Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is the husband of Elizabeth II. Philip was born into the Danish royal families, he was born in Greece. After being educated in France and the United Kingdom, he joined the British Royal Navy in 1939, aged 18. From July 1939, he began corresponding with the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth, whom he had first met in 1934. During the Second World War he served with distinction in the Pacific Fleets. After the war, Philip was granted permission by George VI to marry Elizabeth. Before the official announcement of their engagement in July 1947, he abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles and became a naturalised British subject, adopting the surname Mountbatten from his maternal grandparents, he married Elizabeth on 20 November 1947. Just before the wedding, he was created Baron Earl of Merioneth and Duke of Edinburgh. Philip left active military service when Elizabeth became queen in 1952, having reached the rank of commander, was formally made a British prince in 1957.
Philip and Elizabeth have four children: Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew and Prince Edward. Through a British Order in Council issued in 1960, descendants of the couple not bearing royal styles and titles can use the surname Mountbatten-Windsor, used by some members of the royal family who do hold titles, such as Princess Anne and Princes Andrew and Edward. A keen sports enthusiast, Philip helped develop the equestrian event of carriage driving, he is a patron, president or member of over 780 organisations and serves as chairman of The Duke of Edinburgh's Award for people aged 14 to 24. He is the longest-serving consort of a reigning British monarch and the oldest male member of the British royal family. Philip retired from his royal duties on 2 August 2017, at the age of 96, having completed 22,219 solo engagements since 1952. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark was born in Mon Repos on the Greek island of Corfu on 10 June 1921, the only son and fifth and final child of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg.
Philip's four elder sisters were Margarita, Theodora and Sophie. He was baptised in the Greek Orthodox rite at St. George's Church in the Old Fortress in Corfu, his godparents were his paternal grandmother Queen Olga of Greece, represented by Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, Alexandros S. Kokotos, the Mayor of Corfu, representing the people of Corfu. Shortly after Philip's birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg known as Louis Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven, died in London. Louis was a naturalised British citizen, after a career in the Royal Navy, had renounced his German titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten—an Anglicized version of Battenberg—during the First World War, owing to anti-German sentiment in Great Britain. After visiting London for the memorial and his mother returned to Greece where Prince Andrew had remained behind to command an army division embroiled in the Greco-Turkish War; the war went badly for Greece, the Turks made large gains. On 22 September 1922, Philip's uncle, King Constantine I, was forced to abdicate and the new military government arrested Prince Andrew, along with others.
The commander of the army, General Georgios Hatzianestis, five senior politicians were executed. Prince Andrew's life was believed to be in danger, Alice was under surveillance. In December, a revolutionary court banished Prince Andrew from Greece for life; the British naval vessel HMS Calypso evacuated Prince Andrew's family, with Philip carried to safety in a cot made from a fruit box. Philip's family went to France, where they settled in the Paris suburb of Saint-Cloud in a house lent to them by his wealthy aunt, Princess George of Greece and Denmark; because Philip left Greece as a baby, he does not have a strong grasp of the Greek language. In 1992, he said that he "could understand a certain amount". Philip has stated that he has thought of himself as Danish, his family spoke English and German. Philip, who in his youth was known for his charm, was linked to a number of women including Osla Benning. Philip was first educated at The Elms, an American school in Paris run by Donald MacJannet, who described Philip as a "know it all smarty person, but always remarkably polite".
In 1928, he was sent to the United Kingdom to attend Cheam School, living with his maternal grandmother, Victoria Mountbatten, Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven, at Kensington Palace and his uncle, George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven, at Lynden Manor in Bray, Berkshire. In the next three years, his four sisters married German princes and moved to Germany, his mother was diagnosed with schizophrenia and placed in an asylum, his father took up residence in Monte Carlo. Philip had little contact with his mother for the remainder of his childhood. In 1933, he was sent to Schule Schloss Salem in Germany, which had the "advantage of saving school fees" because it was owned by the family of his brother-in-law, Margrave of Baden. With the rise of Nazism in Germany, Salem's Jewish founder, Kurt Hahn, fled persecution and founded Gordonstoun School in Scotland, which Philip moved to after two terms at Salem. In 1937, his sister Cecilie, her husband Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse, her two young sons and Alexander, her newborn infant, her mother-in-law, Princess Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich, were killed in an air crash at Ostend.
