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True Grit (2010 film)

True Grit is a 2010 American Revisionist Western film directed, written and edited by the Coen brothers and executively produced by Steven Spielberg. It is an adaptation of Charles Portis' 1968 novel of the same name, stars Hailee Steinfeld as Mattie Ross and Jeff Bridges as Deputy U. S. Marshal Reuben J. "Rooster" Cogburn, along with Matt Damon, Josh Brolin, Barry Pepper. A previous film adaptation in 1969 starred Kim Darby and Glen Campbell. Feisty 14 year-old farm girl Mattie Ross hires Cogburn, a boozy, trigger-happy lawman after an outlaw named Tom Chaney murders her father; the bickering duo are accompanied on their quest by a Texas Ranger named LaBoeuf, tracking Chaney for killing a State Senator. As the three embark on a dangerous adventure, they each have their "grit" tested in various ways. Filming began in March 2010, the film was released in the U. S. on December 22, 2010 after advance screenings earlier that month. The film opened the 61st Berlin International Film Festival on February 10, 2011.

It was well received by critics. It was nominated for ten Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Actor in a Leading Role, Best Actress in a Supporting Role, Best Art Direction, Best Cinematography, Best Costume Design, Best Sound Mixing, Best Sound Editing. However, it won none; the film was released on Blu-ray and DVD on June 7, 2011. The father of 14-year old Mattie Ross is murdered by hired hand Tom Chaney while on a trip to Fort Smith, Arkansas to purchase horses. While collecting her father's body, Mattie asks the local sheriff about the search for Chaney, he tells her that Chaney has fled with "Lucky" Ned Pepper and his gang into Indian Territory, where the sheriff has no authority, so she inquires about hiring a Deputy U. S. Marshal; the sheriff gives three recommendations, Mattie chooses Rooster Cogburn. Cogburn rebuffs her offer, disbelieving both her grit and her wealth, but she raises the money by aggressively horse-trading with Colonel Stonehill. Texas Ranger LaBoeuf arrives in town.

LaBoeuf proposes joining Cogburn. She wishes Chaney to be hanged in Arkansas for her father's murder, not in Texas for killing the senator. Mattie insists on traveling with Cogburn but he departs without her, having gone with LaBoeuf to apprehend Chaney and split the reward. After being refused passage on the ferry that conveyed Cogburn and LaBoeuf, Mattie fearlessly goads her new horse, into swimming the river with her. After she crosses, LaBoeuf expresses his displeasure at her obstinance by attempting a spanking with a stick. Cogburn forces him to stop and allows Mattie to accompany them. After a dispute over their respective service with the Confederate Army, Cogburn ends their arrangement and LaBoeuf leaves to pursue Chaney on his own. Cogburn and Mattie meet a trail doctor who directs them to a empty dugout for shelter. At the dugout, they find two outlaws and Moon waiting for the rest of the Pepper gang. After literally'smoking' the two out and Mattie capture and interrogate them. Quincy insists.

However, the injured Moon, seems to be about to divulge what he knows whereupon Quincy stabs him in the chest, Cogburn shoots Quincy dead. Before dying, Moon asks that his body be relayed to his brother and says Pepper and his gang will be returning for fresh horses that night. Cogburn and Mattie wait on the hillside above the dugout for his gang. However, LaBoeuf arrives first and is confronted by the arrival of the Pepper gang. Cogburn shoots two gang members and accidentally hits LaBoeuf. LaBoeuf is injured in the fall from his horse nearly bites his own tongue off. With Pepper gone, LaBoeuf injured, finding the gang's stash of whiskey, Cogburn begins to drink heavily. After a few days of steady drinking, Cogburn bows out and tells LaBoeuf and Mattie to continue without him. Mattie tells LaBoeuf that she chose the wrong man to pursue Chaney. LaBoeuf tells her that she has proven her grit, he leaves the posse the next morning. While retrieving water from a stream, Mattie encounters Chaney, she wounds him with the first shot from her revolver, but when she attempts to shoot him a second time, her wet gun does not fire allowing Chaney to drag her back to Pepper, who forces Cogburn to leave by threatening to kill her.

