petition was started against the L&W decision, had the support of more than 4,500 people by the end of the month; the author of the petition, Ammar Aziz, was quoted in Vice magazine: "You cannot privatize their writings—they are the collective property of the people they wrote for.
Privatization of Marx and Engels' writings is like getting a trademark for the words'socialism' or ‘communism.'"A representative of MIA, Andy Blunden, did not dispute that L&W has copyright over the material. He was quoted in the Washington D. C. based Chronicle of Higher Education: "The professors and the historians will be able to write learned articles about what Marx said, but the general population are going to be left back in 1975", the year when the publication of the Collected Works began. In response to widespread criticism and Wishart issued a statement objecting to the "campaign of online abuse." The MIA is controlled by a steering committee. The committee decides issues such as the categorization of writers, modifications to the bylaws, financial issues of all kinds, similar matters. Administrators are unpaid volunteers who assume additional responsibilities over certain section of MIA; the MIA is incorporated in the U. S. state of California and registered with the U. S. tax service as a non-profit, 501 organization.
According to the MIA charter, its content will always be offered 100% free, in compliance with all capitalist copyright laws. All the material stored in the archives is either public domain, under the GNU Free Documentation License, or used with the copyright holders' permission. Any work created by MIA volunteers is under Share-Alike 2.0 license. The website is served via an ISP in
House Un-American Activities Committee
The House Un-American Activities Committee was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. The HUAC was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, those organizations suspected of having Fascist or Communist ties. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to "House Committee on Internal Security"; when the House abolished the committee in 1975, its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee. The committee's anti-communist investigations are compared with those of Joseph McCarthy who, as a U. S. Senator, had no direct involvement with this House committee. McCarthy was the chairman of the Government Operations Committee and its Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the U. S. Senate, not the House; the Overman Committee was a subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary chaired by North Carolina Democratic Senator Lee Slater Overman that operated from September 1918 to June 1919.
The subcommittee investigated German as well as Bolshevik elements in the United States. This committee was concerned with investigating pro-German sentiments in the American liquor industry. After World War I ended in November 1918, the German threat lessened, the committee began investigating Bolshevism, which had appeared as a threat during the First Red Scare after the Russian Revolution in 1917; the committee's hearing into Bolshevik propaganda, conducted February 11 to March 10, 1919, had a decisive role in constructing an image of a radical threat to the United States during the first Red Scare. Congressman Hamilton Fish III, a fervent anti-communist, introduced, on May 5, 1930, House Resolution 180, which proposed to establish a committee to investigate communist activities in the United States; the resulting committee known as the Fish Committee, undertook extensive investigations of people and organizations suspected of being involved with or supporting communist activities in the United States.
Among the committee's targets were the American Civil Liberties Union and communist presidential candidate William Z. Foster; the committee recommended granting the United States Department of Justice more authority to investigate communists, strengthening of immigration and deportation laws to keep communists out of the United States. From 1934 to 1937, the Special Committee on Un-American Activities Authorized to Investigate Nazi Propaganda and Certain Other Propaganda Activities, chaired by John William McCormack and Samuel Dickstein, held public and private hearings and collected testimony filling 4,300 pages; the committee was known as the McCormack–Dickstein committee. Its mandate was to get "information on how foreign subversive propaganda entered the U. S. and the organizations that were spreading it", it was replaced with a similar committee that focused on pursuing communists. Its records are held by the National Archives and Records Administration as records related to HUAC; the committee investigated allegations of a fascist plot to seize the White House, known as the "business plot".
Although the plot was reported as a hoax, the committee confirmed some details of the accusations. It has been reported that while Dickstein served on this committee and the subsequent Special investigation Committee, he was paid $1,250 a month by the Soviet NKVD, which hoped to get secret congressional information on anti-communists and pro-fascists, it is unclear whether he passed on any information. On May 26, 1938, the House Committee on Un-American Activities was established as a special investigating committee, reorganized from its previous incarnations as the Fish Committee and the McCormack-Dickstein Committee, to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, those organizations suspected of having communist or fascist ties, it was therefore known as the Dies Committee. Its records are held by the National Archives and Records Administration as records related to HUAC. In 1938, Hallie Flanagan, the head of the Federal Theatre Project, was subpoenaed to appear before the committee to answer the charge the project was overrun with communists.
