Kooyong Stadium, at the Kooyong Lawn Tennis Club, is an Australian tennis venue, located in the Melbourne suburb of Kooyong. The stadium was built in 1927 and subsequently extended with another layer, has a capacity of 8,500, although with temporary stands it has hosted crowds as high as 15,000. Kooyong was the venue for the Australian Open, whenever that tournament was held in Melbourne, becoming the permanent venue from 1972 to 1987, it was the last Australian Open venue to play on grass courts. The tournament was moved to the hard courts of Melbourne Park in 1988. Now a hard-court surface, it remains the venue for the Kooyong Classic exhibition tournament. Kooyong has hosted several Davis Cup ties and finals, including the 1986 Davis Cup Final which saw Australia defeat two-time defending champions Sweden 3-2 in late December; the stadium hosted a tie for the 2016 Davis Cup against the USA in March 2016 on a portable grass court. The venue has hosted several concerts: On 24 October 1971 Elton John performed a concert there.
In February 1972, English rock group Led Zeppelin held a large open-air concert at the venue as part of its Australasian Tour. On 13 January 1973 Black Sabbath performed a concert there. On 17–18 February 1973, The Rolling Stones played three shows there as part of their 1973 Pacific Tour. On 16 February 1985, famous Greek singers George Dalaras & Dimitra Galani with their band, performed a concert there. In February 1986, Bob Dylan performed three concerts there. In November 1987, David Bowie performed four concerts at the venue. List of tennis stadiums by capacity Media related to Kooyong Stadium at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Mount Smart Stadium
Mt Smart Stadium is a stadium in Auckland, New Zealand. It is the home ground of the New Zealand Warriors. Built within the quarried remnants of the Rarotonga / Mount Smart volcanic cone, it is located 10 kilometres south of the city centre, in the suburb of Penrose; the Mount Smart Domain Board was established in 1942 with the purpose of transforming the former quarry site into a public reserve. In 1953, a plan was approved for a sports stadium, opened in 1967. In 1978, it hosted 3 matches of the World Series Cricket tour of New Zealand; the stadium hosted track and field events including the successful Pan Am series during the early 1980s. During the 1988 Great Britain Lions tour the Auckland rugby league team defeated the tourists 30-14 at Mt Smart before a crowd of 8,000. Mount Smart hosted its first rugby league international on 23 July 1989 when New Zealand and Australia played the third test of the Kangaroos 1989 New Zealand Tour. In front of 15,000 fans, Australia defeated the Kiwis 22-14 to wrap up the series 3-0.
The stadium was chosen as the Main Athletics Stadium as well as the opening and closing ceremonies venue of the 1990 Commonwealth Games. It was where the New Zealand national football team played all their home qualifying games for the 1982 FIFA World Cup; this was the first occasion that New Zealand had qualified for a FIFA World Cup and the event captured the imagination of the nation with large crowds packing the stadium. Adele holds the attendance record of the stadium, with 45,000 fans, who saw her play at the Adele Live 2017 Tour. Ericsson Stadium was the host of the Super League's 1997 World Club Championship Final between Australian teams the Brisbane Broncos and Hunter Mariners. In front of 12,000 fans, the Broncos defeated the Mariners 36-12. Ericsson Stadium hosted three quarters of the 1999 Rugby League Tri-nations' games, including the final, which New Zealand lost 20–22; the stadium is now owned by the Auckland Council, following the merger of Auckland's regional authorities and managed by Auckland Stadiums.