Pepper leaves Mattie alone with Chaney, ordering him not to harm her or he will not get paid after his remount arrives. Chaney tries to knife Mattie, they watch from a distance as Cogburn fights the remaining members of Pepper's gang, killing two and wounding Ned before his horse is shot and falls, trapping his leg, whereupon LaBoeuf snipes Pepper. Chaney regains consciousness and knocks out LaBoeuf, but Mattie seizes LaBoeuf's rifle and shoots Chaney in the chest, killing him; the recoil knocks her into a cave. Cogburn arrives after a time and, lowering himself into the cave, shoots the snakes and cuts into her hand to suck out as much of the venom as he can. Cogburn promises to send help for LaBoeuf before riding day and night to reach a doctor. Mattie begins to hallucinate Chaney riding ahead of them just out of reach. Cogburn pushes Matties' horse to exhaustion and the animal collapses. Cogburn shoots the horse while Mattie incoherently objects


Tamuín is a municipio in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosí. Tamuín is internationally renowned for three archaeological sites representative of the precolonial Huastec culture; the name Tamuín has been spelled in many ways over time: Tamui, Tamuchi, Tam-Ohin, Tamo-Oxxi, Tam-Huinic, Tamohi, Tamnoc. Its meaning is undetermined, there have been many proposals about it, two of which being “gar spot” and “mosquito spot”. Another suggestion holds that the original name is Tam-Huinic and that this translates as “place of the book of knowledge”; this meaning is suggestive of the fact that Tamuín was the leading ceremonial center of the entire region of Huasteca. Yet another suggestion is that Tamuin is a corruption of the Huastec'tamohi' meaning'place of Ramon trees'. "An Archaeological Guide to Central and Southern Mexico" by Joyce & Jerry Kelly 2001. This is supported by Huastec origins from the moist south Huastec people where ramon nuts are common and a staple food; the municipality is situated in the eastern part of the State of San Luis Potosí and belongs to the region known as Huasteca, a region which covers parts of several states.

Tamuín is bordered on the north by the state of Tamaulipas, on the south by the villages of San Vicente Tancuayalab and Tanlajás, on the east by the municipio of Ébano, on the west by Ciudad Valles. The Tampaón River runs through the middle of Tamuín, it joins the Moctezuma River to form the Pánuco River. This region contains the following lagoons: Los Patitos, Brasil, San José del Limón, Palmas Cortadas and Mirador; the climate is hot for most of the year, turning to between cool and cold between November and February. La Huasteca was the territory of a branch of the Maya group of ethnicities. La Huasteca is detached from and far to the north of the main Maya region. Today, there are about 150,000 speakers of the Wastek language distributed between the states of San Luis Potosí and the neighboring state of Veracruz. Tamuín was the site of the first royal land lease in the portion of Huasteca which within the modern day state of San Luis Potosí. In 1555, the Viceroy ordered the alcalde mayor of Pánuco not to hinder the fisheries of the Huastec tribe in Tamuín and Tampico.

In 1787, the Spanish empire's new system of intendancies was extended into Mexico. The old magistrate district of the Villa de los Valles was abolished and it was incorporated into the vast intendancy of San Luis Potosí, whose borders extended to Louisiana in the northeast, Tamuín continued in the administrative status of a simple village. In 1793 the Franciscan friar, Fray Cristóbal Herrera Alcorcha described it in his report on the missions as the “Sanctuary of Tamud or Tamuín”. Under the constitution of the newly independent Mexican Republic, promulgated in 1824, the provinces of the former colony were transformed into "free and sovereign states"; the first constitution of the State of San Luis Potosí was enacted by its constituent congress on 16 October 1826, one year by decree No. 61 promulgated on 8 October 1827, several municipios of the state were designated, among them Tamuín. Soon thereafter a law regulating municipios was enacted, wherein the Villa of Tamuín is mentioned as belonging to the division of Ciudad Valles.