The following year, his uncle and guardian Lord Milford Haven died of bone marrow cancer. After leaving Gordonstoun in early 193
Gieves & Hawkes
Gieves & Hawkes is a bespoke men's tailor and menswear retailer located at №1 Savile Row, founded in 1771 and now owned by the Hong Kong conglomerate Trinity Ltd. Gieves and Hawkes is one of the oldest continual bespoke tailoring companies in the world; the company holds a number of Royal Warrants, provides ready-to-wear as well as bespoke and military tailoring. The current creative director is Jason Basmajian of Brioni. Gieves & Hawkes' business was based on catering to the needs of the British Army and the Royal Navy, hence by association the British Royal family. After coming to London in 1760, Thomas Hawkes set up his first shop in 1771 in Brewer Street, selling to gentlemen, his main clients were commanders of the British Army, through which King George III became a customer. He expanded his retail operation by moving to No.17 Piccadilly in 1793, where he gained the first of many Royal Warrants in 1809. In 1835, James Watson Gieve was employed by'Old Mel' Meredith, a Portsmouth-based tailor by appointment to the Royal Navy.
In 1852, Gieve partnered with Joseph Galt, in 1887, Gieve purchased the remaining shares to form Gieves & Co. He died in 1888. On 23 December 1912, Hawkes & Co. bought №1 Savile Row from the Royal Geographical Society for £38,000, in part because the firm had dressed so many explorers. In 1974, Gieves Ltd acquired the freehold of 1 Savile Row; the company was renamed Hawkes. In 2009, Kathryn Sargent of Gieves and Hawkes became the first female head cutter in Savile Row; the company produces the uniforms for the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms. The company was bought by Hong Kong-based property developer and garment manufacturer USL Holdings Ltd in 2002, having listed unsuccessfully as a Plc. In May 2012, Gieves & Hawkes was acquired by Trinity Limited, the distribution of Gieves & Hawkes continues to expand with over 100 stores and concessions around the UK and in Hong Kong and Taiwan. In June 2009, Gieves & Hawkes began a new partnership with British Formula One team Brawn GP, providing the team with their official attire, a grey, single-breasted, two-button, mohair suit, white shirt, distinctive team-coloured tie.
The Savile Row flagship store was renovated in 2011 and transformed into a menswear emporium, which includes concessions for Carreducker. In October 2011, Gieves & Hawkes sponsored the Scott-Amundsen Centenary Race conducted by six serving soldiers of the British Army, with all proceeds going to the Royal British Legion. Birmingham Gieves & Hawkes have a strong history of both service to the military, hence to the British royal family. Hawkes & Co. were granted their first Royal Warrant in 1809, during the reign of King George III. Gieves & Hawkes presently have all three main Royal Warrants, appointed to HM The Queen, HRH The Duke of Edinburgh and HRH The Prince of Wales. 1732 - Number One Savile Row constructed as town house of the Fairfax family. 1760 - Thomas Hawkes comes to London, is employed as a journeyman for Mr Moy, a velvet cap-maker on Swallow Street. Heavy drinking Moy leaves the aware Hawkes to cultivate his royal clientele. 1771 - With Moy dead, Hawkes sets up a hatter and tailor shop in Brewer Street.
His top client was King George III, who ordered several thousand scarlet uniforms for the British army, his son the Prince Regent. 1793 - Hawkes has established his expanded shop at No.17 Piccadilly, described as "Helmet and Cap-maker to the King." 1809 - Thomas Hawkes receives his first Royal Warrant, based on his work for George III 1818 - Burlington Arcade, a glassed-over esplanade of shops adjacent to Burlington House is constructed under the patronage of Lord George Cavendish who resides at No 1 Savile Row, where Beau Brummell was a guest before his fall and exile in 1814 1822 - James Watson Gieve is born in Chulmleigh, Devon 1850 - Having handed his business over to his nephews, by 1850 Hawkes & Co is being run by H. T. White; as the personal tailor of Sir Garnet Wolseley, he develops a special form of the pith helmet known as the Wolseley pattern, which has an extended brim at the rear for better sun protection for the neck. It is still worn today by the Royal Marines as formal dress.