During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the back of the grandstand roof at Mount Smart was used for Bungee jumping. Following the first rugby league test at the stadium in 1989, Australian captain Wally Lewis and teammate Peter Jackson both'took the plunge'; as of 12 July 2006, the stadium reverted to Mt Smart Stadium. In a press release, the Auckland Regional Council, owners of the stadium, stated they had considered other offers, but felt they did not suit. Auckland Regional Council did not pursue a replacement sponsor. On 14 July 2017 the Stadium was temporarily be renamed Manu Vatuvei Stadium for the Warriors vs Panthers game where the Warriors bid farewell to club legend Manu Vatuvei, it serves as the home ground for the New Zealand Warriors of the Australian National Rugby League. It is the former home of the Football Kingz of the Australian National Soccer League; the Athletics Ground hosts athletics meets, right down to Primary School Level. It holds local rugby league matches and serves as the home ground for the Auckland franchise in the Bartercard Premiership.
A list of rugby league test and World Cup matches played at Mount Smart Stadium. The capacity of the stadium for concerts is 47,000 people; this can be expanded to 60,000 when south stands are installed. A list of concerts held at the stadium are included in the table below: Mount Smart Stadium was the Auckland venue of the Big Day Out music festival until 2012. In 2014, Western Springs Stadium served as the venue for the festival in Auckland. Among the concerts hosted, Rainbow Warrior Benefit Concert featuring multiple artists including Neil Young on acoustic guitar and Jackson Browne, Graham Nash, Topp Twins, Dave Dobbyn and a Split Enz reunion within Mt Smart Stadium. An album of Maori artists who came to support the aims of the Mt. Smart Stadium project was released in 1981, it was called The Mauri Hikitia. It reached no 4 on the New Zealand charts, it featured Rhonda, Ken Kincaid, Deane Waretini, the Lightwood family. Mount Smart Stadium Official Site Mount Smart Stadium at Austadiums
The Pechanga Arena is an indoor arena located in Point Loma within San Diego, California. The arena seats 12,000 for indoor football, 12,920 for ice hockey and box lacrosse, 14,500 for basketball and tennis, 5,450 for amphitheater concerts and stage shows, 8,900-14,800 for arena concerts, 13,000 for ice shows and the circus and 16,100 for boxing and mixed martial arts. In 2000, Amusement Business/Billboard Magazine listed the arena as the "#1" facility in the nation for venues seating 10,001 to 15,000 seats; the same magazine ranked the arena as #2 in 2002 and as the #5 facility in 2003. In 2007, the arena was ranked as the #5 facility by Billboard Magazine. In 2013, U-T San Diego named the arena #3 on its list of the 50 most notable locations in San Diego sports history; the arena is located at 3500 Sports Arena Blvd., southwest of the interchange of Interstate 5 and Interstate 8. This places it in the Midway neighborhood 10 minutes away from San Diego International Airport by car and about a mile away from the Old Town Transit Center by foot.
The arena was built in 1966 by Robert Breitbard, a local football hero who played for Hoover High School and San Diego State, for $6.4 million. The seating capacity could seat 13,700 for basketball games; the arena opened on November 17, 1966, when more than 11,000 pro hockey fans watched the San Diego Gulls win their season opener, 4–1, against the Seattle Totems. Due to the rights to name the arena being sold over time, the arena has changed names: San Diego International Sports Arena San Diego Sports Arena iPayOne Center San Diego Sports Arena Valley View Casino Center No official name Pechanga Arena From 2004 until 2007, iPayOne, a real estate savings company based in Carlsbad, held the arena's naming rights; the deal was worth $2.5 million over five years. In April 2007 the leasing rights holder Arena Group 2000 cancelled the remainder of the contract due to non-payment by iPayOne. On October 12, 2010, it was announced that the arena's name had been changed to the "Valley View Casino Center", under a $1.5 million, 5-year agreement between the arena operator AEG, the San Pasqual Band of Diegueno Mission Indians and the city of San Diego.
Valley View Casino's naming rights expired November 30, 2018, leaving the arena without an official name until the city council announced on December 4, 2018, that the Pechanga Band of Luiseño Indians, owners of the Pechanga Resort & Casino in Temecula, had acquired for $400,000 per year the naming rights to the arena renaming it "Pechanga Arena". The agreement runs through May 2020. In 1972, the Republican Party considered the arena for its National Convention. With little warning, the GOP decided to hold the convention in Miami Beach. To compensate for this blow to local prestige, then-mayor Pete Wilson gave San Diego the by-name of "America's Finest City", still the city's official moniker; the most notable sporting event to take place in the arena was the 1973 Ken Norton–Muhammad Ali fight in which, by split decision, San Diego local Norton won. At the San Diego Indoor Track Meet, Irish distance runner Eamonn Coghlan broke the world record for the indoor mile in 1979 and 1981. A photo of his crossing the finish line appeared around the world including the cover of Sports Illustrated.
Coghlan's time for the 1981 race is still the world record for the indoor mile. It was the home of the San Diego Rockets of the National Basketball Association from 1967 to 1971, the San Diego Conquistadors/Sails of the American Basketball Association from 1974 to 1976, the San Diego Mariners of the World Hockey Association from 1974 to 1977, the San Diego Friars of World Team Tennis from 1975 to 1978, the San Diego Clippers of the NBA from 1978 to 1984, the San Diego State University Aztecs basketball teams, off and on, from 1966 to 1997, the San Diego Sockers indoor soccer team which won 10 titles in the arena, as well as other small sports franchises; the San Diego Sockers made their return to the arena in 2012 for their fourth season in the PASL-Pro from the Del Mar Arena. The San Diego Aviators of WTT relocated from New York City prior to the 2014 season and began playing their home matches in the arena. On December 29, 2014, the Aviators announced that the team would move its home matches to the Omni La Costa Resort and Spa in nearby Carlsbad for the 2015 season.
The venue hosted the 1971 NBA All-Star Game and the 1975 NCAA men's basketball Final Four, where UCLA was victorious in John Wooden's final game. The Boston Bruins, whose home ice was of the same dimensions, used the San Diego Gulls as a farm team in the 1960s and 1970s; the arena hosted UFC on Versus 2 on August 1, 2010, with former champion Jon Jones headlining the event. The UFC returned on July 2015 for UFC Fight Night: Mir vs. Duffee. In 2015, the Anaheim Ducks relocated their American Hockey League affiliate to San Diego to become another iteration of the San Diego Gulls, using the arena for their home games. On August 7, 2016, the arena played host to the Arena Football League's Los Angeles Kiss as they faced the Cleveland Gladiators in the first round of the AFL Playoffs; the game was moved to San Diego due to the Kiss' home arena, the Honda Center in Anaheim hosting the Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus that weekend. The Kiss would lose to the Gladiators 56-52 in front of a crowd of 4,692.
It was the first AFL game to be played at the arena and the first arena football game played there
Wellington is the capital city and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with 418,500 residents. It is located at the south-western tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Remutaka Range. Wellington is the major population centre of the southern North Island, is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region, which includes the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa, its latitude is 41°17′S, making it the world's southernmost capital of a sovereign state. Wellington features a temperate maritime climate, is the world's windiest city by average wind speed; the Wellington urban area comprises four local authorities: Wellington City, on the peninsula between Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour, contains the central business district and about half the population. As the nation's capital since 1865, the New Zealand Government and Parliament, Supreme Court and most of the public service are based in the city. Architectural sights include the Government Building—one of the largest wooden buildings in the world—as well as the iconic Beehive.
Wellington is home to several of the largest and oldest cultural institutions in the nation such the National Archives, the National Library, the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, numerous theatres. It plays host to many artistic and cultural organisations, including the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra and Royal New Zealand Ballet. One of the world's most liveable cities, the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Wellington 12th in the world. Wellington's economy is service-based, with an emphasis on finance, business services, government, it is the centre of New Zealand's film and special effects industries, a hub for information technology and innovation, with two public research universities. Wellington is one of New Zealand's chief seaports and serves both domestic and international shipping; the city is served by the third busiest airport in the country. Wellington's transport network includes train and bus lines which reach as far as the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa, ferries connect the city to the South Island.
Wellington takes its name from Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo: his title comes from the town of Wellington in the English county of Somerset. It was named in November 1840 by the original settlers of the New Zealand Company on the suggestion of the directors of the same, in recognition of the Duke's strong support for the company's principles of colonisation and his "strenuous and successful defence against its enemies of the measure for colonising South Australia". One of the founders of the settlement, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, reported that the settlers "took up the views of the directors with great cordiality and the new name was at once adopted". In the Māori language, Wellington has three names. Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara refers to Wellington Harbour and means "the great harbour of Tara". In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by raising the index and ring fingers of one hand, palm forward, to form a "W", shaking it from side to side twice.
The city's location close to the mouth of the narrow Cook Strait leads to its vulnerability to strong gales, leading to the city's nickname of "Windy Wellington". Legends recount that Kupe explored the district in about the 10th century; the earliest date with hard evidence for Maori living in New Zealand is about 1280. Situated near the geographic centre of the country, Wellington was well placed for trade. In 1839 it was chosen as the first major planned settlement for British immigrants coming to New Zealand; the settlement was named in honour of Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo. European settlement began with the arrival of an advance party of the New Zealand Company on the ship Tory on 20 September 1839, followed by 150 settlers on the Aurora on 22 January 1840. Food processing plants, engineering industries, vehicle assembly and oil refineries were located in the NE which caused the main industrial growth in Hutt valley; the settlers constructed their first homes at Petone on the flat area at the mouth of the Hutt River.
When that proved swampy and flood-prone they transplanted the plans, drawn without regard for the hilly terrain. In 1865, Wellington became the capital city in place of Auckland, which William Hobson had made the capital in 1841; the New Zealand Parliament had first met in Wellington on 7 July 1862, on a temporary basis. There had been some concerns that the more populous South Island would choose to form a separate colony in the British Empire. Several Commissioners invited from Australia, chosen for their neutral status, declared that Wellington was a suitable location because of
Stephanie Lynn Nicks is an American singer and songwriter. Nicks is best known for her work as a songwriter and vocalist with Fleetwood Mac, for her chart-topping solo career, she is known for her distinctive voice, mystical stage persona, poetic, symbolic lyrics. Collectively, her work both as a member of Fleetwood Mac and as a solo artist has produced over forty top-50 hits and sold over 140 million records, making her one of the best-selling music acts of all time with Fleetwood Mac. Nicks has been named one of the 100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time, as one of the world's top "100 Greatest Singers of All Time" by Rolling Stone, she is the only woman to have been inducted twice into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, having been inducted as a member of Fleetwood Mac in 1998 and as a solo artist in 2019. She has garnered eight Grammy Award nominations and two American Music Award nominations as a solo artist, she has won numerous awards with Fleetwood Mac, including a Grammy Award and five Grammy Award nominations.
Nicks joined Fleetwood Mac in 1975 along with her boyfriend, Lindsey Buckingham. Rumours, Fleetwood Mac's second album after the incorporation of Nicks and Buckingham, was the best-selling album of the year of its release and to date has sold over 40 million copies worldwide, making it the fifth biggest-selling studio album of all time; the album remained at number one on the American albums chart for 31 weeks and reached number one in various countries worldwide. The album won the Grammy Award for Album of the Year in 1978, it produced four U. S. top-10 singles, with Nicks's "Dreams" being the band's first and only U. S. number-one hit. In 1981, while remaining a member of Fleetwood Mac, Nicks began her solo career, releasing the album Bella Donna, which topped the Billboard album charts and has reached multiplatinum status, she has released a total of eight solo studio albums to date, with her most recent, titled 24 Karat Gold: Songs from the Vault, released in October 2014. Stephanie "Stevie" Nicks was born at Good Samaritan Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona, to Jess Nicks, former president of Greyhound's Armour-Dial, Barbara Nicks, a homemaker.
