Grant Heslov is an American actor, film producer and director, known for his producing and writing collaborations with George Clooney, which have earned him three Academy Award nominations. As a co-producer of Argo, he received the Academy Award for Best Picture in 2013; as an actor, he has appeared in films including True Lies, Black Sheep, Enemy of the State and The Scorpion King, as well as performing supporting roles in several films made with Clooney. Heslov was born in Los Angeles California, was raised in its Palos Verdes area, his father, was a dentist, his mother, Kerrie, a businesswoman. He has two older brothers and Michael, his family is Jewish. He attended Palos Verdes High School the University of Southern California along with friend Tate Donovan, he is a member of Phi Kappa Psi. Heslov is married to a producer. Heslov's acting credits include the films True Lies, Dante's Peak, Enemy of the State, The Scorpion King, Good Night and Good Luck, Black Sheep, Catch Me If You Can, he has appeared in such TV series as Happy Days, Family Ties, Mama's Family, L.
A. Law, Sleeper Cell and The X-Files. In August 2006, Heslov and George Clooney started Smokehouse Pictures and began writing screenplays for production, he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay and as producer for Best Film for Good Night, Good Luck. Heslov appears in the film as Don Hewitt, the director of the TV series See It Now, around which the movie is centered, he directed a screen adaptation of The Men Who Stare at Goats, starring Clooney, Ewan McGregor, Jeff Bridges, Kevin Spacey and co-produced The American starring Clooney in 2012. He worked on 2011's The Ides of March. In June 2012, he was invited to join the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. In 2013, alongside Clooney and Ben Affleck, won the Academy Award for Best Picture for Argo; the three men won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama and the BAFTA Award for Best Film. Grant Heslov on IMDb Grant Heslov at AllMovie
"Truth serum" is a colloquial name for any of a range of psychoactive drugs used in an effort to obtain information from subjects who are unable or unwilling to provide it otherwise. These include ethanol, scopolamine, 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate, flunitrazepam, sodium thiopental, amobarbital, among others. Although a variety of such substances have been tested, serious issues have been raised about their use scientifically and legally. There is no drug proven to cause consistent or predictable enhancement of truth-telling. Subjects questioned under the influence of such substances have been found to be suggestible and their memories subject to reconstruction and fabrication; when such drugs have been used in the course of investigating civil and criminal cases, they have not been accepted by Western legal systems and legal experts as genuine investigative tools. It has been suggested that their use is a potential violation of the Fifth Amendment of the U. S. Constitution. Concerns have been raised internationally through the European Court of Human Rights arguing that use of a truth serum could be considered a violation of a human right to be free from degrading treatment, or could be considered a form of torture.
It has been noted to be a violation of the Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture."Truth serum" was abused against psychotic patients as part of old, discredited practices of psychiatry and is no longer used. In a therapeutic context, the controlled administration of intravenous hypnotic medications is called "narcosynthesis" or "narcoanalysis"; such application was first documented by Dr. William Bleckwenn. Reliability and suggestibility of patients are concerns, the practice of chemically inducing an involuntary mental state is now considered to be a form of torture. Sedatives or hypnotics that alter higher cognitive function include ethanol, scopolamine, 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate, potent short or intermediate acting hypnotic benzodiazepines such as midazolam and various short and ultra-short acting barbiturates, including sodium thiopental and amobarbital. While there have been many clinical studies of the efficacy of narcoanalysis in interrogation or lie detection, there is dispute whether any of them qualify as a randomized, controlled study, that would meet scientific standards for determining effectiveness.
India's Central Bureau of Investigation has used intravenous barbiturates for interrogation in high-profile cases. One such case was the interrogation of Ajmal Kasab, the only terrorist captured alive by police in the 2008 attacks in Mumbai, India. Kasab was a member of the Lashkar-e-Taiba terrorist group. On 3 May 2010, Kasab was found guilty of 80 offences, including murder, waging war against India, possessing explosives, other charges. On 6 May 2010, the same trial court sentenced him to death on four counts and to a life sentence on five counts; the Central Bureau of Investigation conducted this test on Krishna, a key witness in the high-profile 2008 Aarushi-Hemraj Murder Case to seek more information from Krishna and determine his credibility as a witness with key information, yet not known to the investigating authorities. Per unverified various media sources, Krishna had purported to have deemed Hemraj as not guilty of Aarushi's murder, claiming he "treat Aarushi like his own daughter".
On May 5, 2010 the Supreme Court Judge Balasubramaniam in the case "Smt. Selvi vs. State of Karnataka" held that narcoanalysis and brain mapping tests were to be allowed after consent of accused; the judge stated: "We are of the considered opinion that no individual can be forced and subjected to such techniques involuntarily, by doing so it amounts to unwarranted intrusion of personal liberty."In Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh High Court permitted narcoanalysis in the investigation of a killing of a tiger that occurred in May 2010. The Jhurjhura Tigress at Bandhavgarh National Park, a mother of three cubs, was found dead as a result of being hit by a vehicle. A Special Task Force requested the narcoanalysis testing of four persons, only three of whom gave their consent. A defector from the biological weapons Department 12 of the KGB "illegals" directorate claimed a serum code-named SP-117 was effective, has been used. According to him, "The'remedy which loosens the tongue' has no taste, no smell, no color, no immediate side effects.
Most a person had no recollection having had the'heart-to-heart talk'," and felt afterward as though they'd fallen asleep. Officers of S Directorate used the drug to verify fidelity and trustworthiness of their agents who operated overseas, such as Vitaly Yurchenko. According to Alexander Litvinenko, Russian presidential candidate Ivan Rybkin was drugged with the same substance by FSB agents during his kidnapping. Scopolamine was promoted by obstetrician Robert Ernest House as an advance that would prevent false convictions, beginning in 1922, he had noted that women in childbirth who were given scopolamine could answer questions even while in a state of twilight sleep, were oftentimes "exceedingly candid" in their remarks. House proposed, he arranged to administer scopolamine to prisoners in the Dallas County jail. Both men were believed to be guilty, both denied guilt under scopolamine, both were acquitted. In 1926, the use of scopolamine was rejected in a court case, by Judge Robert Walker Franklin, who questioned both its scientific origin, the uncert
20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the
Arab states of the Persian Gulf
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. This excludes the non-Arab state of Iran. All of these nations except Iraq are part of the Gulf Cooperation Council, prefer to use the term "Arabian Gulf" rather than the official and historical name of the Persian Gulf; some states are constitutional monarchies with elected parliaments. Bahrain and Kuwait have legislatures with members elected by the population; the Sultanate of Oman has an advisory council, popularly elected. In the UAE, a federation of seven monarchical emirates, the Federal National Council functions only as an advisory body, but some of its members are now chosen via a limited electoral college nominated by the seven rulers. Saudi Arabia remains a hereditary monarchy with limited political representation. In Qatar, an elected national parliament has been mooted and is written into the new constitution, but elections are yet to be held.
Soap operas are important national pastimes in the Gulf Arab region. They are most popular during the time of Ramadan. Most of these soap operas are based in Kuwait. Kuwaiti soap operas are the most-watched soap operas in the Persian Gulf region. Although performed in the Kuwaiti dialect, they have been shown with success as far away as Tunisia. Kuwaiti popular culture, in the form of theatre and television soap opera, flourishes and is exported to neighbouring Arab states of the Persian Gulf. Darb El Zalag, Khalti Gmasha, Ruqayya wa Sabika are among the most important television productions in the Persian Gulf region. Kuwait is considered the cultural capital of the Arab states of the Persian Gulf region dubbed the "Hollywood of the Gulf" due to the popularity of its Arabic television soap operas and theatre; the inhabitants of Eastern Arabia's coast share similar cultures and music styles such as fijiri and liwa. The most noticeable cultural trait of Eastern Arabia's Arabs is their orientation and focus towards the sea.
Maritime-focused life in the small Arab states has resulted in a sea-oriented society where livelihoods have traditionally been earned in marine industries. Before the GCC was formed in 1981, the term "Khaleeji" was used to refer to the inhabitants of Eastern Arabia. "Khaleeji" meant descendants of Ichthyophagi, the coast-dwelling "fish eaters". Geographically, the Arabic-speaking is Eastern Arabia. Press in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf have varying degrees of freedom with Kuwait topping the league with a lively press that enjoys more freedom than its Persian Gulf counterparts according to Freedom House and Reporters Without Borders. Both organizations rank Kuwait's press as the most free of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf and, in fact, rank amongst the top three most free press in the Arab world. Qatar and Oman come in second and third within the regional ranks; the six Arab states of the Persian Gulf lie in a volatile region and their six governments, with varying degrees of success and effort and advance peace in their own countries and other countries.
However, Arab countries in the Persian Gulf region - Saudi Arabia and Qatar - stand accused of funding Islamist militants such as Hamas and the Muslim Brotherhood. According to the Institute of Economics and Peace's Global Peace Index of 2016, the six governments had varying degrees of success in maintaining peace amongst their respective borders with Qatar ranked number 1 amongst its regional peers as the most peaceful regional and Middle Eastern nation while Kuwait ranks second in both the regional and the Middle East region followed by the UAE in the third spot. All of these Arab states have significant revenues from petroleum; the United Arab Emirates has been diversifying the economy. 79% of UAE's total GDP comes from non-oil sectors. Oil accounts for only 2% of Dubai's GDP. Bahrain has the Persian Gulf's first "post-oil" economy because the Bahraini economy does not rely on oil. Since the late 20th century, Bahrain has invested in the banking and tourism sectors; the country's capital, Manama is home to many large financial structures.
Bahrain and Kuwait have a high Human Development Index and was recognised by the World Bank as high income economies. In addition, the small coastal states were successful centers of commerce prior to oil. Eastern Arabia had significant pearl banks, but the pearling industry collapsed in the 1930s after the development of cultured pearl methods by Japanese scientists. According to the World Bank, most of these Arab states have been the world's most generous donors of aid as a share of GDP. Persian Gulf naming dispute List of Rulers of the Arab States of the Persian Gulf Iran-Arab relations Madawi Al-Rasheed, ed.. Transnational Connections and the Arab Gulf. Lawrence G. Potter, ed.. The Persian Gulf in History. Lawrence G. Potter, ed.. Sectarian Politics in the Persian Gulf. "The Persian Gulf's ancient Ethnic Diversity: An Evolutionary History" in Security in the Persian Gulf: Origins and the Search for Consensus, Edited by G. Sick and L. Potter, pp. 284. Gulf2000 Gulf Research Center
Eliza Patricia Dushku is an American-Albanian actress and producer known for her television roles, including starring as Faith on Buffy the Vampire Slayer and its spinoff series Angel. She starred in Tru Calling and Dollhouse, she is known for her roles in films, including True Lies, The New Guy, Bring It On, Wrong Turn, Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back, as well as her voice work on video games. Dushku was born in Boston, the daughter of Philip Richard George Dushku and Judith Ann Dushku, a political science professor. Dushku's father is an Albanian from the city of Korçë and her mother is of Danish and English descent. Dushku has three brothers, was raised in a religious family as a part of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, although she ended her affiliation with the Church, she attended Beaver Country Day School in Chestnut Hill and graduated from Watertown High School. Dushku came to the attention of casting agents when she was 10, she was chosen in a five-month search for the lead role of Alice in the film That Night.
