Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process. It produces high-quality text and graphics by passing a laser beam back and forth over a negatively charged cylinder called a "drum" to define a differentially charged image; the drum selectively collects electrically charged powdered ink, transfers the image to paper, heated in order to permanently fuse the text, imagery, or both. As with digital photocopiers, laser printers employ a xerographic printing process. However, laser printing differs from analog photocopiers in that the image is produced by the direct scanning of the medium across the printer's photoreceptor; this enables laser printing to copy images more than most photocopiers. Invented at Xerox PARC in the 1970s, laser printers were introduced for the office and home markets in subsequent years by IBM, Xerox, Hewlett-Packard and many others. Over the decades and speed have increased as price has fallen, the once cutting-edge printing devices are now ubiquitous. In the 1960s, the Xerox Corporation held a dominant position in the photocopier market.
In 1969, Gary Starkweather, who worked in Xerox's product development department, had the idea of using a laser beam to "draw" an image of what was to be copied directly onto the copier drum. After transferring to the formed Palo Alto Research Center in 1971, Starkweather adapted a Xerox 7000 copier to create SLOT. In 1972, Starkweather worked with Butler Lampson and Ronald Rider to add a control system and character generator, resulting in a printer called EARS —which became the Xerox 9700 laser printer. 1973: The Xerox 1200 was "the first commercial laser printer." A Xerox 2012 lookback described it as the "first commercial non-impact Xerographic printer for computer output." Input was either directly from a mainframe computer. The technology came from the Xerox 3600 copier. 1976: The first commercial implementation of a laser printer was the IBM 3800 in 1976. It was designed for data centers; the IBM 3800 was used for high-volume printing on continuous stationery, achieved speeds of 215 pages per minute, at a resolution of 240 dots per inch.
Over 8,000 of these printers were sold. 1977: The Xerox 9700 was brought to market in 1977. Unlike the IBM 3800, the Xerox 9700 was not targeted to replace any particular existing printers; the Xerox 9700 excelled at printing high-value documents on cut-sheet paper with varying content. 1979: In 1979, inspired by the Xerox 9700's commercial success, Japanese camera and optics company, developed a low-cost, desktop laser printer: the Canon LBP-10. Canon began work on a much-improved print engine, the Canon CX, resulting in the LBP-CX printer. Having no experience in selling to computer users, Canon sought partnerships with three Silicon Valley companies: Diablo Data Systems, Hewlett-Packard, Apple Computer. 1981: The first laser printer designed for office use reached market in 1981: the Xerox Star 8010. The system used a desktop metaphor, unsurpassed in commercial sales, until the Apple Macintosh. Although it was innovative, the Star workstation was a prohibitively expensive system, affordable only to a fraction of the businesses and institutions at which it was targeted.
1984: The first laser printer intended for mass-market sales was the HP LaserJet, released in 1984. The LaserJet was followed by printers from Brother Industries, IBM, others. First-generation machines had large photosensitive drums, of circumference greater than the loaded paper's length. Once faster-recovery coatings were developed, the drums could touch the paper multiple times in a pass, therefore be smaller in diameter. 1985: Apple introduced the LaserWriter, but used the newly released PostScript page-description language. Up until this point, each manufacturer used its own proprietary page-description language, making the supporting software complex and expensive. PostScript allowed the use of text, graphics and color independent of the printer's brand or resolution. PageMaker, written by Aldus for the Macintosh and LaserWriter, was released in 1985 and the combination became popular for desktop publishing. Laser printers brought exceptionally fast and high-quality text printing in multiple fonts on a page, to the business and consumer markets.
No other available printer during this era could offer this combination of features. 1995: Xerox ran magazine print ads headlined "Who invented the laser printer?" and answered "it's Xerox." A laser beam projects an image of the page to be printed onto an electrically charged, selenium-coated, cylindrical drum. Photoconductivity allows the charged electrons to fall away from the areas exposed to light. Powdered ink particles are electrostatically attracted to the charged areas of the drum that have not been laser-beamed; the drum transfers the image onto paper by direct contact. The paper is passed onto a finisher, which uses heat to fuse the toner that represents the image onto the paper. There are seven steps involved in
Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, licenses and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, related services, its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers; as of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.
The company's 1986 initial public offering, subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011. As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android; the company produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search, the digital services market, mixed reality, cloud computing and software development. Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, envisioned a "devices and services" strategy; this began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers.
Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999. In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after being dethroned by the tech giant in 2010. Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business utilizing their shared skills in computer programming. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. While Gates enrolled at Harvard, Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he dropped out of school to work at Honeywell; the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's Altair 8800 microcomputer, which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. After a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration.
