1.
Truncated order-4 apeirogonal tiling
In geometry, the truncated order-4 apeirogonal tiling is a uniform tiling of the hyperbolic plane. It has Schläfli symbol of t, a half symmetry coloring is tr, has two types of apeirogons, shown red and yellow here. If the apeirogonal curvature is too large, it doesnt converge to an ideal point, like the right image. Coxeter diagram are shown with dotted lines for these divergent, ultraparallel mirrors, from symmetry, there are 15 small index subgroup by mirror removal and alternation. Mirrors can be removed if its branch orders are all even, removing two mirrors leaves a half-order gyration point where the removed mirrors met. In these images fundamental domains are alternately colored black and white, the symmetry can be doubled as ∞42 symmetry by adding a mirror bisecting the fundamental domain. The subgroup index-8 group, is the subgroup of. The Beauty of Geometry, Twelve Essays, Eric W. Poincaré hyperbolic disk
2.
Vertex (geometry)
In geometry, a vertex is a point where two or more curves, lines, or edges meet. As a consequence of this definition, the point where two lines meet to form an angle and the corners of polygons and polyhedra are vertices. A vertex is a point of a polygon, polyhedron, or other higher-dimensional polytope. However, in theory, vertices may have fewer than two incident edges, which is usually not allowed for geometric vertices. However, a smooth approximation to a polygon will have additional vertices. A polygon vertex xi of a simple polygon P is a principal polygon vertex if the diagonal intersects the boundary of P only at x and x, there are two types of principal vertices and mouths. A principal vertex xi of a simple polygon P is called an ear if the diagonal that bridges xi lies entirely in P, according to the two ears theorem, every simple polygon has at least two ears. A principal vertex xi of a simple polygon P is called a mouth if the diagonal lies outside the boundary of P. Any convex polyhedrons surface has Euler characteristic V − E + F =2, where V is the number of vertices, E is the number of edges and this equation is known as Eulers polyhedron formula.
Thus the number of vertices is 2 more than the excess of the number of edges over the number of faces, for example, a cube has 12 edges and 6 faces, and hence 8 vertices
3.
Hyperbolic geometry
In mathematics, hyperbolic geometry is a non-Euclidean geometry. Hyperbolic plane geometry is the geometry of saddle surface or pseudospherical surfaces, surfaces with a constant negative Gaussian curvature, a modern use of hyperbolic geometry is in the theory of special relativity, particularly Minkowski spacetime and gyrovector space. In Russia it is commonly called Lobachevskian geometry, named one of its discoverers. This page is mainly about the 2-dimensional hyperbolic geometry and the differences and similarities between Euclidean and hyperbolic geometry, Hyperbolic geometry can be extended to three and more dimensions, see hyperbolic space for more on the three and higher dimensional cases. Hyperbolic geometry is closely related to Euclidean geometry than it seems. When the parallel postulate is removed from Euclidean geometry the resulting geometry is absolute geometry, there are two kinds of absolute geometry and hyperbolic. All theorems of geometry, including the first 28 propositions of book one of Euclids Elements, are valid in Euclidean.
Propositions 27 and 28 of Book One of Euclids Elements prove the existence of parallel/non-intersecting lines and this difference has many consequences, concepts that are equivalent in Euclidean geometry are not equivalent in hyperbolic geometry, new concepts need to be introduced. Further, because of the angle of parallelism hyperbolic geometry has an absolute scale, single lines in hyperbolic geometry have exactly the same properties as single straight lines in Euclidean geometry. For example, two points define a line, and lines can be infinitely extended. Two intersecting lines have the properties as two intersecting lines in Euclidean geometry. For example, two lines can intersect in no more than one point, intersecting lines have equal opposite angles, when we add a third line there are properties of intersecting lines that differ from intersecting lines in Euclidean geometry. For example, given 2 intersecting lines there are many lines that do not intersect either of the given lines. While in some models lines look different they do have these properties, non-intersecting lines in hyperbolic geometry have properties that differ from non-intersecting lines in Euclidean geometry, For any line R and any point P which does not lie on R.
In the plane containing line R and point P there are at least two lines through P that do not intersect R. This implies that there are through P an infinite number of lines that do not intersect R. All other non-intersecting lines have a point of distance and diverge from both sides of that point, and are called ultraparallel, diverging parallel or sometimes non-intersecting. Some geometers simply use parallel lines instead of limiting parallel lines and these limiting parallels make an angle θ with PB, this angle depends only on the Gaussian curvature of the plane and the distance PB and is called the angle of parallelism
4.
