Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interaction between rational decision-makers. It has applications in all fields of social science, as well as in computer science, it addressed zero-sum games, in which one person's gains result in losses for the other participants. Today, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans and computers. Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann. Von Neumann's original proof used the Brouwer fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics, his paper was followed by the 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, co-written with Oskar Morgenstern, which considered cooperative games of several players. The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of expected utility, which allowed mathematical statisticians and economists to treat decision-making under uncertainty.
Game theory was developed extensively in the 1950s by many scholars. It was explicitly applied to biology in the 1970s, although similar developments go back at least as far as the 1930s. Game theory has been recognized as an important tool in many fields; as of 2014, with the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences going to game theorist Jean Tirole, eleven game theorists have won the economics Nobel Prize. John Maynard Smith was awarded the Crafoord Prize for his application of game theory to biology. Early discussions of examples of two-person games occurred long before the rise of modern, mathematical game theory; the first known discussion of game theory occurred in a letter written by Charles Waldegrave, an active Jacobite, uncle to James Waldegrave, a British diplomat, in 1713. In this letter, Waldegrave provides a minimax mixed strategy solution to a two-person version of the card game le Her, the problem is now known as Waldegrave problem. In his 1838 Recherches sur les principes mathématiques de la théorie des richesses, Antoine Augustin Cournot considered a duopoly and presents a solution, a restricted version of the Nash equilibrium.
In 1913, Ernst Zermelo published Über eine Anwendung der Mengenlehre auf die Theorie des Schachspiels. It proved that the optimal chess strategy is determined; this paved the way for more general theorems. In 1938, the Danish mathematical economist Frederik Zeuthen proved that the mathematical model had a winning strategy by using Brouwer's fixed point theorem. In his 1938 book Applications aux Jeux de Hasard and earlier notes, Émile Borel proved a minimax theorem for two-person zero-sum matrix games only when the pay-off matrix was symmetric. Borel conjectured that non-existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games would occur, a conjecture, proved false. Game theory did not exist as a unique field until John von Neumann published the paper On the Theory of Games of Strategy in 1928. Von Neumann's original proof used Brouwer's fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics, his paper was followed by his 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior co-authored with Oskar Morgenstern.
The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of utility, which reincarnated Daniel Bernoulli's old theory of utility as an independent discipline. Von Neumann's work in game theory culminated in this 1944 book; this foundational work contains the method for finding mutually consistent solutions for two-person zero-sum games. During the following time period, work on game theory was focused on cooperative game theory, which analyzes optimal strategies for groups of individuals, presuming that they can enforce agreements between them about proper strategies. In 1950, the first mathematical discussion of the prisoner's dilemma appeared, an experiment was undertaken by notable mathematicians Merrill M. Flood and Melvin Dresher, as part of the RAND Corporation's investigations into game theory. RAND pursued the studies because of possible applications to global nuclear strategy. Around this same time, John Nash developed a criterion for mutual consistency of players' strategies, known as Nash equilibrium, applicable to a wider variety of games than the criterion proposed by von Neumann and Morgenstern.
Nash proved that every n-player, non-zero-sum non-cooperative game has what is now known as a Nash equilibrium. Game theory experienced a flurry of activity in the 1950s, during which time the concepts of the core, the extensive form game, fictitious play, repeated games, the Shapley value were developed. In addition, the first applications of game theory to philosophy and political science occurred during this time. In 1979 Robert Axelrod tried setting up computer programs as players and found that in tournaments between them the winner was a simple "tit-for-tat" program that cooperates on the first step on subsequent steps just does whatever its opponent did on the previous step; the same winner was often obtained by natural selection. In 1965, Reinhard Selten introduced his solution concept of subgame perfect equilibria, which further refined the Nash equilibrium. In 1994 Nash and Harsanyi became Economics Nobel Laureates for their contributi
Spaghetti Western known as Italian Western or Macaroni Western, is a broad subgenre of Western films that emerged in the mid-1960s in the wake of Sergio Leone's film-making style and international box-office success. The term was used by American critics and those in other countries because most of these Westerns were produced and directed by Italians. According to veteran Spaghetti Western actor Aldo Sambrell, the phrase'Spaghetti Western' was coined by Spanish journalist Alfonso Sánchez; the denomination for these films in Italy is western all'italiana. Italo-Western is used in Germany; the term Eurowesterns may be used to include Western movies that were produced in Europe but not called Spaghetti Westerns, like the West German Winnetou films or Ostern Westerns. The majority of the films were international co-productions between Italy and Spain, sometimes France, Portugal, Israel, Yugoslavia, or the United States; these movies were released in Italian, but as most of the films featured multilingual casts and sound was post-synched, most "western all'italiana" do not have an official dominant language.