1835 - James Watson Gieve is employed by'Old Mel' Meredith, a Portsmouth-based tailor by appointment to the Royal Navy. Meredith tailors the uniform Admiral Lord Nelson is wearing when killed in action aboard HMS Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar 1852 - James Gieve acquires a partnership with Joseph Galt. 1871 - Ownership of №1 passed to the Royal Geographical Society, which added the magnificent Map Room and galleried Library which remain the focal point of the fine interiors today. Henry Morton Stanley, sent to search for David Livingstone by the New York Herald newspaper in 1869, finds him in the town of Ujiji on the shores of Lake Tanganyika on 27 October 1871, clad in Hawkes & Co. dress from head to toe. 1873 - the body of explorer David Livingstone lies in state at 1 Savile Row, before burial at Westminster Abbey. 1887 - James Gieve becomes sole owner of Galt & Gieves, renaming it Gieves & Co. 1888 - James Gieve dies 1912 - On 23 December, №1 Savile Row is purchased from the Royal Geographical Society by Hawkes & Co. for £38,000, in part because the firm has dressed so many explorers.
This was at a time when the international reputation of Savile Row, the famous street and centre for fine craft tailoring was growing. Another £10,000 is spent on converting the premises to suit the business. Hawkes & Co. is appointed to dress the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms, the British Monarch's nearest bodyguard 1920s - becomes the first Savile Row
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Kuala Lumpur the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, or known as KL, is the national capital and largest city in Malaysia. As the global city of Malaysia, it covers an area of 243 km2 and has an estimated population of 1.73 million as of 2016. Greater Kuala Lumpur known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.25 million people as of 2017. It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in Southeast Asia, in both population and economic development. Kuala Lumpur is the cultural and economic centre of Malaysia, it is home to the Parliament of Malaysia, the official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara. The city once held the headquarters of the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but these were relocated to Putrajaya in early 1999. However, some sections of the political bodies still remain in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is one of the three Federal Territories of Malaysia, enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
Since the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games and the 2017 Southeast Asian Games. Kuala Lumpur has undergone rapid development in recent decades, is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Towers, which have since become an iconic symbol of Malaysian development. Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive road system supported by an extensive range of public transport networks, such as the Mass Rapid Transit, Light Metro, Bus Rapid Transit, commuter rail, an airport rail link. Kuala Lumpur is one of the leading cities in the world for tourism and shopping, being the tenth most-visited city in the world in 2017; the city houses three of the world's ten largest shopping malls. Kuala Lumpur has been ranked by the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking at No. 70 in the world, No. 2 in Southeast Asia after Singapore. EIU's Safe Cities Index of 2017 rated Kuala Lumpur 31st out of 60 on its world's safest cities list, safer than Beijing or Shanghai.
Kuala Lumpur was named as one of the New7Wonders Cities, has been named as World Book Capital 2020 by UNESCO. Kuala Lumpur means "muddy confluence" in Malay. One suggestion is. Doubts however have been raised on such a derivation as Kuala Lumpur lies at the confluence of Gombak River and Klang River, therefore should rightly be named Kuala Gombak as the point where one river joins a larger one or the sea is its kuala, it has been argued by some that Sungai Lumpur is in fact Gombak River, although Sungai Lumpur is said to be another river joining the Klang River a mile upstream from the Gombak confluence, or located to the north of the Batu Caves area. It has been proposed that Kuala Lumpur was named Pengkalan Lumpur in the same way that Klang was once called Pengkalan Batu, but became corrupted into Kuala Lumpur. Another suggestion is that it was a Cantonese word lam-pa meaning'flooded jungle' or'decayed jungle'. There is no firm contemporary evidence for these suggestions other than anecdotes.