Truncated infinite-order square tiling
In geometry, the truncated infinite-order square tiling is a uniform tiling of the hyperbolic plane. It has Schläfli symbol of t, in symmetry this tiling has 3 colors. Bisecting the isosceles triangle domains can double the symmetry to *∞42 symmetry, the dual of the tiling represents the fundamental domains of orbifold symmetry. From symmetry, there are 15 small index subgroup by mirror removal, mirrors can be removed if its branch orders are all even, and cuts neighboring branch orders in half. Removing two mirrors leaves a half-order gyration point where the removed mirrors met, in these images fundamental domains are alternately colored black and white, and mirrors exist on the boundaries between colors. The symmetry can be doubled to *∞42 by adding a mirror across the fundamental domains. The subgroup index-8 group, is the subgroup of. The Beauty of Geometry, Twelve Essays, Eric W. Poincaré hyperbolic disk
5.
Uniform tilings in hyperbolic plane
In hyperbolic geometry, a uniform hyperbolic tiling is an edge-to-edge filling of the hyperbolic plane which has regular polygons as faces and is vertex-transitive. It follows that all vertices are congruent, and the tiling has a degree of rotational and translational symmetry. Uniform tilings can be identified by their vertex configuration, a sequence of numbers representing the number of sides of the polygons around each vertex, for example 7.7.7 represents the heptagonal tiling which has 3 heptagons around each vertex. It is regular since all the polygons are the same size, uniform tilings may be regular, quasi-regular or semi-regular. For right triangles, there are two regular tilings, represented by Schläfli symbol and, each symmetry family contains 7 uniform tilings, defined by a Wythoff symbol or Coxeter-Dynkin diagram,7 representing combinations of 3 active mirrors. An 8th represents an alternation operation, deleting alternate vertices from the highest form with all mirrors active, families with r =2 contain regular hyperbolic tilings, defined by a Coxeter group such as.
Hyperbolic families with r =3 or higher are given by, hyperbolic triangles define compact uniform hyperbolic tilings. More symmetry families can be constructed from fundamental domains that are not triangles, selected families of uniform tilings are shown below. Each uniform tiling generates a dual tiling, with many of them given below. There are infinitely many triangle group families and this article shows the regular tiling up to p, q =8, and uniform tilings in 12 families, and. The simplest set of hyperbolic tilings are regular tilings, which exist in a matrix with the regular polyhedra, the regular tiling has a dual tiling across the diagonal axis of the table. Self-dual tilings, etc. pass down the diagonal of the table, because all the elements are even, each uniform dual tiling one represents the fundamental domain of a reflective symmetry, *3333, *662, *3232, *443, *222222, *3222, and *642 respectively. As well, all 7 uniform tiling can be alternated, the triangle group, Coxeter group, orbifold contains these uniform tilings, The triangle group, Coxeter group, orbifold contains these uniform tilings.
Because all the elements are even, each uniform dual tiling one represents the domain of a reflective symmetry, *4444, *882, *4242, *444, *22222222, *4222. As well, all 7 uniform tiling can be alternated, and this article shows uniform tilings in 9 families, and. The triangle group, Coxeter group, orbifold contains these uniform tilings, without right angles in the fundamental triangle, the Wythoff constructions are slightly different. For instance in the family, the snub form has six polygons around a vertex. In general the vertex figure of a tiling in a triangle is p.3. q.3. r.3
6.
Snub apeiroapeirogonal tiling
In geometry, the snub apeiroapeirogonal tiling is a uniform tiling of the hyperbolic plane. It has Schläfli symbol of s and it has 3 equilateral triangles and 2 apeirogons around every vertex, with vertex figure 3.3. ∞.3. ∞. The snub tetrapeirogonal tiling is last in an series of snub polyhedra. The Beauty of Geometry, Twelve Essays, Eric W. Poincaré hyperbolic disk
7.
Octagonal prism
In geometry, the octagonal prism is the sixth in an infinite set of prisms, formed by square sides and two regular octagon caps. If faces are all regular, it is a semiregular polyhedron, the octagonal prism can be seen as a tiling on a sphere, In optics, octagonal prisms are used to generate flicker-free images in movie projectors. It is an element of three uniform honeycombs, It is an element of two four-dimensional uniform 4-polytopes, Eric W. Octagonal prism, interactive model of an Octagonal Prism
8.
Rhombitetraapeirogonal tiling
In geometry, the rhombitetraapeirogonal tiling is a uniform tiling of the hyperbolic plane. It has Schläfli symbol of rr, there are two uniform constructions of this tiling, one from or symmetry, and secondly removing the mirror middle, gives a rectangular fundamental domain. The dual of this tiling, called a deltoidal tetraapeirogonal tiling represents the fundamental domains of orbifold symmetry and its fundamental domain is a Lambert quadrilateral, with 3 right angles. The Beauty of Geometry, Twelve Essays, Eric W. Poincaré hyperbolic disk. Hyperbolic and Spherical Tiling Gallery KaleidoTile 3, Educational software to create spherical and hyperbolic tilings Hyperbolic Planar Tessellations, Don Hatch
9.
Square
In geometry, a square is a regular quadrilateral, which means that it has four equal sides and four equal angles. It can be defined as a rectangle in which two adjacent sides have equal length, a square with vertices ABCD would be denoted ◻ ABCD. e. A rhombus with equal diagonals a convex quadrilateral with sides a, b, c, d whose area is A =12 =12. Opposite sides of a square are both parallel and equal in length, all four angles of a square are equal. All four sides of a square are equal, the diagonals of a square are equal. The square is the n=2 case of the families of n-hypercubes and n-orthoplexes, a truncated square, t, is an octagon. An alternated square, h, is a digon, the perimeter of a square whose four sides have length ℓ is P =4 ℓ and the area A is A = ℓ2. In classical times, the power was described in terms of the area of a square. This led to the use of the square to mean raising to the second power. The area can be calculated using the diagonal d according to A = d 22. In terms of the circumradius R, the area of a square is A =2 R2, since the area of the circle is π R2, in terms of the inradius r, the area of the square is A =4 r 2.
Because it is a polygon, a square is the quadrilateral of least perimeter enclosing a given area. Dually, a square is the quadrilateral containing the largest area within a given perimeter. Indeed, if A and P are the area and perimeter enclosed by a quadrilateral, the isoperimetric inequality holds,16 A ≤ P2 with equality if. The diagonals of a square are 2 times the length of a side of the square and this value, known as the square root of 2 or Pythagoras constant, was the first number proven to be irrational. A square can be defined as a parallelogram with equal diagonals that bisect the angles, if a figure is both a rectangle and a rhombus, it is a square. If a circle is circumscribed around a square, the area of the circle is π /2 times the area of the square, if a circle is inscribed in the square, the area of the circle is π /4 times the area of the square. A square has an area than any other quadrilateral with the same perimeter
10.
Dual polyhedron
Such dual figures remain combinatorial or abstract polyhedra, but not all are geometric polyhedra. Starting with any given polyhedron, the dual of its dual is the original polyhedron, duality preserves the symmetries of a polyhedron. Therefore, for classes of polyhedra defined by their symmetries. Thus, the regular polyhedra – the Platonic solids and Kepler-Poinsot polyhedra – form dual pairs, the dual of an isogonal polyhedron, having equivalent vertices, is one which is isohedral, having equivalent faces. The dual of a polyhedron is isotoxal. Duality is closely related to reciprocity or polarity, a transformation that. There are many kinds of duality, the kinds most relevant to elementary polyhedra are polar reciprocity and topological or abstract duality. The duality of polyhedra is often defined in terms of polar reciprocation about a concentric sphere. In coordinates, for reciprocation about the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = r 2, the vertex is associated with the plane x 0 x + y 0 y + z 0 z = r 2.
The vertices of the dual are the reciprocal to the face planes of the original. Also, any two adjacent vertices define an edge, and these will reciprocate to two adjacent faces which intersect to define an edge of the dual and this dual pair of edges are always orthogonal to each other. If r 0 is the radius of the sphere, and r 1 and r 2 respectively the distances from its centre to the pole and its polar, then, r 1. R2 = r 02 For the more symmetrical polyhedra having an obvious centroid, it is common to make the polyhedron and sphere concentric, the choice of center for the sphere is sufficient to define the dual up to similarity. If multiple symmetry axes are present, they will intersect at a single point. Failing that, a sphere, inscribed sphere, or midsphere is commonly used. If a polyhedron in Euclidean space has an element passing through the center of the sphere, since Euclidean space never reaches infinity, the projective equivalent, called extended Euclidean space, may be formed by adding the required plane at infinity.
Some theorists prefer to stick to Euclidean space and say there is no dual. Meanwhile, Wenninger found a way to represent these infinite duals, the concept of duality here is closely related to the duality in projective geometry, where lines and edges are interchanged