Since they didn't yet have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter. Although they developed the interpreter on a simulator and not the actual device, it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated the interpreter to MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC. Gates and Allen established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO; the original name of "Micro-Soft" was suggested by Allen. In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, "ASCII Microsoft". Microsoft moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the operating system business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer.
For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which it branded as MS-DOS, though IBM rebranded it to PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS's available software selection, Microsoft became the leading PC operating systems vendor; the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkin's disease. Allen claimed that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he didn't think he was working hard enough. After leaving Microsoft, Allen lost billions of dollars on ill-conceived or mistimed technology investments.
He invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate. Despite having begun jointly developing a new operating system, OS/2, with IBM in
Desktop publishing is the creation of documents using page layout skills on a personal computer for print. Desktop publishing software can generate layouts and produce typographic quality text and images comparable to traditional typography and printing; this technology allows individuals and other organizations to self-publish a wide range of printed matter. Desktop publishing is the main reference for digital typography; when used skillfully, desktop publishing allows the user to produce a wide variety of materials, from menus to magazines and books, without the expense of commercial printing. Desktop publishing combines a personal computer and WYSIWYG page layout software to create publication documents on a computer for either large scale publishing or small scale local multifunction peripheral output and distribution. Desktop publishing methods provide more control over design and typography than word processing. However, word processing software has evolved to include some, though by no means all, capabilities available only with professional printing or desktop publishing.
The same DTP skills and software used for common paper and book publishing are sometimes used to create graphics for point of sale displays, promotional items, trade show exhibits, retail package designs and outdoor signs. Although what is classified as "DTP software" is limited to print and PDF publications, DTP skills aren't limited to print; the content produced by desktop publishers may be exported and used for electronic media. The job descriptions that include "DTP", such as DTP artist require skills using software for producing e-books, web content, web pages, which may involve web design or user interface design for any graphical user interface. Desktop publishing was first developed at Xerox PARC in the 1970s. A contradictory claim states that desktop publishing began in 1983 with a program developed by James Davise at a community newspaper in Philadelphia; the program Type Processor One ran on a PC using a graphics card for a WYSIWYG display and was offered commercially by Best info in 1984.
The Macintosh computer platform was introduced by Apple with much fanfare in 1984, but at the beginning, the Mac lacked DTP capabilities. The DTP market exploded in 1985 with the introduction in January of the Apple LaserWriter printer, in July with the introduction of PageMaker software from Aldus, which became the standard software application for desktop publishing. With its advanced layout features, PageMaker relegated word processors like Microsoft Word to the mere composition and editing of purely textual documents; the term "desktop publishing" is attributed to Aldus founder Paul Brainerd, who sought a marketing catchphrase to describe the small size and relative affordability of this suite of products, in contrast to the expensive commercial phototypesetting equipment of the day. Before the advent of desktop publishing, the only option available to most people for producing typed documents was a typewriter, which offered only a handful of typefaces and one or two font sizes. Indeed, one popular desktop publishing book was entitled The Mac is not a typewriter, it had to explain how a Mac could do so much more than a typewriter.
The ability to create WYSIWYG page layouts on screen and print pages containing text and graphical elements at crisp 300 dpi resolution was revolutionary for both the typesetting industry and the personal computer industry. Early 1980s desktop publishing was a primitive affair. Users of the PageMaker-LaserWriter-Macintosh 512K system endured frequent software crashes, cramped display on the Mac's tiny 512 x 342 1-bit monochrome screen, the inability to control letter-spacing and other typographic features, discrepancies between the screen display and printed output. However, it was a revolutionary combination at the time, was received with considerable acclaim. Behind-the-scenes technologies developed by Adobe Systems set the foundation for professional desktop publishing applications; the LaserWriter and LaserWriter Plus printers included high quality, scalable Adobe PostScript fonts built into their ROM memory. The LaserWriter's PostScript capability allowed publication designers to proof files on a local printer print the same file at DTP service bureaus using optical resolution 600+ ppi PostScript printers such as those from Linotronic.
The Macintosh II was released, much more suitable for desktop publishing because of its greater expandability, support for large color multi-monitor displays, its SCSI storage interface which allowed fast high-capacity hard drives to be attached to the system. Macintosh-based systems continued to dominate the market into 1986, when the GEM-based Ventura Publisher was introduced for MS-DOS computers. PageMaker's pasteboard metaphor simulated the process of creating layouts manually, but Ventura Publisher automated the layout process through its use of tags and style sheets and automatically generated indices and other body matter; this made it suitable for other long-format documents. Desktop publishing moved into the home market in 1986 with Professional Page for the Amiga, Publishing Partner for the Atari ST, GST's Timeworks Publisher on the PC and Atari ST, Calamus for the Atari TT030. Software was published for 8-bit computers like the A
Oki Electric Industry
Oki Electric Industry Co. Ltd. referred to as OKI, OKI Electric or the OKI Group, is a Japanese company manufacturing and selling info-telecom and printer products. Headquartered in Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, OKI operates in over 120 countries around the world. OKI manufactured the first telephone in Japan in 1881, now specializes not only in developing and manufacturing telecommunication equipment but in information products and mechatronics products, such as Automated teller machine and printers, its printer business is operated through OKI Data, under the brand name OKI. OKI had a semiconductor business, which it spun off and sold to Rohm Company, Limited on October 1, 2008. OKI Data Group, which markets its products under the OKI brand, is focused on creating professional printed communications products and services; the OKI Data Group provides a wide range of devices, from printers and multi-functional products to business applications and consultancy services. OKI Data Americas markets the OKI proColor Series, a line of digital production printers designed for the graphic arts and production market in North America to offer print solutions for color-critical applications.
The company was founded by Kibataro Oki an engineer employed at a Kobusho factory. In 1877, only a year after Graham Bell's invention, Kubusho had started an effort to make telephone receivers by reverse engineering and Oki was in the team that came up with the first prototype. In January 1881, convinced that the nation was about to enter the age of communications, Kibataro Oki founded Meikōsha, renamed OKI; the company manufactured the first telephone in Japan in 1881, only five years after Bell invented the phone, presented a silver-award-winning lacquer-coated wire at the 1885 International Inventions Exhibition in London. OKI contributed immensely to the spread of phones in Japan under the country’s Telephone Expansion Plans; the company not only focused on telephones, but saw the need of automatic exchanges as phones became more common. Asano Soichiro of Asano zaibatsu elected chairman in 1912. During World War I, wartime demand brought large profits to OKI as demand for telephone service increased.
A strong demand emerged for PBXs and at that time, OKI installed the largest PBX system in Japan. In addition to business from Japan, overseas business grew, providing railroad-type printers, portable telephones and electric wires outside Japan. From around 1920, OKI achieved notable advances in its technical development of the common-battery switchboard. Asano Soichiro's son Soichiro of Asano zaibatsu appointed chairman in 1931. In the late 1930s, OKI’s plants were used towards meeting the military demand for goods having a major influence on OKI’s business. Based on this demand, OKI built new production plants, increased its capital and increased the number of its affiliates. Though OKI increased its production capacity after the war to restore magnetotype telephones and exchanges that were damaged during the war, OKI endured great difficulties as it moved toward rebuilding itself. On November 1, 1949, Oki Electric Industry Co. Ltd. was established to replace the former Oki Electric Co. Ltd.
And the two years in November 1951, OKI’s shares were listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. It was at this time when OKI started mass-producing the “Type-4 telephone,”, called the "symbol of Japan’s postwar reconstruction. OKI was aware of learning new telecommunication technologies, in 1956, it was the first to produce a 100-line Ericsson-type crossbar-switching systems for commercial use. OKI transformed itself into an electronics company from the second half of 1960s into the 1970s. To respond to the high-level economic growth Japan was experiencing, OKI needed to speed up its business operations and clarify responsibilities. OKI began producing and supplying business machines such as Teletypewriters, perforation typewriters. In June 1961, OKI launched OKITYPER2000, an electric teletypewriter that could make perforation tapes and book entry forms; the company developed and sold various general-purpose computers such as OKITAC-5090, the first domestically produced computer to use core memory.
In 1964 OKI developed OKISAVER, a terminal for online deposits, provided to financial institutions. In addition to minicomputers such as OKITAC series developed in the mid-1960s, OKI began supplying various I/O devices and dot printers to the financial industry in the 1970s. OKI’s business at this time included cash dispensers, automatic depositors and automated teller machines, it was at this time when OKI expanded its overseas business providing telecommunication systems to countries in the Middle East and South American countries as well as other Asian countries. In 1972, OKI established Oki Data Corporation, a Japan-US joint venture in Philadelphia, to develop the DP100, dot printers. Around that time in 1975, OKI developed the world’s first automobile telephone system together with Bell Labs; this was the beginning of OKI’s wireless technology, today OKI expands this technology into vehicle-to-vehicle communications and other ETC technologies. In May 1980, OKI launched its IF-800 series, a successful business-use PC business.