Flanagan was called to testify for only a part of one day, while a clerk from the project was called in for two entire days. It was during this investigation that one of the committee members, Joe Starnes, famously asked Flanagan whether the Elizabethan era playwright Christopher Marlowe was a member of the Communist Party, mused "Mr. Euripides" preached class warfare. In 1939, the committee investigated leaders of the American Youth Congress, a Communist International affiliate organization; the committee put together an argument for the internment of Japanese Americans known as the "Yellow Report". Organized in response to rumors of Japanese Americans being coddled by the War Relocation Authority and news that some former inmates would be allowed to leave camp and Nisei soldiers to return to the West Coast, the committee investigated charges of fifth column activity in the camps. A number of anti-WRA arguments were presented in subsequent hearings, but Director Dillon Myer debunked the more inflammatory claims.
The investigation was presented to the 77th Congress, alleged that certain cultural traits – Japanese loyalty to the Emperor, the number of Japanese fishermen in the US, the Buddhist faith – were evidence for Japanese espionage. With the exception of Rep. Herman Eberharter, the members of the committee seemed to support internment, its recommendations to expedite the impending se
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The Roosevelt Institute is a liberal American think tank. According to the organization, it exists "to carry forward the legacy and values of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt by developing progressive ideas and bold leadership in the service of restoring America’s promise of opportunity for all." It is headquartered in New York. The Roosevelt Institute was created in 1987 through the merger of the Eleanor Roosevelt Institute and the Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Foundation. In 2007, the Roosevelt Institute merged with the Roosevelt Institution, now known as the Roosevelt Institute Campus Network, it remains the non-profit partner to the government-run Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, the nation's first presidential library. In 2009, it expanded its mission with the launch of the Four Freedoms Center, a progressive policy think tank, an economic policy blog. Felicia Wong of the Democracy Alliance, became the organization's President and CEO in March 2012. In 2015, the Roosevelt Institute was added to the Democracy Alliance's list of recommended funding targets.
Other donors to the Roosevelt Institute include the Ford Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the MacArthur Foundation, the Bauman Foundation. The Board of Directors of The Roosevelt Institute includes: Karen Adler Benjamin Barnes, American real estate magnate and lobbyist Kate Brandt Wole Coaxum, Founder and CEO of Mobility Capital Finance, Inc. Lisa D. Cook, Professor of economics and international relations at the Michigan State University Christie George, Director of New Media Ventures William Griffith Fay Hartog-Levin, American lawyer and diplomat James P. Hoffa, General President of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters Jas Johl, Business Architect at Salesforce George Knox Keith Mestrich and Chief Executive Officer of Amalgamated Bank Sally Minard Muckenfuss III, Partner in the D. C. office of Gibson Dunn Nancy Roosevelt Ireland Nicholas W. Roosevelt, Associate at J. Abrams Law, P. C. Phoebe Roosevelt Anna Eleanor Roosevelt Paul Rudd Bernard L. Schwartz, Chairman and CEO of BLS Investments Amish Shah Paul M. Sparrow, Director of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library and Museum Randi Weingarten, President of the American Federation of Teachers Brian Wolff William vanden Heuvel, Chair Emeritus and Founder of the Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, the Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC.
Katrina vanden Heuvel and publisher of The Nation Joseph Stiglitz is the Roosevelt Institute's chief economist. In 2015, a report authored by Stiglitz offered an indictment of 35 years of U. S. economic policies. Elizabeth Warren and Bill deBlasio joined Stiglitz at the press conference to announce the report; the 37 policy recommendations in the Stiglitz report include progressive taxation and an expansion of government programs. Time called the Stiglitz report "a roadmap for what many progressives would like to see happen policy wise over the next four years." According to the Washington Post, the Institute's plan is "firmly rooted in the conviction that more government can solve most of America's economic challenges. It is a plan designed to rally liberals, enrage free-market economists and push a certain presumptive presidential nominee to the left." Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC