Animax Broadcast Japan Inc. stylized as ANIMAX, is a Japanese anime satellite television network, dedicated to broadcasting anime programming. The channel dubbed cartoons in Japanese language. A subsidiary of Sony Pictures Entertainment Japan and Mitsui & Co.'s joint venture AK Holdings, it is headquartered in New Pier Takeshiba North Tower in Minato, Japan, with its co-founders and shareholders including Sony Pictures Entertainment Japan and the noted anime studios Sunrise, Toei Animation, TMS Entertainment and production company NAS. Animax is the largest 24-hour network in the world dedicated to anime. Animax operates as separate 24-hour TV channels for Japan and South Korea, in addition to VOD platforms in the United Kingdom, Germany and Switzerland. In India Animax is available online as live channel via Sony LIV. Established on May 20, 1998 by Sony, Animax Broadcast Japan Inc. premiered in Japan on July 1, the same year, across the SKY PerfecTV! Satellite television platform. Headquartered in Minato, Tokyo and presided by Masao Takiyama, Animax's shareholders and founders include Sony Pictures Entertainment, Toei Animation, TMS Entertainment, NAS.
Its founders include noted anime producer and production designer Yoshirō Kataoka. The network began broadcasting in high definition from October 2009. Animax exhibits affiliations with anime pioneer Osamu Tezuka's Tezuka Productions company, Nippon Animation, numerous others, it has produced and premiered several anime in Japan, such as Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex, Ultra Maniac, Astro Boy, Hungry Heart: Wild Striker, Aishiteruze Baby, many others, including Madhouse's anime adaptations of Marvel's Iron Man, X-Men. Noted Japanese celebrities and personalities to have appeared on Animax with their own programs, include actress Natsuki Katō, among numerous others; the network's narrators are the voice actors Yukari Tamura and Kōsuke Okano, from October 2007, Sayuri Yahagi. Animax hosts and organizes several anime-based competitions across Japan, such as the Animax Taishō scriptwriting competition and Animax Anison Grand Prix anime song music competition, which are judged by a panel of noted anime figures, as well as several events and concerts across Japan, such as the annual Animax Summer Fest, an annual live concert during which renowned Japanese bands and voice actors perform to a live audience held at Zepp Tokyo.
Apart from operating its business as a television network, Animax has begun operating a mobile television service. In February 2007, Animax announced that it would be launching a mobile television service of its network on the mobile phone company MOBAHO! from April 2007, having its programming being viewable by the company's mobile phone subscribers. Since July 2011 a program called STUDIO MUSIX has been transmitted the first Sunday of every month, featuring popular singer May'n as the MC. In each episode there's a segment of May'n and the guests on an interview and a live stage featuring them. Animax launched separate Asian versions of the channel featuring its anime programming within separate networks and feeds in the respective regions and languages beginning in 2004; the first one was launched in Taiwan and the Philippines on January 1, 2004, in Hong Kong on January 12, 2004. A week Animax launched in Southeast Asia on January 19, 2004, featuring its programming within feeds in English audio, as well as Japanese audio, with English subtitling, other languages in the region, becoming the company's first English-language network.
On July 5, 2004, Animax started operations across South Asia including India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives, featuring its programming within an English-language feed. On April 29, 2006, Animax started its operations in South Korea. On August 31, 2006, Animax launched its Malaysian feed. Animax used the latest logo launched on May 3, 2010, until it reverted to their previous logo sometime in 2013. Animax ceased its operations in India and was replaced by Sony Yay on April 18, 2017; the channel moved to its digital platform Sony LIV in HD and Asian feed instead. Animax was launched in Latin America on July 31, 2005, replacing Locomotion after Sony's purchase from Hearst Corporation and Corus Entertainment, in January 2005; the channel's non-anime programming were removed from the lineup, replaced with an all-anime lineup. Animax Latin America began operating across the entire region and broadcasting its anime programming. Unlike Animax's networks in other countries, Animax Latin America was distributed by HBO Latin America Group under license from Sony.
The network's initial programming lineup consisted of shows that aired on Locomotion, which were Saber Marionette J, Saber Marionette J to X, Soul Hunter/Senkai-den Hōshin Engi, Serial Experiments Lain, The Candidate for Goddess and Earth Girl Arjuna, newer series such as Di Gi Charat Nyo!, Fullmetal Alchemist, GetBackers.hack//Sign, Hungry Heart: Wild Striker, Hunter × Hunter, Initial D, Last Exile, Lunar Legend Tsukihime, Martian Successor Nadesico, Pita-Ten, The Prince of Tennis, Crayon Shin-chan, Stratos 4, Vandread. Over the years, Animax has aired various anime series, with the Spanish versions being dubbed in Venezuela by Estudios Lain and after in Mexico, the Portuguese versions dubbed in Brazil, most of whom have never been shown before locally. Its
Sony Crime Channel
Sony Crime Channel is a British free-to-air television channel, focusing on crime television programmes and documentaries. It was launched on 6 February 2018 and it is owned by Sony Pictures Television, it airs crime programming targeted at a female audience. Sony Crime Channel 2 launched on 6 February 2018, replacing True Crime on Sky channel 184.. The channel closed on 15 November 2018, along with sister channel Scuzz; the True Crime channel was relaunched again on 12 February 2019, replacing truTV. 48 Hours Caught on Camera Cops Crime 360 Crime Town USA CSI: Crime Scene Investigation Deadly Women Dog Patrol Dog the Bounty Hunter Fatal Attraction Hustle Killer Kids Law and Order: Criminal Talent Law and Order Line of Duty Manhunters: Fugitive Task Force Orange is the New Black Paternity Court Person of Interest Police Women of Dallas Psychic Detective Real Detective Spooks Taggart The Devil You Know The People's Court Unforgettable Very Bad Men Why Did Oscar Pistorius Kill Our Daughter? Wife, Bounty Hunter Official website
Virgin Media Limited is a British company which provides telephone and internet services in the United Kingdom. Its headquarters are in Hampshire. Since 2013, Virgin Media has been a subsidiary of Liberty Global plc, an international television and telecommunications company; the company was listed on the NASDAQ Stock Market and London Stock Exchange. Virgin Media is not a sister company of Virgin Mobile USA, owned by Sprint Corporation; the company was founded in March 2006 by the merger of Telewest, which created NTL: Telewest. In July 2006, the company purchased Virgin Mobile UK, creating the first "quadruple-play" media company in the United Kingdom, offering television, mobile phone and fixed-line telephone services. In November 2006, the company signed a deal with Sir Richard Branson to licence the Virgin brand for the combined business. All of the company's consumer services were rebranded under the Virgin Media name in February 2007. Virgin Media owns and operates its own fibre-optic cable network in the United Kingdom, although their optical fibre network does not reach the customer premises, rather they connect to a street cabinet.
As of 31 December 2012, it had a total of 4.8 million cable customers, of whom around 3.79 million were supplied with its television services, around 4.2 million with broadband internet services and around 4.1 million with fixed-line telephony services. At the same date, it had around 3 million mobile telephony customers. Virgin Media competes in broadband with Sky, BT Group and TalkTalk, in mobile with EE, O2, Vodafone and Three; the company's origins lie in both Telewest and NTL, which merged in March 2006. Telewest began in 1984 in Croydon under the name "Croydon Cable", was acquired by United Cable of Denver in 1988; the company expanded during the 1990s and adopted the Telewest name in 1992 following the merger of its then-parent TCI and US West. It expanded into cable television access in 1999 by purchasing the remaining 50% stake in Cable London, one of the first cable TV companies in the UK, from NTL, adding 400,000 homes in north London. In April 2000 Telewest merged with Flextech, in November extended its cable network with the acquisition of Eurobell, taking the total number of homes past 4.9 million.
NTL was established by Barclay Knapp and George Blumenthal in 1993 as "International CableTel", taking advantage of the deregulation of the UK cable market. Cabletel acquired local cable franchises covering Guildford, Northern Ireland and parts of Central Scotland and South Wales. In 1996 CableTel acquired National Transcommunications Limited, the privatised UK Independent Broadcasting Authority transmission network. In 1998 CableTel adopted "NTL" as its new name. NTL purchased the ISP Virgin.net in 2004, having operated it as a joint venture with Virgin Group since it launched in November 1996. It sold ADSL broadband services through BT landlines to those living outside areas served by NTL's cable network and offered subscription-based and subscription-free dial-up Internet access. Prior to acquiring Virgin.net, NTL offered. Telewest and NTL began discussions regarding a merger in late 2003. Thanks to their geographically distinct areas, NTL and Telewest had co-operated as in redirecting potential customers living outside their respective areas.
On 3 October 2005, NTL announced a US$16 billion purchase of Telewest, to form one of the largest media companies in the UK. The merger agreement as structured would have required NTL to negotiate with BBC Worldwide due to a change-of-ownership clause written into the agreement for UKTV, a joint venture with Telewest's Flextech content division. To prevent this, Telewest instead acquired NTL. In December 2005 NTL:Telewest and mobile virtual network operator Virgin Mobile UK announced that talks had taken place regarding a merger. Virgin Mobile's independent directors rejected the original bid of £817 million, taking the view that NTL's bid "undervalued the business". Sir Richard Branson expressed confidence that a restructured deal could go ahead, in January 2006 NTL increased its offer to £961 million. On 4 April 2006, NTL announced a £962.4 million recommended offer for Virgin Mobile. According to reports, Branson accepted a mix of shares and cash, making him a 10.7% shareholder of the combined company.
NTL and Telewest formally completed their merger on 3 March 2006, making the merged company the UK's largest cable provider, with more than 90% of the market. The combined company renamed itself NTL Incorporated, with ex-NTL shareholders controlling 75% of the stock and ex-Telewest shareholders 25%. Nine of the 11 directors of the new board came with two from Telewest. NTL:Telewest's takeover of Virgin Mobile completed on 4 July 2006, creating the UK's first'quadruple play' media company, bringing together television, mobile phone and fixed-line phone services; the deal included a 30-year exclusive branding agreement that saw NTL adopt the "Virgin" name after it completed its merger with Telewest. NTL:Telewest announced on 8 November 2006 it would change its name to "Virgin Media Inc". On 9 November 2006, NTL announced it had approached the commercial television broadcaster ITV plc about a proposed merger, after a similar announcement by ITV. BSkyB blocked the merger on 17 November 2006 by controversially buying a 17.9% stake in ITV plc, a move that attracted anger from NTL shareholder Richard Branson, an investigation from media and telecoms regulator Ofcom.
On 6 December 2006 NTL announced that it had complained to the Office of Fair Trading about BSkyB's
Starz TV is a digital satellite TV music channel, owned by TRACE Group. Fizz TV launched on 24 January 2005 on Sky channel 468; the output of the station is music videos from a range of genres that are popular in the charts. The channel has a heavy interactive texting element, through the viewers being able to send in text messages and pictures to show on screen; the channel moved to Sky channel 361 on 28 February 2006 as part of an expanded reshuffle of the EPG, in this case in the music section, to make more room in the Sports section, on 4 August 2008, moved again to Sky channel 371, to free space for Sky Movies' HD channels. It moved again to Sky channel 369 on 1 May 2018; the parent company of Channel U and Fizz TV, Video Interactive Television, went into voluntary liquidation at the beginning of February 2009, before being purchased by Mushroom TV. When purchasing the two channels, Mushroom TV agreed that Channel Fizz TV should be rebranded; the two channels were rebranded as Channel AKA and Starz TV on 16 March 2009.
On 22 June 2012, Mushroom TV entered liquidation. Ofcom's television broadcast licensing update for May 2012, indicates that Starz TV was sold to Cloud Television One Limited. From 2014 to 2018, it was owned by Sony Pictures Television, before being acquired by TRACE Group on 13 December 2018 along with its three sister music channels. On 15 April 2014, Starz TV launched on Freesat, replacing BuzMuzik, which closed 12 days earlier, on channel 505. On 2 May 2015, it moved to channel 504, in a reshuffle of the Music section to fit Viva into the section, after its entertainment programmes had been removed due to the launch of Spike on 15 April, it was removed from there along with Chart Show TV, Scuzz and Tiny Pop +1 on July 31, 2018. Huge Hits & Fresh Videos! - This program features all the latest hits. Non-Stop Hits - This program features all the latest has a format to start the weekend. Official website StarzTV Twitter
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Flava (TV channel)
Flava was a British hip-hop music television channel owned and operated by Sony Pictures Television. It was launched in June 2004 and was called B4 TV, a previous pre-launch music channel from CSC Media Group. Flava broadcast for 24 hours a day and played Hip Hop, Urban and R&B music from the late 1970s to the 2010s, it occasionally showed films and original programming. The channel advertised itself as 100% Old Skool Hip-Hop/R&B 24/7. Flava launched on 12 July 2004 and started off as a pre-released Pop and Dance channel under the name of "B4"; the channel used to play the latest pre release music videos from the notable groups. It had hours dedicated to playing requested music; the channel had advertised itself as both'B4 It's A Hit' and'B4 Everyone Else'. The B4 logo was on screen in the bottom left-hand corner during music videos and the song information is shown in a white coloured bar at the start and near the end of each music video; the channels' identity was seen before and after advert breaks when the B4 logo forms on screen in a white box shape on an orange background.
B4 was available 24 hours a day on Sky channel 357 and was part of several music channels owned by CSC Media Group. B4 produced an early morning music video programme broadcast from 2004 on weekdays on Channel 4 at 7 am, it was broadcast as part of Channel 4's breakfast programming following children's programme The Hoobs and preceding a number of comedy programmes imported from America. Produced by the firm behind ITV's The Chart Show, the show featured around seven new upfront videos each day that were going to be released in the United Kingdom in the near future within the next month; the B4 rebrand to Flava first came to light when the Ofcom licence for B4 was removed and replaced by one under the name of Flava, this reflected the EPG references of the term "Flava" being used to describe the programmes being shown, in late February/early March 2008. On 26 March 2008, B4 was rebranded to an all-urban music channel Flava. On 29 September 2009, Flava launched on Freesat channel 502. On 26 November 2012, Flava changed its logo.
On 5 June 2013, Flava swapped positions with Scuzz on Sky. The channel moved from channel 367 to 374, while Scuzz moved from 374 to 367. On 21 July 2014, along with Bliss were removed from Freesat. On 23 April 2017, Flava introduced a brand new logo, changed their programme graphics from blue to black, as well as rebranding themselves to be a 100% Old Skool Hip Hop and RnB channel on 2 May 2017. On 1 November 2017, Flava closed down after 9 years on air; the last video played on Flava was Juicy by The Notorious B. I. G. before the channel closed down 50 seconds into the video. Flava ceased broadcasting at 11:15 on 1 November 2017 without warning, with "Juicy" by The Notorious B. I. G; the final music video to be played on the channel, Flava abruptly crashed and went blank in the middle of the video. The channel was closed down and removed from the EPG abruptly and shortly after; the last video played in full was "In Da Club" by 50 Cent. The programming segment #PLAY was moved to Chartshow Hits, but with a focus on recent chart/pop hits and music from Chart Show TV 99 Problems: Rap Anthems - We've got 99 rap anthems for you right now, so keep it Flava for Old Skool Eminem, Jay Z, Dr Dre, Snoop, 2Pac & more.
A-Z of Hip Hop - The ultimate countdown of the best Hip-Hop videos from artists A-Z. Bass Believers - A collection of the best drum'n' base tunes. Big Tunes Fo' Shizzle - Non stop variety of Hip Hop Music Block Rockin Beatz - A mix of big urban tunes. Brand New! This Weeks Hottest - Brand new music, the biggest new hip-hop and R&B music. Breakfast Beats - Non-stop hip hop, rnb & drum'n' bass music. Britain's Next Urban Superstar with Jordan Kensington - The nationwide talent search ran by Jordan Kensington. Charlie Sloth's Old Skool Takeover - BBC Radio 1Xtra presenter Charlie Sloth chooses his selection of old skool hip hop music. Dope Morning Beats - The latest urban music on a morning. Double Up - Back to back videos from the best urban artists around. Drum'n' Bass - A mix of the finest drum'n' base music. First for Flava - A collection of the newest urban music videos. Flava at the Flicks - The best hip-hop music from movies Freshest Beats - The latest urban music. Garage Anthems - The best in new and classic garage tunes.
Godfathers of Hip Hop - The best music from male urban artists. Hip Hop Download Chart - A countdown of the weeks most downloaded Hip-Hop tracks. Hip Hop Number Ones - A collection of Hip-Hop number ones from recent years. Hip Hop Vs Garage - A mash up of Hip-Hop and garage music. Hip Hop Xplosion - A mix of the biggest Hip-Hop music. In The Mix - The biggest urban, hip-hop, pop and R&B tunes, in the mix! In The Mix: 90s Hip-Hop Anthems - Rap classics from the 90s, in the mix. Masters of Hip Hop - Music from the founders of Hip-Hop. Morning Rewind - Hip Hop from the 80s, 90s & 00s on a morning. Non Stop Flava - Non-stop R&B and Hip-Hop music. Official Flava Urban Chart - Get your daily fix of the hottest RnB, Hip Hop and dance tracks in our massive Top 20 countdown. Party Flava - Classic urban party tunes. #PLAY - Interactive twitter block #PLAY: Eminem and Friends - A special edition of #PLAY reserved for songs by Eminem and his collaborators. #PLAY: Movie Soundtracks - A special edition of #PLAY featuring hip-hop music from movies.
R&B Download Chart - A countdown of the most downloaded R&B songs each week. R&B Singles Chart - Countdown of the weeks' top R&B music. Scratch Masters - Back to back scratch t
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s