Bloom (shader effect)
Bloom is a computer graphics effect used in video games and high dynamic range rendering to reproduce an imaging artifact of real-world cameras. The effect produces fringes of light extending from the borders of bright areas in an image, contributing to the illusion of an bright light overwhelming the camera or eye capturing the scene, it became used in video games after an article on the technique was published by the authors of Tron 2.0 in 2004. The physical basis of bloom is. A perfect lens will convolve the incoming image with an Airy disk. Under normal circumstances, these imperfections are not noticeable, but an intensely bright light source will cause the imperfections to become visible; as a result, the image of the bright light appears to bleed beyond its natural borders. The Airy disc function falls off quickly but has wide tails; as long as the brightness of adjacent parts of the image are in the same range, the effect of the blurring caused by the Airy disc is not noticeable. In HDRR images, the effect can be re-produced by convolving the image with a windowed kernel of an Airy disc, or by applying Gaussian blur, before converting the image to fixed-range pixels.
The effect cannot be reproduced in non-HDRR imaging systems, because the amount of bleed depends on how bright the bright part of the image is. As an example, when a picture is taken indoors, the brightness of outdoor objects seen through a window may be 70 or 80 times brighter than objects inside the room. If exposure levels are set for objects inside the room, the bright image of the windows will bleed past the window frames when convolved with the Airy disc of the camera being used to produce the image. Current generation gaming systems are able to render 3D graphics using floating point frame buffers, in order to produce HDR images. To produce the bloom effect, the HDRR images in the frame buffer are convolved with a convolution kernel in a post-processing step, before converting to RGB space; the convolution step requires the use of a large gaussian kernel, not practical for realtime graphics, causing programmers to use approximation methods. Some of the earliest games to use the bloom effect include Outcast.
Bloom was popularized within the game development community in 2004, when an article on the technique was published by the authors of Tron 2.0. Bloom lighting has been used in many games and game engines such as Quake Live, Cube 2: Sauerbraten and the Spring game engine; the effect was popular in 7th generation games, was used in PC, Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 games as well as Nintendo GameCube and Wii. Popular browser-based games such as the MMORPG RuneScape made use of the bloom effect as well. Chromatic aberration Tone mapping Real-Time Glow
A particle system is a technique in game physics, motion graphics, computer graphics that uses a large number of small sprites, 3D models, or other graphic objects to simulate certain kinds of "fuzzy" phenomena, which are otherwise hard to reproduce with conventional rendering techniques - highly chaotic systems, natural phenomena, or processes caused by chemical reactions. Introduced in the 1982 film Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan for the fictional "Genesis effect", other examples include replicating the phenomena of fire, smoke, moving water, falling leaves, rock falls, fog, dust, meteor tails and galaxies, or abstract visual effects like glowing trails, magic spells, etc. - these use particles that fade out and are re-emitted from the effect's source. Another technique can be used for things that contain many strands - such as fur and grass - involving rendering an entire particle's lifetime at once, which can be drawn and manipulated as a single strand of the material in question. Particle systems may be three-dimensional.
A particle system's position and motion in 3D space are controlled by what is referred to as an emitter. The emitter acts as the source of the particles, its location in 3D space determines where they are generated and where they move to. A regular 3D mesh object, such as a cube or a plane, can be used as an emitter; the emitter has attached to it a set of particle behavior parameters. These parameters can include the spawning rate, the particles' initial velocity vector, particle lifetime, particle color, many more, it is common for all or most of these parameters to be "fuzzy" — instead of a precise numeric value, the artist specifies a central value and the degree of randomness allowable on either side of the center. When using a mesh object as an emitter, the initial velocity vector is set to be normal to the individual face of the object, making the particles appear to "spray" directly from each face but optional. A typical particle system's update loop can be separated into two distinct stages, the parameter update/simulation stage and the rendering stage.
During the simulation stage, the number of new particles that must be created is calculated based on spawning rates and the interval between updates, each of them is spawned in a specific position in 3D space based on the emitter's position and the spawning area specified. Each of the particle's parameters is initialized according to the emitter's parameters. At each update, all existing particles are checked to see if they have exceeded their lifetime, in which case they are removed from the simulation. Otherwise, the particles' position and other characteristics are advanced based on a physical simulation, which can be as simple as translating their current position, or as complicated as performing physically accurate trajectory calculations which take into account external forces, it is common to perform collision detection between particles and specified 3D objects in the scene to make the particles bounce off of or otherwise interact with obstacles in the environment. Collisions between particles are used, as they are computationally expensive and not visually relevant for most simulations.
After the update is complete, each particle is rendered in the form of a textured billboarded quad. However, this is sometimes not necessary for games. Conversely, in motion graphics particles tend to be full but small-scale and easy-to-render 3d models, to ensure fidelity at high resolution. Particles can be rendered as Metaballs in off-line rendering. 3D mesh objects can "stand in" for the particles — a snowstorm might consist of a single 3D snowflake mesh being duplicated and rotated to match the positions of thousands or millions of particles. Particle systems can be either static; the consequence of this distinction is similar to the difference between snowflakes and hair - animated particles are akin to snowflakes, which move around as distinct points in space, static particles are akin to hair, which consists of a distinct number of curves. The term "particle system" itself brings to mind only the animated aspect, used to create moving particulate simulations — sparks, fire, etc. In these implementations, each frame of the animation contains each particle at a specific position in its life cycle, each particle occupies a single point position in space.
For effects such as fire or smoke that dissipate, each particle is given a fade out time or fixed lifetime. However, if the entire life cycle of each particle is rendered the result is static particles — strands of material that show the particles' overall trajectory, rather than point particles; these strands can be used to simulate hair, fur and similar materials. The strands can be controlled with the same velocity vectors, force fields, spawning rates, deflection parameters that ani
In computer graphics, texture splatting is a method for combining different textures. The method works by applying an alphamap to the higher levels, revealing the layers underneath where the alphamap is or transparent; the term was coined by al.. Since texture splatting is used for terrain rendering in computer games, various optimizations are required; because the underlying principle is for each texture to have its own alpha channel, large amounts of memory can be consumed. As a solution to this problem, multiple alpha maps can be combined into one texture using the red channel for one map, the blue for another, so on; this uses a single texture to supply alpha maps for four real-color textures. The alpha textures can use a lower resolution than the color textures, the color textures can be tiled. Terrains can be split into chunks where each chunk can have its own textures. Say there is a certain texture on one part of the terrain that doesn’t appear anywhere else on it: it would be a waste of memory and processing time if the alpha map extended over the whole terrain if only 10% of it was required.
If the terrain is split into chunks the alpha map can be split up according to the chunks and so now instead of 90% of that specific map being wasted only 20% may be. Alpha compositing Blend modes Splatting – a volume rendering technique Texture mapping Charles Bloom on Texture Splatting Texture Splatting in Direct3D Crawfis and Nelson Max, Texture Splats for 3D Vector and Scalar Field Visualization, Proceedings Visualization'93, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, pp. 261–266
Autodesk 3ds Max
Autodesk 3ds Max 3D Studio and 3D Studio Max, is a professional 3D computer graphics program for making 3D animations, models and images. It is produced by Autodesk Media and Entertainment, it has modeling capabilities and a flexible plugin architecture and can be used on the Microsoft Windows platform. It is used by video game developers, many TV commercial studios and architectural visualization studios, it is used for movie effects and movie pre-visualization. For its modeling and animation tools, the latest version of 3ds Max features shaders, dynamic simulation, particle systems, normal map creation and rendering, global illumination, a customizable user interface, new icons, its own scripting language; the original 3D Studio product was created for the DOS platform by Gary Yost and the Yost Group, published by Autodesk. The release of 3D Studio made Autodesk's previous 3D rendering package AutoShade obsolete. After 3D Studio DOS Release 4, the product was rewritten for the Windows NT platform, renamed "3D Studio MAX".