In 1993, Dushku landed a role as Pearl alongside Robert De Niro and Leonardo DiCaprio in This Boy's Life, a role that she said opened a lot of doors. The following year, she played the teenage daughter of Arnold Schwarzenegger and Jamie Lee Curtis in True Lies, she had parts as Paul Reiser's daughter in Bye Bye Love, as Cindy Johnson in Race the Sun, in the television movie Journey and the short film Fishing with George. Dushku planed to attend Suffolk University in Boston, where her mother taught at the time, but her agent asked her to submit a videotape audition for a show starring another of his clients, Sarah Michelle Gellar. After reading the script, Dushku rushed to a local Claire's to purchase dark makeup and other appropriate accessories for the part, Faith on Buffy the Vampire Slayer; when she began her work on that series, Dushku was still a minor, had to receive emancipation to work the production's long hours. She recalled with amusement that the judge who handled her emancipation case, an avid fan of that show, jokingly said that she would sign the emancipation order if she could get a signed photo from Dushku.
After completing high school, Dushku returned to acting with the role of Faith Lehane on Buffy the Vampire Slayer, a Slayer much more troubled than the main character, Buffy Summers. Though planned as a five-episode role, the character became so popular that she stayed on for the whole third season and returned for a two-part appearance in season four, after which the remainder of her original story arc played out as part of the first season of the Buffy spin-off series Angel. Repentant and rededicated, Faith returned as a heroine in other episodes of Angel and in the last five episodes of Buffy; as an unwelcome effect of her portrayal as Faith, Dushku was inundated with fan mail from legions of prisoners. She said: I've been getting fan mail from maximum security penitentiaries and death row. What are the authorities thinking of in playing a show with young teenage girls to Death Row inmates? They write everything – disgusting things that you don't want to know about, and they send me pictures – "Oh, here's a picture of me before I was incarcerated!" – and there's some guy sat on the sofa with a bottle of beer and a moustache, a big gut.
It's so creepy. Way more creepy than Buffy. In 2000, Dushku starred in the hit cheerleader comedy Bring It On, she followed that up with Soul Survivors. In 2001, she appeared in The New Guy with DJ Qualls and City by the Sea with Robert De Niro and James Franco; the latter film garnered attention from several good reviews. The same year, Kevin Smith invited Dushku to be a part of Silent Bob Strike Back. In 2003, Dushku starred in The Kiss, an independent comedy-drama. Starting that same year, she starred in a new Fox supernatural drama, Tru Calling, where she played the main character, medical student Tru Davies. After having a grant pulled out from under her, Tru is forced to take a job at a local morgue, where she discovers her power to "re-live" the previous day over again if one of the deceased asks for her help to change what has happened. Dushku turned down a role in a spin-off of Buffy the Vampire Slayer about Faith, she relishes the opportunities. In an interview with Maxim in May 2001, Dushku says of her roles, "It's easy to play a bad girl: You just do everything you've been told not to do, you don't have to deal with the consequences, because it's only acting."Dushku starred in an Off-Broadway production titled Dog Sees God from December 2005, playing "Van's sister", a character paralleled with Lucy Van Pelt from the Peanuts comic strip on which the play production is based.
She quit in February 2006 along with other members of the cast amid rumors of abuse by the producer, which were dismissed. She played the lead character on Nurses, a hospital comedy-drama for Fox; this was the second Fox pilot. She appeared in the Simple Plan music video "I'm Just a Kid" as the band's love interest, as well as Nickelback's video for "Rockstar". On October 1, 2005, she announced at Wizard World Boston that shooting had begun for Nobel Son in which she would star with Alan Rickman, Danny DeVito and Bill Pullman; the movie was released at the 2007 Tribeca Film Festival. Another project released in 2007 was On an independent movie filmed in Boston; the movie received positive reviews, with a few of them highlighting Dushku's performance. Dushku has had roles in five video games, she voiced the role of Yumi Sawamura in the English langua
James Francis Cameron is a Canadian filmmaker, environmentalist and philanthropist who lives in the United States. After working in special effects, he found major success after directing and writing the science fiction action film The Terminator, he became a popular Hollywood director and was hired to write and direct Aliens. He found further critical acclaim for his use of special effects in Terminator 2: Judgment Day. After his film True Lies, Cameron took on his biggest film at the time, which earned him Academy Awards for Best Picture, Best Director and Best Film Editing. After Titanic, Cameron began a project that took 10 years to make: his science-fiction epic Avatar, in particular a landmark for 3D technology, for which he received nominations for the same three Academy Awards. Despite Avatar being his only movie made to date in 3D, Cameron is the most successful 3D film-maker in terms of box-office revenue. In the time between making Titanic and Avatar, Cameron spent several years creating many documentary films and co-developed the digital 3D Fusion Camera System.