In March 1831, the lieutenant colonel of engineers, Francisco Pocelli, sailed up the Pánuco River from Tampico in a steamboat and arrived at Tamuín. This event was quite memorable for the region, since it was the first time a steamboat had traversed there. By a decree of 30 June 1845 issued by the Assembly of the Department of San Luis Potosí, the ayuntamiento of Tamuín was transferred to the district of Valles. In this period, the village of Tamuín was located further south than presently, at a site whose original name was El Choyal. In 1892, for the transfer of Tamuín to the place called La Cofradía, the hacienda of El Limón was taken over, its 19,000 hectares were distributed among 17 ejidos, giving each farmer 20 hectares on average. In 1955, the Villa of Tamuín was inundated for nearly three weeks due to torrential rains caused by hurricanes Gladys and Hilda. During this crisis, the population was rendered incommunicado by damage to the town's highway; this disaster prompted president Adolfo Ruiz Cortinez to pay a visit to Tamuín.

Agriculture: The most common crops are corn, beans, sugar cane and some produce. Animal Ranching: principally cattle, but hogs, horses and goats. Manufacturing: there is a cement plant of Grupo Cemex, two 260 MW electric generating stations operated by the AES Corporation, a meat packing plant. Fishing: fisheries include gar, river carp, mojarra and acamaya. There is a modern airport. Commercial flights are on a limited scale for security reasons; the municipality of Tamuín encompasses three of the most important sites of the Huastec culture: Tamtok, El Consuelo, Tzintzin-Lujub. Tamtok or Tamtoc is a site of the highest importance in the archaeological history of the Huasteca region. Situated in a plain within a large bend of the Tampaón River and dominated by two great natural hills which are at first glance mistaken for pyramids, the site comprises 50 small and medium sized mounds. There is a ceremonial plaza bordered by 23 buildings, with five platforms for conducting rituals occupying the center, which are surrounded by 13 round habitations and two rectangular, terraced large buildings which were for community use.

The complex allows one to imagine what the religious life of the noble families


Romantic? is the sixth studio album by English synth-pop band the Human League. It was issued by Virgin Records in 1990 and was the band's first album of new material in four years. Romantic? had several producers, most notably Martin Rushent, who worked with the Human League on their biggest commercial success and had walked out of the recording sessions for its 1984 follow-up. Producing several tracks is Mark Brydon, who would be one half of musical duo Moloko several years later. At the time of the album's release, the Human League had reached the nadir of a decline in popularity following the success of Dare nine years prior; the song one writer called a "pointless and bland filler," was ditched as a potential third single. The album signalled a critical and commercial low point for the band, which led to their long-standing contract with Virgin Records being terminated; the only significant success came from the album's first single "Heart Like a Wheel", which peaked at No. 29 on the UK Singles Chart and No. 32 on the U.

S. Billboard Hot 100; the second single "Soundtrack to a Generation" charted at No. 77 in the UK. The album itself peaked at No. 24 on the UK Albums Chart, as a result. The band moved to East West Records to release 1995's Octopus; the Human League's live performance of "The Stars Are Going Out" on Later... with Jools Holland in 1995 was included on their 2003 The Very Best of the Human League DVD. All tracks are written except where noted. Romantic? at Discogs

Carl Edgar Myers

Carl Edgar Myers was an American businessman, inventor, meteorologist and aeronautical engineer. He invented many types of related equipment, his business of making passenger airshipballoons and instrument balloons at his "balloon farm" was well known throughout the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He invented a machine for varnishing fabric that would make it impervious to hydrogen so that the finished product could be made into large envelopes for lighter-than-air balloons. Myers experimented in making artificial rain in areas where rain was deficient for agriculture, he made oxy-hydrogen balloons. He contracted with the U. S. government and lumber companies to make these balloon "bombs" for the production of man-made rain. Myers was a manager for the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair and the superintendent of their Aeronautic Concourse for balloon demonstrations and aerial races, he made balloon military warships and inventions that could be used for defense in case of attack by air by foreign interests and demonstrated at the Fair.