This version was originally created by the Yost Group. It was released by Kinetix, at that time Autodesk's division of media and entertainment. Autodesk purchased the product at the second release update of the 3D Studio MAX version and internalized development over the next two releases; the product name was changed to "3ds max" to better comply with the naming conventions of Discreet, a Montreal-based software company which Autodesk had purchased. When it was re-released, the product was again branded with the Autodesk logo, the short name was again changed to "3ds Max", while the formal product name became the current "Autodesk 3ds Max". MAXScript MAXScript is a built-in scripting language that can be used to automate repetitive tasks, combine existing functionality in new ways, develop new tools and user interfaces, much more. Plugin modules can be created within MAXScript. Character Studio Character Studio was a plugin which since version 4 of Max is now integrated in 3D Studio Max; the system works using a character rig or "Biped" skeleton which has stock settings that can be modified and customized to fit the character meshes and animation needs.
This tool includes robust editing tools for IK/FK switching, Pose manipulation and Keyframing workflows, sharing of animation data across different Biped skeletons. These "Biped" objects have other useful features that help accelerate the production of walk cycles and movement paths, as well as secondary motion. Scene Explorer Scene Explorer, a tool that provides a hierarchical view of scene data and analysis, facilitates working with more complex scenes. Scene Explorer has the ability to sort and search a scene by any object type or property. Added in 3ds Max 2008, it was the first component to facilitate. NET managed code in 3ds Max outside of MAXScript. DWG import 3ds Max supports both linking of DWG files. Improved memory management in 3ds Max 2008 enables larger scenes to be imported with multiple objects. Texture assignment/editing 3ds Max offers operations for creative texture and planar mapping, including tiling, decals, rotate, blur, UV stretching, relaxation; the texture workflow includes the ability to combine an unlimited number of textures, a material/map browser with support for drag-and-drop assignment, hierarchies with thumbnails.
UV workflow features include Pelt mapping, which defines custom seams and enables users to unfold UVs according to those seams. General keyframing Two keying modes — set key and auto key — offer support for different keyframing workflows. Fast and intuitive controls for keyframing — including cut and paste — let the user create animations with ease. Animation trajectories may be edited directly in the viewport. Constrained animation Objects can be animated along curves with controls for alignment, velocity and looping, along surfaces with controls for alignment. Weight path-controlled animation between multiple curves, animate the weight. Objects can be constrained to animate with other objects in many ways — including look at, orientation in different coordinate spaces, linking at different points in time; these constraints support animated weighting between more than one target. All resulting constrained animation can be collapsed into standard keyframes for further editing. Skinning Either the Skin or Physique modifier may be used to achieve precise control of skeletal deformation, so the character deforms smoothly as joints are moved in the most challenging areas, such as shoulders.
Skin deformation can be controlled using direct vertex weights, volumes of vertices defined by envelopes, or both. Capabilities such as weight tables, paintable weights, saving and loading of weights offer easy editing and proximity-based transfer between models, providing the accuracy and flexibility needed for complicated characters; the rigid bind skinning option is useful for animating low-polygon models or as a diagnostic tool for regular skeleton animation. Additional modifiers, such as Skin Wrap and Skin Morph, can be used to drive meshes with other meshes and make targeted weighting adjustments in tricky areas. Skeletons and inverse kinematics Characters can be rigged with custom skeletons using 3ds Max bones, IK solvers, rigging tools powered by Motion Capture Data. All animation tools — including
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
In biology, culling is the process of segregating organisms from a group according to desired or undesired characteristics. In animal breeding, it is the process of removing or segregating animals from a breeding stock based on specific trait; this is done to exaggerate desirable characteristics, or to remove undesirable characteristics by altering the genetic diversity of the population. For livestock and wildlife, culling refers to the act of killing removed animals. In fruits and vegetables, culling is the sorting or segregation of fresh harvested produce into marketable lots, with the non-marketable lots being discarded or diverted into food processing or non-food processing activities; this happens at collection centres located at, or close to farms. Culling is sometimes used as a term to describe indiscriminate killing within one particular species which can be due to a range of reasons, for example, badger culling in the United Kingdom; the word comes from the Latin colligere, which means "to collect".