Nicks is of German and Irish ancestry. Nicks's grandfather, Aaron Jess "A. J." Nicks, Sr. a struggling country music singer, taught Nicks to sing duets with him by the time she was four years old. Nicks's mother was so protective that she kept her at home "more than most people" and during that time fostered in her daughter a love of fairy tales; the infant Stephanie could pronounce her own name only as "tee-dee", which led to her nickname of "Stevie". Her father's frequent relocation as a food business executive had the family living in Phoenix, Albuquerque, El Paso, Salt Lake City, Los Angeles, San Francisco during Nicks's youth. With the Goya guitar that she received for her 16th birthday, Nicks wrote her first song, "I've Loved and I've Lost, I'm Sad But Not Blue", she spent her adolescence playing records and lived in her "own little musical world". While attending Arcadia High School in Arcadia, she joined her first band, the Changing Times, a folk rock group focused on vocal harmonies. Nicks met her future musical and romantic partner, Lindsey Buckingham, during her senior year at Menlo-Atherton High School.
When she saw Buckingham playing "California Dreamin'" at Young Life club, she joined him in harmony. She recalled, "I thought he was a darling." Buckingham was in a psychedelic rock band, but two of its musicians were leaving for college. He asked Nicks in mid-1967 to replace guitarist Jody Moreing. For the next three years, Fritz was composed of Nicks on lead vocals, Buckingham on bass and vocals, Brian Kane on lead guitar, Javier Pacheco on keyboards, Bob Aguirre on drums. Pacheco was the main songwriter, with a psychedelic bent, but Nicks's compositions brought a country rock flair. Fritz became popular as a live act when it opened for Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin from 1968 until 1970. Nicks credits the acts as having inspired her stage performance. Both Nicks and Buckingham attended San Jose State University, where Nicks majored in speech communication and planned to become an English teacher. Nicks dropped out of college the semester before graduation. After Fritz disbanded in 1972, Nicks and Buckingham continued to write as a duo, recording demo tapes at night in Daly City on a one-inch, four-track Ampex tape machine Buckingham kept at the coffee-roasting plant belonging to his father, Morris.
They secured a deal with Polydor Records, released the album Buckingham Nicks in 1973. The album was not a commercial success, despite the live shows that Nicks and Buckingham performed together to support it, Polydor dropped the pair. To support herself and Buckingham, who wrote music while recovering from mononucleosis, Nicks worked a variety of jobs, including waiting and a stint cleaning producer Keith Olsen's house, where Nicks and Buckingham lived for a time before moving in with Richard Dashut. Nicks says. "We were told that it was recreational and that it was not dangerous," Nicks told Chris Isaak in 2009. Nicks and Buckingham moved in with Dashut in 1972. While there, Buckingham landed a guitar-playing gig with the Everly Brothers and toured with them while Nicks stayed behind working on songs. During this time, Nicks wrote "Rhiannon" after seeing the name in the novel Triad by Mary Leader, she wrote "Landslide", inspired by the scenery of Aspen and her inner turmoil over her decision to pursue music and her relationship with Buckingham.
In late 1974, Keith Olsen played the Buckingham Nicks track "Frozen Love" for drummer Mick Fleet
Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium
Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Washington, D. C, it is located about two miles due east of the US Capitol building, near the west bank of the Anacostia River and near the D. C. Armory, it opened in 1961. RFK Stadium has been home to a National Football League team, two Major League Baseball teams, five professional soccer teams, two college football teams, a bowl game, a USFL team, it has hosted five NFC Championship games, two MLB All-Star Games, men's and women's World Cup matches, nine men's and women's first-round soccer games of the 1996 Olympics, three MLS Cup matches, two MLS All-Star games, numerous American friendlies and World Cup qualifying matches. It has hosted college football, college soccer, baseball exhibitions, boxing matches, a cycling race, a Le Mans auto race and dozens of major concerts and other events. RFK was one of the first major stadiums designed to host both football. Although other stadiums served this purpose, such as Cleveland Stadium and Baltimore's Memorial Stadium, RFK was one of the first to employ what became known as the circular "cookie-cutter" design.