Described by a biographer as part scientist and part artist, Cameron has contributed to underwater filming and remote vehicle technologies. On March 26, 2012, Cameron reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the ocean, in the Deepsea Challenger submersible, he is the first person to do this in a solo descent, is only the third person to do so ever. In 2010, Time magazine listed Cameron among the 100 most influential people in the world. In total, Cameron's directorial efforts have grossed US$2 billion in North America and US$6 billion worldwide. Not adjusted for inflation, Cameron's Titanic and Avatar are the two highest-grossing films of all time at $2.19 billion and $2.78 billion respectively. Cameron holds the distinction of having directed the first two of the four films in history to gross over $2 billion worldwide. In March 2011, he was named Hollywood's top earner by Vanity Fair, with estimated 2010 earnings of $257 million. In October 2013, a new species of frog Pristimantis jamescameroni from Venezuela was named after him in recognition of his efforts in environmental awareness, in addition to his public promotion of veganism.
Cameron was born in 1954 in Kapuskasing, Canada, the son of Shirley, an artist and nurse, Phillip Cameron, an electrical engineer. His paternal great-great-great-grandfather emigrated from Balquhidder, Scotland, in 1825. Cameron grew up in Chippawa and attended Stamford Collegiate School in Niagara Falls, Ontario, his family moved to California in 1971, when Cameron was 17 years old. He dropped out of Sonora High School attended Brea Olinda High School to further his secondary education. Cameron enrolled at a two-year community college, in 1973 to study physics, he switched to English dropped out before the start of the fall 1974 semester. Next, he worked several jobs, including as a truck driver, writing. During this period he taught himself about special effects: "I'd go down to the USC library and pull any thesis that graduate students had written about optical printing, or front screen projection, or dye transfers, anything that related to film technology; that way I could sit down and read it, if they'd let me photocopy it, I would.
If not, I'd make notes."Cameron quit his job as a truck driver to enter the film industry after seeing Star Wars in 1977. When Cameron read Syd Field's book Screenplay, it occurred to him that integrating science and art was possible, he wrote a 10-minute science-fiction script with two friends, titled Xenogenesis, they raised money, rented camera, film stock and studio shot it in 35 mm. They dismantled the camera to understand how to operate it and spent the first half-day of the shoot trying to figure out how to get it running, he was the director, writer and production designer for Xenogenesis. He became an uncredited production assistant on Rock and Roll High School in 1979. While continuing to educate himself in filmmaking techniques, Cameron started working as a miniature model maker at Roger Corman Studios. Making produced, low-budget productions taught Cameron to work efficiently, he soon found employment as an art director in the sci-fi movie Battle Beyond the Stars. He did special effects work design and direction on John Carpenter's Escape from New York, acted as production designer on Galaxy of Terror, consulted on the design of Android.
Cameron was hired as the special effects director for the sequel to Piranha, entitled Piranha II: The Spawning in 1982. The original director, Miller Drake, left the project due to creative differences with producer Ovidio Assonitis, who gave Cameron his first job as director; the interior scenes were filmed in Rome, while the underwater sequences were shot at Grand Cayman Island. The movie was to be produced in Jamaica. On location, production slowed due to adverse weather. James Cameron was fired after failing to get a close up of Carole Davis in her opening scene. Ovidio ordered Cameron to do the close-up the next day. Cameron spent the entire day sailing around the resort, reproducing the lighting but still failed to get the close-up. After he was fired, Ovidio invited Cameron to assist in the shooting. Once in Rome, Ovidio took over the editing. During his illness, Camer
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-American actor, businessman, philanthropist, activist and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter. He served as the 38th Governor of California, from 2003 to 2011. Schwarzenegger began lifting weights at the age of 15, he won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times, remaining a prominent presence in bodybuilding and writing many books and articles on the sport; the Arnold Sports Festival, considered the second most important professional bodybuilding event in recent years, is named after him. He is considered to be one of the greatest bodybuilders of all-time, as well as the sport's most charismatic ambassador. Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon, his breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, a box-office hit that resulted in a sequel. In 1984, he appeared in the title role of James Cameron's critically and commercially successful science-fiction thriller film The Terminator.
He subsequently played a similar Terminator character in most of the franchise's installments, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines, Terminator Genisys. He has appeared in a number of other successful films, such as Commando, The Running Man, Twins, Total Recall, Kindergarten Cop, True Lies. Schwarzenegger married Maria Shriver, a niece of the 35th U. S. President John F. Kennedy and daughter of the 1972 Democratic vice presidential candidate and former Ambassador to France Sargent Shriver, in 1986, they separated in 2011 after he admitted to having fathered a child with another woman in 1997. As a Republican, Schwarzenegger was first elected on October 7, 2003, in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis, he was sworn in on November 17. He was re-elected in the 2006 California gubernatorial election, to serve a full term as governor. In 2011, he returned to acting. Schwarzenegger was nicknamed "the Austrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days, "Arnie" or "Schwarzy" during his acting career, "The Governator" during his political career.
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger was born on July 30, 1947, in Thal, Styria, to Aurelia and Gustav Schwarzenegger. His father was the local chief of police and had served in World War II as a Hauptfeldwebel after voluntarily joining the Nazi Party in 1938, was wounded during the battle of Stalingrad, but was discharged in 1943 following a bout of malaria, he married Schwarzenegger's mother on October 20, 1945. According to Arnold Schwarzenegger, his parents were strict: "Back in Austria it was a different world... if we did something bad or we disobeyed our parents, the rod was not spared." He grew up in a Catholic family. Gustav had a preference for his elder son, over Arnold, his favoritism was "strong and blatant", which stemmed from unfounded suspicion that Arnold was not his biological child. Schwarzenegger has said that his father had "no patience for listening or understanding your problems." He kept in touch with her until her death. In life, he commissioned the Simon Wiesenthal Center to research his father's wartime record, which came up with no evidence of Gustav being involved in atrocities, despite his membership in the Nazi Party and Sturmabteilung.
Gustav's background received wide press attention during the 2003 California recall campaign. At school, Schwarzenegger was academically average, but stood out for his "cheerful, good-humored, exuberant" character. Money was a problem in their household; as a boy, he played several sports influenced by his father. He picked up his first barbell in 1960. At the age of 14, he chose bodybuilding over soccer as a career, he said, "I started weight training when I was 15, but I'd been participating in sports, like soccer, for years, so I felt that although I was slim, I was well-developed, at least enough so that I could start going to the gym and start olympic lifting." However, his official website biography claims that "at 14, he started an intensive training program with Dan Farmer, studied psychology at 15 and at 17 started his competitive career." During a speech in 2001, he said, "My own plan formed. My father had wanted me to be a police officer. My mother wanted me to go to trade school."Schwarzenegger took to visiting a gym in Graz, where he frequented the local movie theaters to see bodybuilding idols such as Reg Park, Steve Reeves, Johnny Weissmuller on the big screen.
When Reeves died in 2000, Schwarzenegger fondly remembered him: "As a teenager, I grew up with Steve Reeves. His remarkable accomplishments allowed me a sense of what was possible when others around me didn't always understand my dreams. Steve Reeves has been part of everything I've been fortunate enough to achieve." In 1961, Schwarzenegger met former Mr. Austria Kurt Marnul, who invited him to train at the gym in Graz, he was so dedicated as a youngster that he broke into the local gym on weekends, so that he could train when it was closed. "It would make me sick to miss a workout... I knew I couldn't look at myself in the mirror the next morning if I did