Myers, born March 2, 1842, was of the son of Abram Myers and Ann Ela Myers. His birthplace was Fort Herkimer in New York state. Myers attended a school run by a scientist. At school he became interested in all related matters. Myers earned extra money from fulfilling requests for art work and building mechanical gadgets for others, he spent most of this money on science books. He spent his extra time in workshops and laboratories to learn scientific principles, his spare time in the woods to learn about nature, he was a leader among the local teenagers. Myers had improved many devices. One was a patented invention of a kerosene lamp damper that reduced the flame's smoke. Another innovation, of which he was proud, was an automatic self-recording mercury barometer that memorialized its measurements on a paper strip. Myers made his own electrical-mechanical tools, he turned his interests and experiments into early entrepreneurial ventures that earned money for him. He became at one time or another a delivery agent, bill collector, bank clerk, chemist, gas-fitter, photographer, printer and writer.

On July 5, 1861, at nineteen Myers became a cashier at the Mohawk Valley Bank. General Francis E. Spinner was the treasurer of the bank at the time, his first year as a trainee was without pay. Myers received a salary of $100 per year, being higher than normal since he put in extra attention to his work habits, he opened his own little telegraph office in July 1863 within the counting office of the bank. This was the first telegraph office for the town of New York, he constructed all the necessary telegraph equipment taught himself Morse code. Myers' income from this bank telegraph business was one-half of his total income, he had to give up being a part-time telegraph operator within the bank, as his bank responsibilities took up most of his time. He turned over the telegraph business to the local post office with Austin Shall as the operator. Myers worked at Mohawk Valley Bank for six years. During this time he developed an interest in counterfeit money, he assembled a scrapbook of these for study.

He had another book of genuine bills. He became an expert in detecting counterfeit bills; this became a valued interest to the bankers and Myers was given all the bank notes to pass through him for approval of genuineness. This became a basis for the present day method of detecting counterfeit bills. Myers moved to Hornellsville, New York. There he ran the business for several years. Myers met Mary Hawley in Hornellsville and married her on November 8, 1871, she was 7 years younger, being born in 1849. In 1873 Myers took up an interest in making hydrogen ballooning; the couple moved back to Mohawk from Hornellsville in 1875 and began activities of balloon manufacturing and flying. Mary became his lab assistant and a balloon pilot known as Carlotta, the Lady Aeronaut. Myers built his first balloon in the summer of 1878 in Mohawk Valley, it could contain 10,000 cubic feet of hydrogen gas. The balloon material with its valve weighed one hundred pounds; the envelope material was high quality cotton cloth, unbleached.

It was varnished with linseed oil gum thinned with turpentine. Myers invented machinery that applied the coats of varnish onto fabric of cotton. There were several coats of varnish applied to make a balloon envelope impervious to hydrogen; the first of these patented machines, that took fourteen days to construct, was in operation for seven years. Myers made sixty hydrogen balloons in sixty days in 1891, he built a set of ten hydrogen gas balloons in five days in 1892. In 1889 Myers purchased the Gates Mansion Victorian style house with five acres of property, located near Frankfort, New York owned by Fred Gates of the Diamond Match Company. Here Myers and his wife went into the business of manufacturing passenger balloons and specialty purpose gas balloons, many for the US government; the balloons that had just been assembled

Shinano Railway Line

The Shinano Railway Line is a 65.1 km railway line operated by the third-sector railway operating company Shinano Railway in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. It connects Karuizawa Station in Karuizawa with Shinonoi Station in Nagano. Before October 1997, the right-of-way now belonging to the Shinano Railway was a part of the Shinetsu Main Line of East Japan Railway Company, served as the main train route connecting Nagano and Tokyo. Upon completion of the Nagano Shinkansen in October 1997, JR East transferred all long distance operations to the shinkansen, control of the Shinetsu Main Line between Karuizawa and Shinonoi was handed over to the newly formed Shinano Railway, majority owned by the Nagano Prefectural Government. Today, the line is a vital commuter transport route for communities in the east and north of Nagano Prefecture; the line is double-tracked with a track gauge of 1,067 mm for its entire length. The speed limit is 100 km/h. Like many railways in rural parts of Japan, the line faces problems concerning decreased ridership and revenue.