The typical Spaghetti Western team was made up of an Italian director, Italo-Spanish technical staff, a cast of Italian, Spanish and American actors, sometimes a fading Hollywood star and sometimes a rising one like the young Clint Eastwood in three of Sergio Leone's films. Over six hundred European Westerns were made between 1960 and 1978; the best-known Spaghetti Westerns were directed by Sergio Leone and scored by Ennio Morricone, notably the three films of the Dollars Trilogy —A Fistful of Dollars, For a Few Dollars More and The Good, the Bad and the Ugly —as well as Once Upon a Time in the West. These are listed among the best Westerns of any variety. Sergio Leone's A Fistful of Dollars established the Spaghetti Western as a novel kind of Western. In this seminal film, the hero enters a town, ruled by two outlaw gangs, ordinary social relations are non-existent, he plays the gangs against one another in order to make money. He uses his cunning and exceptional weapons skill to assist a family threatened by both gangs.
His treachery is exposed and he is beaten, but in the end, he defeats the remaining gang. The interaction in this story between cunning and irony on the one hand, pathos on the other, was aspired to and sometimes attained by the imitations that soon flooded the cinemas. Italian cinema borrowed from other films without regard for infringement, Leone famously borrowed the plot for A Fistful of Dollars, receiving a letter from Japanese director Akira Kurosawa congratulating him on making "...a fine film. But it is my film". Leone had imitated one of the most respected directors in the world by remaking his film Yojimbo as A Fistful of Dollars and surrendered Asian rights to Kurosawa, plus 15% of the international box office proceeds. Leone moved from borrowing and established his own oft-imitated style and plots. Leone's films and other "core" Spaghetti Westerns are described as having eschewed, criticised or "demythologized" many of the conventions of traditional U. S. Westerns; this was intentional and the context of a different cultural background.
Use of pathos received a big boost with Sergio Corbucci's influential Django. In the years following, the use of cunning and irony became more prominent; this was seen with their emphasis on unstable partnerships. In the last phase of the Spaghetti Western, with the Trinity films, the Leone legacy had been transformed beyond recognition, as terror and deadly violence gave way to harmless brawling and low comedy. Ennio Morricone's music for A Fistful of Dollars and Spaghetti Westerns was just as seminal and imitated, it expresses a similar duality between quirky and unusual sounds and instruments on the one hand, sacral dramatizing for the big confrontation scenes on the other. Most Spaghetti Westerns filmed between 1964 and 1978 were made on low budgets and shot at Cinecittà studios and various locations around southern Italy and Spain. Many of the stories take place in the dry landscapes of the American Southwest and Northern Mexico, hence common filming locations were the Tabernas Desert and the Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park, an area of volcanic origin known for its wide sandy beaches, both of which are in the Province of Almería in southeastern Spain.
Some sets and studios built for Spahetti Westerns survive as theme parks, Texas Hollywood, Mini Hollywood, Western Leone, continue to be used as film sets. Other filming locations used were in central and southern Italy, such as the parks of Valle del Treja, the area of Camposecco, the hills around Castelluccio, the area around the Gran Sasso mountain, the Tivoli's quarries and Sardinia. God's Gun was filmed in Israel. In the 1960s, critics recognized that the American genres were changing; the genre most identifiably American, the Western, seemed to be evolving into a new rougher form. For many critics, Sergio Leone's films were part of the problem. Leone's Dollars Trilogy was not the beginning of the "Spaghetti Western" cycle in Italy, but for Americans Leone's films represented the true beginning of the Italian invasion of an American genre. Christopher Frayling, in his noted book on the Italian Western
Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest
Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest is a 2006 American fantasy swashbuckler film, the second installment of the Pirates of the Caribbean film series and the sequel to Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl. It was directed by Gore Verbinski, written by Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio, produced by Jerry Bruckheimer. In the film, the wedding of Will Turner and Elizabeth Swann is interrupted by Lord Cutler Beckett, who wants Turner to acquire the compass of Captain Jack Sparrow in a bid to find the Dead Man's Chest. Sparrow discovers. Two sequels to Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl were conceived in 2004, with Elliott and Rossio developing a story arc that would span both films. Filming took place from February to September 2005 in Palos Verdes, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and The Bahamas, as well as on sets constructed at Walt Disney Studios, it was shot back-to-back At World's End. Dead Man's Chest was released in the United States on July 7, 2006, received mixed reviews, with praise for its special effects, action sequences, Hans Zimmer's musical score and performances those of Depp and Nighy, but criticism for its convoluted plot and running time.