The term can be applied broadly to mean sorting a collection into two groups: one that will be kept and one that will be rejected. The cull is the set of items rejected during the selection process; the culling process is repeated until the selected group is of proper consistency desired. In the breeding of pedigreed animals, both desirable and undesirable traits are considered when choosing which animals to retain for breeding and which to place as pets; the process of culling starts with examination of the conformation standard of the animal and will include additional qualities such as health, temperament, color preference, etc. The breeder takes all things into consideration when envisioning his/her ideal for the breed or goal of their breeding program. From that vision, selections are made as to which animals, when bred, have the best chance of producing the ideal for the breed. Breeders of pedigreed animals cull based on many criteria; the first culling criterion should always be health and robustness.
Secondary to health and conformation of the animal should be considered. The filtering process ends with the breeder's personal preferences on pattern, etc; the Tandem Method is a form of selective breeding where a breeder addresses one characteristic of the animal at a time, thus selecting only animals that measure above a certain threshold for that particular trait while keeping other traits constant. Once that level of quality in the single trait is achieved, the breeder will focus on a second trait and cull based on that quality. With the tandem method, a minimum level of quality is set for important characteristics that the breeder wishes to remain constant; the breeder is focussing improvement in one particular trait without losing quality of the others. The breeder will raise the threshold for selection on this trait with each successive generation of progeny, thus ensuring improvement in this single characteristic of his breeding program. For example, a breeder, pleased with the muzzle length, muzzle shape, eye placement in the breeding stock, but wishes to improve the eye shape of progeny produced may determine a minimum level of improvement in eye shape required for progeny to be returned into the breeding program.
Progeny is first evaluated on the existing quality thresholds in place for muzzle length, muzzle shape, eye placement with the additional criterion being improvement in eye shape. Any animal that does not meet this level of improvement in the eye shape while maintaining the other qualities is culled from the breeding program. Independent levels is a method where any animal who falls below a given standard in any single characteristic is not used in a breeding program. With each successive mating, the threshold culling criteria is raised thus improving the breed with each successive generation; this method measures several characteristics at once. Should progeny fall below the desired quality in any one characteristic being measured, it will not be used in the breeding program regardless of the level of excellence of other traits. With each successive generation of progeny, the minimum quality of each characteristic is raised thus ensuring improvement of these traits. For example, a breeder has a view of what the minimum requirements for muzzle length, muzzle shape, eye placement, eye shape she is breeding toward.
The breeder will determine what the minimum acceptable quality for each of these traits will be for progeny to be folded back into her breeding program. Any animal that fails to meet the quality threshold for any one of these criteria is culled from the breeding program; the Total Score Method is a method where the breeder evaluates and selects breeding stock based on a weighted table of characteristics. The breeder selects qualities that assigns them a weight; the weights of all the traits should add up to 100. When evaluating an individual for selection, the breeder measures the traits on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the most desirable expression and 1 being the lowest; the scores are multiplied by their weights and added together to give a total score. Individuals that fail to meet a threshold are culled from the breeding program; the total score gives a breeder a way to evaluate multiple traits on an animal at the same time. The total score method is the most flexible of the three, it allows for weighted improvement of multiple characteristics.