In recent years, additional stations have been opened at Tekuno-Sakaki, Yashiro-kōkō-mae, Shinano-Kokubunji in order to increase passenger numbers. Driver-only operation has been introduced on most of the line in order to reduce personnel costs. Shinano Railway Line trains use the right-of-way of the Shinetsu Main Line between Shinonoi and Nagano. All trains terminate at Nagano, not Shinonoi; as of April 2008, four round trains are operated as Rapids from Nagano. One in the morning from Komoro to Nagano, two in the evening from Nagano to Ueda are named Shinano Sunrise and Shinano Sunset, require payment of surcharge between Nagano and Ueda. "R" for Rapid and "S" for Shinano Sunset and Shinano Sunrise. Lower case letters indicate that some trains stop, while upper case letters indicate that all trains stop. 115 series 3-car EMU sets 169 series 3-car EMU sets Shinano Railway uses trainsets that were inherited from JR East when the line was transferred. The trains were subsequently refurbished. Many of the trains have video screens above the doors which feature commercials and other information.

In general, the 115 series trains are used for local services, while the 169 series were used for rapid and liner trains. The line first opened on 15 August 1888 as the 1,067 mm gauge steam-operated Naoetsu Line between Nagano and Ueda; this was extended south from Ueda to Karuizawa in December 1888. The line was electrified using a 1,500 V DC overhead wire system from June 1963; the third-sector operator Shinano Railway was established on 1 May 1996, operations of the Shinetsu Line between Karuizawa and Shinanoi were transferred from JR East to the Shinano Railway from 1 October 1997. Driver only operation was introduced on some services from 5 January 2004. Karuizawa Station: The Kusatsu Light Railway opened a 56 km 762 mm gauge line, including two switch backs, to Kusatsu Onsen between 1915 and 1926; the line was electrified at 600 V DC in 1924. In 1950, a typhoon resulted in a bridge being swept away, the same thing occurred in 1959, resulting in the 38 km section from Karuizawa to Joshu Mihara closing in 1960.

The rest of the line closed in 1962. Komoro Station - The Nunobiki Electric Railway opened an 8 km line, electrified at 600 V DC, to Shimagawara in 1926 to transport construction materials for the Makato Azuma hydro-electric power station; when that traffic finished the revenue for the line was less than 50% of interest bill alone, it closed in 1934. Oya Station: The Maruko Railway opened a 7 km line to Maruko in 1918, electrified the line at 600 V DC in 1924; the following year, it opened a 5 km electrified line from Oya to Ueda-Higashi. In 1944, the company merged with the Ueda Onsen Electric Railway creating the Maruko Ueda Electric Railway. Both lines closed in 1969. Ueda Station: The Ueda Onsen Electric Railway opened a 13 km line to Sanada, a 3 km branch from Motohara to Sochi between 1927 and 1928, both lines electrified at 1,500 V DC. In 1944, the company merged with the Maruko Electric Railway creating the Maruko Ueda Electric Railway. Both lines closed in 1972. Yashiro Station: The Kato Railway opened a 24 km line to Suzaka on the Nagano Electric Railway line in 1922, electrified it at 1,500 V DC in January 1926, merged with that company in September the same year.

CTC signalling was commissioned on the line in 1983, but due to falling patronage the line closed in 2012. List of railway companies in Japan List of railway lines in Japan This article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia. Official website

Pentangle (band)

Pentangle are a British folk-jazz band with an eclectic mix of folk, jazz and folk rock influences. The original band was active in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a version has been active since the early 1980s; the original line-up, unchanged throughout the band's first incarnation, was: Jacqui McShee. The name Pentangle was chosen to represent the five members of the band, is the device on Sir Gawain's shield in the Middle English poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight which held a fascination for Renbourn. In 2007, the original members of the band were reunited to receive a Lifetime Achievement award at the BBC Radio 2 Folk Awards and to record a short concert, broadcast on BBC radio; the following June, all five original members embarked on a twelve-date UK tour. The original group formed in 1967. Renbourn and Jansch were popular musicians on the British folk scene, with several solo albums each and a duet LP, Bert and John, their use of complex inter-dependent guitar parts, referred to as "folk baroque", had become a distinctive characteristic of their music.