The film broke several records at the time, including the opening-weekend record in the United States with $136 million, the fastest film to gross over $1 billion at the worldwide box office, the highest grossing first sequel at the worldwide box office and became the highest-grossing film of 2006. It ranks as the 26th highest-grossing film of all time worldwide and held the record as the highest-grossing film released by the Walt Disney Studios for nearly four years until it was surpassed by Toy Story 3; the film received Academy Award nominations for Best Art Direction, Sound Editing, Sound Mixing, won the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects. Its sequel, At World's End, was released the following year; the wedding of Will Turner and Elizabeth Swann is halted when Lord Cutler Beckett, chairman of the East India Trading Company, arrives with arrest warrants for them, for Commodore James Norrington, who allowed Captain Jack Sparrow to escape. Norrington has resigned and disappeared after losing the Navy's flagship, HMS Dauntless, in a hurricane while pursuing Jack.
Meanwhile, Jack is visited by Bootstrap Bill Turner, aboard the Black Pearl. Bootstrap is now a crewman on the Flying Dutchman, captained by Davy Jones. Jack bartered a deal with Jones to raise the Pearl from the depths. Beckett, promises to free Elizabeth if Will brings him Jack's magic compass which points to whatever the holder wants most. Will frees them from cannibals. Shortly after, Governor Swann frees Elizabeth from jail, but he is captured. Elizabeth bargains with Beckett to find the compass. Disguised as a cabin boy aboard a Scottish merchant vessel, she makes her way to Tortuga where she finds Jack and a drunken Norrington. After escaping the cannibals and the crew visit voodoo priestess Tia Dalma, who reveals Jones' weakness is his heart, locked within the Dead Man's Chest. Jack must find the key that opens it. Locating the Dutchman, Will makes a deal with Jack to find the key to the chest in return for Jack's compass. Jack tricks Will, shanghaied into service aboard the Dutchman. Jones agrees to release Jack from their bargain in exchange for one hundred souls.
Will learns that Jones possesses the key to the chest. They play a game of Liar's Dice against Jones to try and win the key. Despite this, Will is taken aboard the same ship Elizabeth was on. Jones sends the Kraken after him, sinking the ship. In Tortuga, Jack hires a new crew, including Norrington. With Elizabeth's use of Jack's compass, they are able to locate the chest. All parties arrive on Isla Cruces, where the chest is buried, but a three-way sword fight breaks out between Jack and Norrington, who all want the heart for their respective goals: Jack wants to call off the Kraken. In the chaos, Norrington secretly steals the heart and runs off, pretending to lure away the Dutchman's crew. Jones attacks the Pearl with the Kraken, which kills most of the crew and destroys all but one of the Pearl's lifeboats, but Jack, who flees the battle and wounds the Kraken with a net full of gunpowder and rum. Jack orders the survivors to abandon ship, but Elizabeth, realizing the Kraken only wants Jack, tricks him and chains him to the mast so that the crew can escape.
The Kraken drags the Pearl to Davy Jones' Locker. Jones opens. In Port Royal, Norrington gives Beckett the heart and the Letters of Marque meant for Jack, allowing him back into the navy as well as allowing Beckett to gain control of Davy Jones and the seas; the Pearl's crew take shelter with Tia Dalma. Tia Dalma introduces the captain: the resurrected Hector Barbossa. In a post-credits scene, the cannibalistic tribe now worships the prison dog in replacement of Jack. Johnny Depp as Captain Jack Sparrow: Captain of the Black Pearl, he is hunted by the Kraken because of his unpaid blood debt to Davy Jones. He is searching for the Dead Man's Chest to free himself from Jones' servitude. Orlando Bloom as Will Turner: A blacksmith-turned-pirate who strike
A Dog's Will
A Dog's Will is a 2000 Brazilian comedy film, directed by Guel Arraes, with a screenplay by Arraes, Adriana Falcão and João Falcão. It is based on the 1955 play of the same name by Ariano Suassuna, with elements of some other of Suassuna's plays, The Ghost and the Sow, Torture of a Heart; the plot concerns the most cowardly of men. Both struggle for daily bread in a telling representation of the life of the poor in North-East Brazil in the early 1930s and gull a series of comical stereotypes—baker and priest—in a series of interrelated episodes united by the passion of the adulterous baker's wife for her little dog who dies from eating the food she supplies to them as occasional workers, the daughter of the landowner Antônio Morais —a magnificent comic character who represents the colonial pretensions of the erstwhile "colonial" class who owned the great estates of the region in which sugar production was central to a once-booming economy; the Catholic Church gets a lively ragging for its combination of simony and superstition as represented by the put-on parish priest and a domineering bishop no less self-interested than him—while a larger than life bandit Severino de Aracaju, who attacks the town and slaughters the inhabitants, is forgiven by Jesus in a posthumous denouément set in Heaven.