It added a facsimile business unit to develop private sector demand. In 1982, OKI introduced the world’s first cash-recycling ATM, allowing deposited banknotes to be used for withdrawal. PrintersMicroline 80, 82/83, 84, 92/93 180
Adobe Inc. is an American multinational computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California. It has focused upon the creation of multimedia and creativity software products, with a more recent foray towards digital marketing software. Adobe is best known for its Adobe Flash web software ecosystem, Photoshop image editing software, Acrobat Reader, the Portable Document Format, Adobe Creative Suite, as well as its successor Adobe Creative Cloud. Adobe was founded in December 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell the PostScript page description language. In 1985, Apple Computer licensed PostScript for use in its LaserWriter printers, which helped spark the desktop publishing revolution; as of 2018, Adobe has about 19,000 employees worldwide, about 40% of whom work in San Jose. Adobe has major development operations in Newton, Massachusetts, it has major development operations in Noida and Bangalore in India The company was started in John Warnock's garage.
The name of the company, comes from Adobe Creek in Los Altos, which ran behind Warnock's house. Adobe's corporate logo features a stylized "A" and was designed by Marva Warnock, graphic designer and John Warnock's wife. Steve Jobs asked to buy the company for five million dollars in 1982, but Warnock and Geschke refused, their investors urged them to work something out with Jobs, so they agreed to sell him shares worth 19 percent of the company, for which Jobs paid a five-times multiple of their company's valuation at the time, plus a five-year license fee for PostScript, in advance. The purchase and advance made Adobe the first company in the history of Silicon Valley to become profitable in its first year. Warnock and Geschke considered various business options including a copy-service business and a turnkey system for office printing, they chose to focus on developing specialized printing software, created the Adobe PostScript page description language. PostScript was the first international standard for computer printing as it included algorithms describing the letter-forms of many languages.
Adobe added kanji printer products in 1988. Warnock and Geschke were able to bolster the credibility of Postscript by connecting with a typesetting manufacturer, they weren't able to work with Compugraphic, but worked with Linotype to license the Helvetica and Times Roman fonts. By 1987, PostScript had become the industry-standard printer language with more than 400 third-party software programs and licensing agreements with 19 printer companies. Warnock described the language as "extensible", in its ability to apply graphic arts standards to office printing. Adobe's first products after PostScript were digital fonts, which they released in a proprietary format called Type 1. Apple subsequently developed a competing standard, TrueType, which provided full scalability and precise control of the pixel pattern created by the font's outlines, licensed it to Microsoft. In the mid-1980s, Adobe entered the consumer software market with Illustrator, a vector-based drawing program for the Apple Macintosh.
Illustrator, which grew from the firm's in-house font-development software, helped popularize PostScript-enabled laser printers. Adobe entered NASDAQ in August 1986, its revenue has grown from $1 billion in 1999 to $4 billion in 2012. Adobe's fiscal years run from December to November. For example, the 2007 fiscal year ended on November 30, 2007. In 1989, Adobe introduced what was to become its flagship product, a graphics editing program for the Macintosh called Photoshop. Stable and full-featured, Photoshop 1.0 was ably soon dominated the market. In 1993, Adobe introduced PDF, the Portable Document Format, its Adobe Acrobat and Reader software. PDF is now an International Standard: ISO 32000-1:2008. In December 1991, Adobe released Adobe Premiere, which Adobe rebranded as Adobe Premiere Pro in 2003. In 1992, Adobe acquired Inc.. In 1994, Adobe acquired Aldus and added PageMaker and After Effects to its product line in the year. In the same year, Adobe acquired Compution Inc.. In 1995, Adobe added FrameMaker, the long-document DTP application, to its product line after Adobe acquired Frame Technology Corp.
In 1996, Adobe Inc added Ares Software Corp. In 2002, Adobe acquired Canadian company Accelio. On December 12, 2005, Adobe acquired its main rival, Macromedia, in a stock swap valued at about $3.4 billion, adding ColdFusion, Captivate, Adobe Connect, Dreamweaver, Flash, FlashPaper, FreeHand, HomeSite, JRun and Authorware to Adobe's product line. Adobe released Adobe Media Player in April 2008. On April 27, Adobe discontinued development and sales of its older HTML/web development software, GoLive in favor of Dreamweaver. Adobe offered a discount on Dreamweaver for GoLive users and supports those who still use GoLive with online tutorials and migration assistance. On June 1, Adobe launched a series of web applications geared for collaborative work. Creative Suite 4, which includes Design, Production Premium, Master Collection came out in October 2008 in six configurations at prices from about US$1,700 to $2,500 or by individual application; the Windows version of Photoshop includes 64-bit processing.
On December 3, 2008, Adobe laid off 600 of its employees citing the weak economic environment. On November 10, 2009, the company laid off a further 680 emplo
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c