They shared a house in St John's Wood, London. Jacqui McShee had begun as an "floor singer" in several of the London folk clubs, by 1965, ran a folk club at the Red Lion in Sutton, establishing a friendship with Jansch and Renbourn when they played there, she sang on Renbourn's Another Monday album and performed with him as a duo, debuting at Les Cousins club in August 1966. Thompson and Cox had played together in Alexis Korner's band. By 1966, they were both part of Duffy Power's Nucleus. Thompson was well-known to Renbourn through appearances at Les Cousins and working with him on a project for television. In 1967, the Scottish entrepreneur Bruce Dunnet, who had organised a tour for Jansch, set up a Sunday night club for him and Renbourn at the Horseshoe Hotel in Tottenham Court Road. McShee began to join them as a vocalist and, by March of that year and Cox were being billed as part of the band. Renbourn claims to be the "catalyst" that brought the band together but credits Jansch with the idea "to get the band to play in a regular place, to knock it into shape".

Although nominally a ` folk' group, the members influences. McShee had a grounding in traditional music and Thompson a love of jazz, Renbourn a growing interest in early music, Jansch a taste for blues and contemporaries such as Bob Dylan; the first public concert by Pentangle was a sell-out performance at the Royal Festival Hall, on 27 May 1967. That year, they undertook a short tour of Denmark — in which they were disastrously billed as a rock'n'roll band — and a short UK tour, organised by Nathan Joseph of Transatlantic Records. By this stage, their association with Bruce Dunnett had ended and, early in 1968, they acquired Jo Lustig as a manager. With his influence, they graduated from clubs to concert halls and from on, as Colin Harper puts it, "the ramshackle, happy-go-lucky progress of the Pentangle was going to be a streamlined machine of purpose and efficiency". Pentangle signed up with Transatlantic Records and their eponymous debut LP was released in May 1968; this all-acoustic album was produced by Shel Talmy, who has claimed to have employed an innovative approach to recording acoustic guitars to deliver a bright "bell-like" sound.

On 29 June of that year they performed at London's Royal Festival Hall. Recordings from that concert formed part of their second album, Sweet Child, a double LP comprising live and studio recordings. Basket of Light, which followed in mid-1969, was their greatest commercial success, thanks to a surprise hit single, "Light Flight" which became popular through its use as theme music for the television series Take Three Girls for which the band provided incidental music; the album went all the way to number five in the charts. By 1970, they were at the peak of their popularity, recording a soundtrack for the film Tam Lin, making at least 12 television appearances, undertaking tours of the UK and America. However, their fourth album, Cruel Sister, released in October 1970, was a commercial disaster; this was an album of traditional songs that included a 20-minute-long version of "Jack Orion", a song that Jansch and Renbourn had recorded as a duo. It failed to go higher than number 51 in the charts.

The band returned to a mix of traditional and original material on Reflection, recorded in March 1971. This was received without enthusiasm by the music press. By this time, the strains of touring and of working together as a band were apparent. Bill Leader, who produced the album, said "It seems to me, in retrospect, that each day a different member of the group had decided that this was it:'Sod this for a game of soldiers, I'm leaving the group!'" Pentangle withdrew in a bitter dispute with Joseph regarding royalties. Transatlantic had concluded that they were within their contractual rights to withhold royalty payments from the Pentangle albums. Joseph pointed out that his company had covered all the costs, such as recording costs, entailed in making the albums. Jo Lustig, their manager, who had agreed to the Transatlantic contract, made it clear that their contract with him included a clause that they could not sue him "for anything under any circumstances." In order to make some money out of