There the fate of the main characters is mercifully arbitrated by in a court-room contest between Satan and a black Jesus, with the Virgin Mary interceding as the Virgin in keeping with her prayer-book promise. Odd and extravagant as this tacked-on scene is, it conveys the morality of the film better than the antecedent scenes since every character manages to reveal a saving grace as well as demonstrating the unforgiving harshness of the Nordeste environment which they all share and endure in different ways. Last to die in the bandits' onslaught is João himself—given as "Jack" in the English subtitles—which contain many idiomatic expressions. An intensely witty and ingenious rogue in the best picaresque tradition, he contrives to spin everyone around his finger throughout the narrative and ends by getting Severino to order his side-kick to shoot him dead so that he can meet his revered saint in heaven for some minutes on the understanding that a miraculous harmonica which João has ingeniously convinced him possesses the power of bringing the dead back to life—in this case Chicó rigged up with a little balloon of blood—will effect his speedy resurrection.
In heaven with the rest, João is more or less master of his fate and manages to down-face the Devil himself in the little matter of eternal damnation. With becoming modesty he refuses to claim any personal virtues and turns down the Virgin's offer of a purgatorial sentence but accepts instead the compassionate offer of a return to earth to'sin no more'—but do not expect a pious conversion! His resurrection coincides with the moment when Chicó is digging him a sandy grave, triggering a comical mixture of dismay and joy as he rises from the wagon on which he has been laid out in death. Together the two donate their ill-gotten gains from the other deceased characters to the Virgin, to whom Chicó promised such a recompense if his friend came back to life—hardly expecting that he would. Now they proceed with Plan B: to get Chicó married to the daughter of the landlord. Here a marriage bargain involving a lump-sum payment or the skin off Chicó's back is foiled by reference to the legal contrivance familiar from The Merchant of Venice of William Shakespeare—that is, the skin may be owing but not a drop of blood must be taken with it.
João, Chicó and the bride now make their escape and enter gleefully into a life of penury on the dusty roads of the region, only to meet with a beggar of dark complexion whom we know to be Jesus. It is the bride—now reduced to penury for the first time in her existence—who breaks bread with him while the others philosophise about Jesus's propensity to test the faithful and just in such a way. At the same time they playfully doubt that Jesus could have been so brown—as João puts it while still in Heaven—reiterating the anti-racist message of the script and its original; the film wanders in and out of realism, commedia dell'arte and Morality Play but holds the focus on the realities of Brazilian life in the 1950s period when the original text was written. When the exoneration of the desperate bandit Severino is delivered by Jesus at the behest of his Holy Mother, a series of black-and-white stills of rural poverty in the Nordeste Brazil are screened, giving the whole a sense of social feet-on-ground which belies its comic brio.
In spite of plot variations, the film is faithful to the comic spirit and moral ethos of its literary source, remains a classic of Brazilian cinema with a faithful audience in the region where it is set—an audience that knows every line, every jape and every twist of the busy plot. It deserves to be better known worldwide if only for the performances but requires, to some extent, a Brazilian sense of context for its sympathetic appreciation. In that context, the Nordeste sentiment is markedly in the ascendant; the film was critical and commercial success in Brazil—receiving four awards at the 2nd Grande Prêmio Cinema Brasil and grossing R$11,496,994 with a 2,157,166 viewership—,and in some South American countries like Chile and Venezuela. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 93%. Our Lady of Aparecida
A. P. Herbert
Sir Alan Patrick Herbert CH known as A. P. Herbert or A. P. H. was an English humorist, novelist and law reform activist who served as an Independent Member of Parliament for Oxford University from the 1935 general election to the 1950 general election, when university constituencies were abolished. Born in Ashtead, Herbert attended Winchester College and New College, graduating with a first in Jurisprudence in 1914, he joined the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve as an ordinary seaman after the outbreak of World War I serving as an officer with the Royal Naval Division. He fought in the Gallipoli campaign and on the Western Front, becoming his battalion's adjutant in 1917, following which he was injured and did not return to the frontline before the end of the war. Following the war, he published The Secret Battle and joined the permanent staff of Punch in 1924, he wrote the librettos for several musicals. Herbert was elected as the Independent MP for Oxford University in the 1935 general election.