It is possible that the name is a corrupted form of an earlier but now unidentifiable forgotten name. It is unknown who named the settlement called Kuala Lumpur. Chinese miners were involved in tin mining up the Selangor River in the 1840s about ten miles north of present-day Kuala Lumpur, Mandailing Sumatrans led by Raja Asal and Sutan Puasa were involved in tin mining and trade in the Ulu Klang region before 1860, Sumatrans may have settled in the upper reaches of Klang River in the first quarter of the 19th century earlier. Kuala Lumpur was a small hamlet of just a few houses and shops at the confluence of Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang before it grew into a town, it is accepted that Kuala Lumpur become established as a town circa 1857, when the Malay Chief of Klang, Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, aided by his brother Raja Juma'at of Lukut, raised funds from Malaccan Chinese businessmen to hire some Chinese miners from Lukut to open new tin mines here. The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur and continued their journey on foot to Ampang where the first mine was opened.
Kuala Lumpur was the furthest point up the Klang River to which supplies could conveniently be brought by boat. Although the early miners suffered a high death toll due to the malarial conditions of the jungle, the Ampang mines were successful, the first tin from these mines was exported in 1859. At that time Sutan Puasa was trading near Ampang, two traders from Lukut, Hiu Siew and Yap Ah Sze arrived in Kuala Lumpur where they set up shops to sell provisions to miners in exchange for tin; the town, spurred on by tin-mining, started to develop centred on Old Market Square, with roads radiating out towards Ampang as well as Pudu and Batu where miners started to settled in, Petaling and Damansara. The miners formed gangs among themselves. Leaders of the Chinese community were conferred the title of Kapitan Ci
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or Krung Thep; the city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand, has a population of over eight million, or 12.6 percent of the country's population. Over fourteen million people lived within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region at the 2010 census, making Bangkok the nation's primate city dwarfing Thailand's other urban centres in terms of importance. Bangkok traces its roots to a small trading post during the Ayutthaya Kingdom in the 15th century, which grew and became the site of two capital cities: Thonburi in 1768 and Rattanakosin in 1782. Bangkok was at the heart of the modernization of Siam renamed Thailand, during the late-19th century, as the country faced pressures from the West; the city was at the centre of Thailand's political struggles throughout the 20th century, as the country abolished absolute monarchy, adopted constitutional rule, underwent numerous coups and several uprisings.
The city grew during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact on Thailand's politics, education and modern society. The Asian investment boom in the 1980s and 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their regional headquarters in Bangkok; the city is now a regional force in business. It is an international hub for transport and health care, has emerged as a centre for the arts and entertainment; the city is known for cultural landmarks, as well as its red-light districts. The Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the nightlife scenes of Khaosan Road and Patpong. Bangkok is among the world's top tourist destinations, has been named the world's most visited city in several rankings. Bangkok's rapid growth coupled with little urban planning has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate infrastructure. An inadequate road network, despite an extensive expressway network, together with substantial private car usage, have led to chronic and crippling traffic congestion, which caused severe air pollution in the 1990s.
The city has since turned to public transport in an attempt to solve the problem. Five rapid transit lines are now in operation, with more systems under construction or planned by the national government and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration; the history of Bangkok dates at least back to the early 15th century, when it was a village on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River, under the rule of Ayutthaya. Because of its strategic location near the mouth of the river, the town increased in importance. Bangkok served as a customs outpost with forts on both sides of the river, was the site of a siege in 1688 in which the French were expelled from Siam. After the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese Empire in 1767, the newly crowned King Taksin established his capital at the town, which became the base of the Thonburi Kingdom. In 1782, King Phutthayotfa Chulalok succeeded Taksin, moved the capital to the eastern bank's Rattanakosin Island, thus founding the Rattanakosin Kingdom; the City Pillar was erected on 21 April 1782, regarded as the date of foundation of the present city.
Bangkok's economy expanded through international trade, first with China with Western merchants returning in the early to-mid 19th century. As the capital, Bangkok was the centre of Siam's modernization as it faced pressure from Western powers in the late-19th century; the reigns of Kings Mongkut and Chulalongkorn saw the introduction of the steam engine, printing press, rail transport and utilities infrastructure in the city, as well as formal education and healthcare. Bangkok became the centre stage for power struggles between the military and political elite as the country abolished absolute monarchy in 1932. Allied with Japan in World War II, it was subjected to Allied bombing, but grew in the post-war period as a result of US aid and government-sponsored investment. Bangkok's role as a US military R&R destination boosted its tourism industry as well as establishing it as a sex tourism destination. Disproportionate urban development led to increasing income inequalities and migration from rural areas into Bangkok.
Following the US withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973, Japanese businesses took over as leaders in investment, the expansion of export-oriented manufacturing led to growth of the financial market in Bangkok. Rapid growth of the city continued through the 1980s and early 1990s, until it was stalled by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. By many public and social issues had emerged, among them the strain on infrastructure reflected in the city's notorious traffic jams. Bangkok's role as the nation's political stage continues to be seen in strings of popular protests, from the student uprisings in 1973 and 1976, anti-military demonstrations in 1992, successive anti-government demonstrations by opposing groups from 2008 on. Administration of the city was first formalized by King Chulalongkorn in 1906, with the establishment of Monthon Krung Thep Phra Maha Nakhon as a national subdivision. In 1915 the monthon was split into several provinces, the administrative boundaries of which have since further changed.
The city in its current form was created in 1972 with the formation of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, following the merger of Phra Nakhon Province on the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya and Thonburi Province on the west during the previous year. The origin of th
J. Barbour and Sons
J. Barbour & Sons Ltd. is a British luxury and lifestyle brand founded by John Barbour in 1894, that designs and markets waxed cotton outerwear, ready-to-wear, clothing and accessories for men and children under the Barbour and Barbour International brands. Founded in South Shields, England, as an importer of oil cloth, J. Barbour and Sons Ltd. has become well known for its waxed cotton jackets which are a common element of British country clothing. The company's waxed cotton jackets are so well known that some people refer to any waxed cotton jacket as a "Barbour jacket", irrespective of manufacturer. J. Barbour and Sons Ltd. holds royal warrant to supply "waterproof and protective clothing" from Queen Elizabeth II in 1974, the Duke of Edinburgh in 1982, Charles, Prince of Wales in 1987. Since July 2016, Scottish actor Sam Heughan is Barbour's First Global Brand Ambassador. John Barbour, a native of Galloway, founded J. Barbour and Sons Ltd. in South Shields, England, in 1894 as an importer of oil-cloth.
John's grandson Duncan, a keen motorcyclist, would take the company in that direction during his tenure as Barbour became the originator of waxed cotton motorcycling suits and jackets. The headquarters for J. Barbour and Sons Ltd. at the time of its foundation was located at 5 Market Place, South Shields and the company remains in South Shields today having occupied its current site since the 1980s. While the traditional waxed cotton jackets are still manufactured in Simonside, South Shields, some of the other products are manufactured outside the United Kingdom. In addition to its waxed and quilted jackets, J. Barbour & Sons Ltd. is famous for sweaters, moleskin clothing, corduroy clothing, tattersall shirts. Barbour has entered the "waterproof-breathable" market with its own type waterproof liners, cordura external fabric and polar fleece sweaters; some Barbour products contain outdoor-orientated features such as snug-fitting collars, "storm cuffs", waterproof pockets with drainage holes and wide "game" pockets.
In recent years the company has modernised its collections to appeal to a younger clientele while maintaining credibility with the traditional countryside customer. Many of the more fashionable ranges are influenced by the "Barbour International" motorcycling ranges. Taking inspiration from the company's 1936 waxed cotton motorcycling suit and the 1951 "Original Green" motorcycling jacket, modern collections are fashionable interpretations of the companies heritage in bikes. Despite traditional connotations with rural life, Barbour jackets saw increased popularity as an urban fashion item in the 2010s decade. In 2010s Barbour collaborated with several notable urban fashion brands: WoodWood, White Mountaneering, etc; some customers keep Barbour waxed jackets for years, sometimes decades. Among such people, the wear-and-tear on the garment can be addressed by Barbour's repair service, which patches and reinforces jackets. J. Barbour and Sons Ltd. repairs and rewaxes a total of over 25,000 jackets annually at the Simonside, South Shields and other facilities.
Aside from offering merchandise within Barbour retail stores, Barbour wholesales all of its collections to many upscale department and speciality stores worldwide. As of 2013, these retailers include Harrods, Harvey Nichols and Selfridges and John Lewis in the United Kingdom as well as Macy's, Bloomingdale's and Saks Fifth Avenue in the United States. Barbour has a retail and wholesale presence in over forty countries on six continents. Barbour's largest independent store is located in Blackbrook, is run in partnership by Outdoor and Country as well as a Barbour partner store in Knutsford, Cheshire. Official website
Henry Poole & Co
Henry Poole & Co is a bespoke tailor located at №15 Savile Row in London. The company made the first modern-style dinner jacket based on specifications that the Prince of Wales gave the company in the 1880s; the company advertises its long relationship with the British Royal Family. The business opened first in Brunswick Square, in 1806 specializing in military tailoring, with particular merit at the time of the Battle of Waterloo, their business moved to Savile Row following the death of founder James Poole. Henry Poole ran the business until his death in 1876, was succeeded by cousin Samuel Cundey, whose legacy continued, for five generations, to the present-day owners Angus Cundey and son Simon; the company still holds many royal warrants of appointment, services the Lord Chamberlain's office with court dress, with their livery department creating uniforms for the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar. The company are credited with the creation of the dinner suit. In 2006, the company celebrated their bicentennial with a refurbishment of their premises and 2007 saw a re-issue of a suiting material made famous by Winston Churchill, a Henry Poole customer who ordered his first suit 100 years ago.
In 1860, Henry Poole made a short evening or smoking jacket for the Prince of Wales to wear at informal dinner parties at Sandringham. In 1886, a Mr. James Potter of Tuxedo Park, New York, visited London and subsequently was invited by the Prince to spend a weekend at Sandringham House, he was advised that he could have a smoking jacket made by the Prince’s tailors, Henry Poole & Co. When the Potters returned to New York, Mr. Potter proudly wore his new smoking jacket at the Tuxedo Club and fellow members soon started having copies made for themselves which they adopted as their informal uniform for club "stag" dinners; as a result, the dinner jacket became known as a tux in America. Henry Poole has had customers who belonged to the highest aristocracy. Amongst the many customers who issued official warrants or were regulars were: Emperor Napoleon III 1858 The Prince of Wales 1863 The Duke of Edinburgh 1868 The Crown Prince of Prussia 1868 Queen Victoria 1869 The King of the Belgians 1869 The Crown Prince of Denmark 1869 The Prince of Teck 1870 Prince Christian of Schleswig–Holstein 1870 The Khedive of Egypt 1870 Prince Oscar of Sweden & Norway 1871 King Amadeus I of Spain 1871 Prince Louis of Hesse 1871 Crown Prince of Russia 1874 The Emperor Pedro II of Brazil 1874 Tsar Alexander II of Russia 1875 The King of Hellenes 1877 The Crown Prince of Austria 1878 King Umberto I of Italy 1879 Emperor Wilhelm I of Germany Tsar Alexander III of Russia 1881 King David Kalakaua of Hawai'i 1882 The Duke of Genoa 1891 Friedrich, Grossherzog of Baden 1891 The Duke of Aosta 1892 Prince Emanuel of Savoie 1892 The Shah of Persia The King of Denmark 1893 King Edward VII 1902 Prince Albrecht of Prussia 1903 The Maharajah Gaekwar of Baroda 1905 The Shah of Persia 1906 The Khedive of Egypt 1910 Queen Alexandra 1911 The Prince of Wales 1922 The Imperial Household of Japan 1923 King George V 1928 The King of the Bulgarians 1936 King George VI 1940 Emperor Haile Selassie 1959 Queen Elizabeth II 1976 Savile Row tailoring Stephen Howarth: Henry Poole: Founders of Savile Row - The Making of a Legend.
Godalming: Bene Factum, 2003. ISBN 978-1-903071-06-9 Company website Historical background information