It is owned and operated by Events DC, a quasi-public organization affiliated with the city government, under a lease that runs until 2038 from the National Park Service, which owns the land. The idea of a stadium at this location originated in 1932 when the Roosevelt Memorial Association proposed a National Stadium for the site and Allied Architects, a group of local architects organized in 1925 to secure large-scale projects from the government, made designs for it. A "National Stadium" in Washington was an idea, pursued since 1916, when Congressman George Hulbert of New York proposed the construction of a 50,000-seat stadium at East Potomac Park for the purpose of attracting the 1920 Olympics, it was thought that such a stadium could attract Davis Cup tennis matches, polo tournaments and the annual Army-Navy football game. A effort by DC Director of Public Buildings and Parks Ulysses S. Grant III and Congressman Hamilton Fish of New York sought to turn the National Stadium into a 100,000-seat memorial to Theodore Roosevelt, suitable for hosting inaugurations on the National Mall or Theodore Roosevelt Island.
This attracted the attention of the RMA. This would allow the Lincoln Memorial under construction west of the Capitol, the Roosevelt memorial to become bookend monuments to the two great Republican presidents; the effort lost steam when Congress chose not to fund the stadium in time to move the 1932 Olympics from Los Angeles. The idea of a stadium gained support in 1938, when Senator Robert Reynolds of North Carolina pushed for the creation of a municipal outdoor stadium within the District, citing the "fact that America is the only major country not possessing a stadium with facilities to accommodate the Olympic Games"; the following year a model of the proposed stadium, to be located near the current site of RFK Stadium, was presented to the public. By 1941, the National Capital Planning Commission had begun buying property for a stadium, purchasing the land between East Capitol, C, 19th and 21st NE. A few years on December 20, 1944, Congress created a nine-man National Memorial Stadium Commission to study the idea.
They intended the stadium to be a memorial to the veterans of the World Wars. The commission wrote a report recommending that a 100,000-seat stadium be built near the site of RFK in time for the 1948 Olympics, but it failed to get funding. Ignored in the early 1950s, a new stadium again drew interest in 1954. Congressman Charles R. Howell of New Jersey proposed legislation to build a stadium, again with hopes of attracting the Olympics, he pushed for a report, completed in 1956 by the National Capital Planning Commission entitled "Preliminary Report on Sites for National Memorial Stadium", which identified the "East Capitol Site" to be used for the stadium. In September 1957, "The District of Columbia Stadium Act" was introduced and authorized a 50,000-seat stadium to be used by the Senators and Redskins at the Armory site, it was signed into law by President Eisenhower on July 29, 1958, with an estimated cost of $7.5 to $8.6 million. The lease for the stadium was signed by the D. C. Armory Board and the Department of the Interior on December 12, 1958.
The stadium, the first major multisport facility built for both football and baseball, was designed by George Dahl, Ewin Engineering Associates and Osborn Engineering. Groundbreaking for the $24 million venue was in 1960 on July 8, construction proceeded over the following 14 months; the existing venue for baseball in Washington was Griffith Stadium, about four miles northwest. While Redskins’ owner George Preston Marshall was pleased with the stadium, Senators' owner Calvin Griffith was not, it wasn't where he wanted it to be and he'd have to pay rent and let others run the parking and concessions. The Senators' attendance figures had suffered after the arrival of the Baltimore Orioles in 1954 and Griffith preferred the demographics and profit potential of the Minnesota market. In 1960, when Major League Baseball granted the city of Minneapolis an expansion team, Griffith proposed that he be allowed to move his team to Minneapolis-Saint Paul and give the expansion team to Washington. Upon league approval, the team moved to Minnesota after the 1960 season and Washington fielded a "new Senators" team, entering the junior circuit in 1961 with the Los Angeles Angels.
The stadium opened in autumn 1961 as District of Columbia Stadium.
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a