It allows the breeder to make major gains in one aspect while moderate or lesser gains in others. For example, a breeder is willing to make a smaller improvement in muzzle length and muzzle shape in order to have a moderate gain in improvement of eye placement and a mor
A lightmap is a data structure used in lightmapping, a form of surface caching in which the brightness of surfaces in a virtual scene is pre-calculated and stored in texture maps for use. Lightmaps are most applied to static objects in applications that use real-time 3D computer graphics, such as video games, in order to provide lighting effects such as global illumination at a low computational cost. John Carmack's Quake was the first computer game to use lightmaps to augment rendering. Before lightmaps were invented, realtime applications relied purely on Gouraud shading to interpolate vertex lighting for surfaces; this only allowed low frequency lighting information, could create clipping artefacts close to the camera without perspective-correct interpolation. Discontinuity meshing was sometimes used with radiosity solutions to adaptively improve the resolution of vertex lighting information, however the additional cost in primitive setup for realtime rasterization was prohibitive. Quake's software rasterizer used surface caching to apply lighting calculations in texture space once when polygons appear within the viewing frustum.
As consumer 3d graphics hardware capable of multitexturing, light-mapping became more popular, engines began to combine light-maps in real time as a secondary multiply-blend texture layer. Lightmaps are composed of lumels, analogous to texels in Texture Mapping. Smaller lumels yield a higher resolution lightmap, providing finer lighting detail at the price of reduced performance and increased memory usage. For example, a lightmap scale of 4 lumels per world unit would give a lower quality than a scale of 16 lumels per world unit. Thus, in using the technique, level designers and 3d artists have to make a compromise between performance and quality. Lightmap resolution and scaling may be limited by the amount of disk storage space, bandwidth/download time, or texture memory available to the application; some implementations attempt to pack multiple lightmaps together in a process known as atlasing to help circumvent these limitations. Lightmap resolution and scale are two different things; the resolution is the area, in available for storing one or more surface's lightmaps.
The number of individual surfaces that can fit on a lightmap is determined by the scale. Lower scale values mean more space taken on a lightmap. Higher scale values mean less space taken. A surface can have a lightmap that has the same area, so a 1:1 ratio, or smaller, so the lightmap is stretched to fit. Lightmaps in games are colored texture maps, or per vertex colors, they are flat, without information about the light's direction, whilst some game engines use multiple lightmaps to provide approximate directional information to combine with normal-maps. Lightmaps may store separate precalculated components of lighting information for semi-dynamic lighting with shaders, such as ambient-occlusion & sunlight shadowing; when creating lightmaps, any lighting model may be used, because the lighting is precomputed and real-time performance is not always a necessity. A variety of techniques including ambient occlusion, direct lighting with sampled shadow edges, full radiosity bounce light solutions are used.
Modern 3D packages include specific plugins for applying light-map UV-coordinates, atlas-ing multiple surfaces into single texture sheets, rendering the maps themselves. Alternatively game engine pipelines may include custom lightmap creation tools. An additional consideration is the use of compressed DXT textures which are subject to blocking artifacts – individual surfaces must not collide on 4x4 texel chunks for best results. In all cases, soft shadows for static geometry are possible if simple occlusion tests are used to determine which lumels are visible to the light. However, the actual softness of the shadows is determined by how the engine interpolates the lumel data across a surface, can result in a pixelated look if the lumels are too large. See texture filtering. Lightmaps can be calculated in real-time for good quality colored lighting effects that are not prone to the defects of Gouraud shading, although shadow creation must still be done using another method such as stencil shadow volumes or shadow mapping, as real-time ray-tracing is still too slow to perform on modern hardware in most 3D engines.
Photon mapping can be used to calculate global illumination for light maps. in vertex lighting, lighting information is computed per vertex and stored in vertex color attributes. The two techniques may be combined, e.g. vertex color values stored for high detail meshes, whilst light maps are only used for coarser geometry. In discontinuity mapping, the scene may be further subdivided and clipped along major changes in light and dark to better define shadows. Environment map SSAO Shader Texture mapping Baking