Before the outbreak of World War II, Herbert campaigned for private member's rights, piloted the Matrimonial Causes Act 1937 through Parliament, opposed the Entertainments Duty and campaigned against the Oxford Group. He enlisted in the River Emergency Service in 1938 and served in World War II as a Petty Officer in the Royal Naval Auxiliary Patrol, he captained the Water Gipsy, assigned to the River Thames. In 1943, he was part of a parliamentary commission sent to investigate the future of the Dominion of Newfoundland. Herbert was born at Ashtead Lodge, Surrey on 24 September 1890, his father, Patrick Herbert Coghlan Herbert, was a civil servant in the India Office, of Irish origin, his mother, Beatrice Eugenie, was the daughter of Sir Charles Jasper Selwyn, a Lord Justice of Appeal. He had two younger brothers, both of whom died in battle- Owen William Eugene, 2nd Lieutenant, Royal Field Artillery, killed at Mons in 1914, Sidney Jasper, Captain R. N. killed 1941 aboard the H. M. S. Hood, his mother died of tuberculosis when he was eight years old, shortly before he left to attend The Grange in Folkestone, a preparatory school.
Herbert attended Winchester College, where he won the King's Medal for English Verse and the King's Medal for English Speech, presented by H. H. Asquith, the Prime Minister at the time, he took an active part in the College's debating Shakespeare society. As a student at Winchester, Herbert sent verses to the offices of Punch, received notes of encouragement and suggestions from the editor, Owen Seaman. Herbert was Captain of Houses, one of the College's three football divisions. From Winchester, Herbert went to Oxford as an Exhibitioner, he made his first public speech at the Kensington branch of the Tariff Reform League, speaking extempore on home rule. His first contribution to Punch was printed on 24 August 1910, being a set of verses with the title Stones of Venus. Herbert went up to Oxford in October, made his first speech at the Oxford Union in November. Apart from Punch, his work began appearing in the Pall Mall Gazette and Vanity Fair. Herbert received a "not good Second" in Honour Moderations, disenchanted with Classics, changed his degree to Law.
He went into lodgings with Walter Monckton and others and was good friends with notables Duff Cooper, Harold Macmillan and Philip Guedalla. Herbert finished at Oxford in 1914, with "a good First" in Jurisprudence, he decided to join his friend Jack Parr as a volunteer at Oxford House in Bethnal Green for a year. He spent the time "doing what I could:" washing dishes, sweeping floors, running errands and collecting money. On 5 September 1914, Herbert enlisted at Lambeth Pier as an ordinary seaman in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, which became one of the constituent bodies of the Royal Naval Division. In early October, the news reached Herbert that his brother, Owen Herbert, had been posted "missing, believed killed" in the retreat from Mons. Herbert reached the rank of acting leading seaman before being commissioned as a sub-lieutenant in early 1915, when he was posted to Hawke Battalion of the Royal Naval Division."C" and "D" companies of Hawke Battalion departed for Gallipoli in early 1915 stopping in Malta before arriving at the Moudros on 17 May.
The battalion arrived at Gallipoli on 27 May. Herbert was put in command of No. 11 Platoon, "C" Company, composed of Tynesiders and two men from a remote Durham mining town. A week after arrival, the battalion suffered heavy casualties at the Third Battle of Krithia. In July 1915, Herbert went down with an illness and had to spend time recovering in a military hospital; when he was passed "fit for light duty", he was seconded to the Naval Intelligence Division at Whitehall. It was at this time. In summer 1916, when passed fit for duty, Herbert returned to Hawke Battalion at their base camp in Abbeville, where he was made assistant adjutant; the battalion moved to the front line at Souchez in July 1916, in mid-November the battalion took part in an attack on Beaucourt during the Battle of the Ancre that saw the entire battalion wiped out. Herbert was one of only two officers; when the battalion returned to the front line at Pozières in February 1917, Herbert was made the battalion's adjutant, but he was injured from shrapnel during an attack on Gavrelle, west of Arras.
On medical leave back in England following the injury, Herbe
A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules. Duels in this form were chiefly practiced in early modern Europe with precedents in the medieval code of chivalry, continued into the modern period among military officers. During the 17th and 18th centuries, duels were fought with swords, but beginning in the late 18th century in England, duels were more fought using pistols. Fencing and pistol duels continued to co-exist throughout the 19th century; the duel was based on a code of honor. Duels were fought not so much to kill the opponent as to gain "satisfaction", that is, to restore one's honor by demonstrating a willingness to risk one's life for it, as such the tradition of dueling was reserved for the male members of nobility. On occasion, duels with pistols or swords were fought between women. Legislation against dueling goes back to the medieval period; the Fourth Council of the Lateran outlawed duels, civil legislation in the Holy Roman Empire against dueling was passed in the wake of the Thirty Years' War.
From the early 17th century, duels became illegal in the countries. Dueling fell out of favor in England by the mid-19th century and in Continental Europe by the turn of the 20th century. Dueling declined in the Eastern United States in the 19th century and by the time the American Civil War broke out, dueling had begun to wane in the South. Public opinion, not legislation, caused the change. In Western society, the formal concept of a duel developed out of the medieval judicial duel and older pre-Christian practices such as the Viking Age holmgang. In Medieval society, judicial duels were fought by squires to end various disputes. Countries like Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland practiced this tradition. Judicial combat took two forms in the feat of arms and chivalric combat; the feat of arms was supervised by a judge. The battle was fought as a result of a slight or challenge to one party's honor which could not be resolved by a court. Weapons were standardized and typical of a knight's armoury, for example longswords, polearms etc. however, weapon quality and augmentations were at the discretion of the knight, for example, a spiked hand guard or an extra grip for half-swording.
The parties involved would wear their own armour. The duel lasted. In early cases, the defeated party was executed; this type of duel soon evolved into the more chivalric pas d'armes, or "passage of arms", a chivalric hastilude that evolved in the late 14th century and remained popular through the 15th century. A knight or group of knights would stake out a travelled spot, such as a bridge or city gate, let it be known that any other knight who wished to pass must first fight, or be disgraced. If a traveling venans did not have weapons or horse to meet the challenge, one might be provided, if the venans chose not to fight, he would leave his spurs behind as a sign of humiliation. If a lady passed unescorted, she would leave behind a glove or scarf, to be rescued and returned to her by a future knight who passed that way; the Roman Catholic Church was critical of dueling throughout medieval history, frowning both on the traditions of judicial combat and on the duel on points of honor among the nobility.
Judicial duels were deprecated by the Lateran Council of 1215, but the judicial duel persisted in the Holy Roman Empire into the 15th century. The word duel comes from the Latin'duellum', cognate with'bellum', meaning'war'. During the early Renaissance, dueling established the status of a respectable gentleman and was an accepted manner to resolve disputes; the first published code duello, or "code of dueling", appeared in Renaissance Italy. The first formalized national code was France's, during the Renaissance. In 1777, a code of practice was drawn up for the regulation of duels, at the Summer assizes in the town of Clonmel, County Tipperary, Ireland. A copy of the code, known as'The twenty-six commandments', was to be kept in a gentleman's pistol case for reference should a dispute arise regarding procedure. However, the tradition had become rooted in European culture as a prerogative of the aristocracy, these attempts failed. For example, King Louis XIII of France outlawed dueling in 1626, a law which remained in force for afterwards, his successor Louis XIV intensified efforts to wipe out the duel.
Despite these efforts, dueling continued unabated, it is estimated that between 1685 and 1716, French officers fought 10,000 duels, leading to over 400 deaths. By the late 18th century, Enlightenment era values began to influence society with new self-conscious ideas about politeness, civil behaviour and new attitudes towards violence; the cultivated art of politeness demanded that there should be no outward displays of anger or violence, the concept of honor became more personalized. By the 1770s the practice of dueling was coming under attack from many sections of enlightened society, as a violent relic of Europe's medieval past unsuited for modern life; as England began to industrialize and benefit from urban planning and more effective police forces, the culture of street violence in general began to wane. The growing middle class maintained their reputation with recourse to either bringing charges of libel, or to the fast-growing print media of t
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate