Truro Church (Fairfax, Virginia)
Truro Anglican Church is an Anglican church in Fairfax, Virginia, USA. There was no official Episcopal Church in the City of Fairfax until the Rev. Richard Templeton Brown, rector of The Falls Church, organized a congregation in 1843; the congregation first met at the historic Fairfax Courthouse and moved to the private home of Mrs. William Rumsey, a Baptist from New York. There were fourteen communicants. A year a plain white frame church was built on the present site of the Truro Chapel and was consecrated as Zion Church in 1845; as Union troops advanced into Virginia at the outset of the Civil War, the congregation was forced to abandon Zion Church. During the Civil War, Zion Church was first used as a storehouse for munitions and was destroyed; the house, now the Gunnell House was used as the Union headquarters by General Stoughton until 1863 when he was captured in the middle of the night by Confederate Captain John Mosby. Graffiti written by the officers stationed in the house was found on the walls in a closet on the third floor and is now on display at the Fairfax Museum.
In 1882, the house was purchased for use as a rectory. At that time it was half the size it is today and was enlarged to its present form in 1911, it served as the residence of the rector of the Episcopal Church in Fairfax until 1991 when it served first as a home for single mothers and their babies and as the offices for Truro Church. Presently, the Gunnell House is used as meeting space for the church. At the close of the Civil War, the congregation of Zion Church re-formed and began to meet in the Fairfax Courthouse. Zion Church was rebuilt and consecrated in 1878. Zion Church remained in active use from 1875 through 1933, when a new church was built to serve the growing congregation of 100 parishioners, under the leadership of the Rev. Herbert Donovan. Designed to replicate the old Payne's Church on Ox Road, the new church was consecrated on May 1, 1934, as Truro Episcopal Church; the old Zion Church building was used as the Parish Hall until it burned down in 1952. The Rev. Raymond Davis was installed as rector of Truro in 1948.
He said that he would be pleased if he could, just once, fill all one hundred seats of the little brick church. Not only were all the seats filled, but the growing congregation began to burst at the seams as the great suburban expansion of Northern Virginia began in the 1950s. In 1959, a new and larger church was completed with a seating capacity of 500; the congregation first worshiped in the new church on Palm Sunday, 1959, when the mortgage was paid off in 1974, a new Truro Church building was consecrated. The old church building is now known as the Chapel. Numerous services are still held throughout the week in the historic chapel, including contemporary worship services. In 1967, a small group of Truro parishioners began a mission church called the Church of the Apostles, now located east of Truro on Pickett Road. In 1976 the Rev. John W. Howe was installed as rector. Under his leadership Truro continued to experience physical expansion as well as spiritual renewal; the church seating capacity was expanded by 300 through the addition of the transepts in 1983.
Truro expanded its engagement in mission around the world. Another mission church, the Church of the Epiphany, was established in Herndon, Virginia in 1985, with the Rev. Bill Reardon as rector. From the 1970s onward, Truro became a bastion of conservatism in the Episcopal Church, it was active in the pro-life movement, started a conversion therapy program to convert homosexuals. This prompted many of the church's more liberal members to leave, replaced by more conservative Christians from other denominations. By the turn of the century, fewer than 40 percent of Truro's members had been raised as Episcopalian. In 1991, the Rev. Martyn Minns was installed as rector of Truro Church, he emphasized an evangelical call to worldwide mission and outreach to the poor, as well as biblical theology. Under his leadership the Lamb Center was established, offering social services and practical encouragement to the homeless in Fairfax, the work of TIPS Truro's International Programs and Services was expanded.
A new mission church, Christ the Redeemer Church, was launched in western Fairfax County with the Rev. Tom Herrick as vicar in 1994. Most Truro birthed another mission church in Loudoun County, the Church of the Holy Spirit in 2001, with the Rev. Clancy Nixon as vicar; the Rev. Martyn Minns was made an honorary canon of All Saints' Cathedral, Tanzania in 2002. Following the Protocol for Departing Congregations created by the Diocese of Virginia, Truro Church embarked on 40 Days of Discernment to consider its future in the Episcopal Church; this time of discernment led to a parish vote where the entire membership voted on whether to leave the Episcopal Church. On Sunday, December 17, 2006, 92 percent of the individual members of Truro Episcopal Church membership voted to withdraw from the Episcopal Church and join the Convocation of Anglicans in North America, a mission initiative of the Anglican Church of Nigeria, but an entity, not a branch of the Episcopal Church, under the leadership of the Rt.
Rev. Martyn Minns, Missionary Bishop of CANA. Joining Truro were other individuals from eleven other parishes in the Diocese of Virginia who voted to leave the Episcopal Church and join CANA. CANA is a member of the Common Cause Partnership, which includes the American Anglican Council, the Anglican Coalition in Canada, the Anglican Communion Network, the Anglican Essentials C
Alexandria is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 139,966, in 2016, the population was estimated to be 155,810. Located along the western bank of the Potomac River, Alexandria is 7 miles south of downtown Washington, D. C. Like the rest of Northern Virginia, as well as Central Maryland, modern Alexandria has been influenced by its proximity to the U. S. capital. It is populated by professionals working in the federal civil service, in the U. S. military, or for one of the many private companies which contract to provide services to the federal government. One of Alexandria's largest employers is the U. S. Department of Defense. Another is the Institute for Defense Analyses. In 2005, the United States Patent and Trademark Office moved to Alexandria, in 2017, so did the headquarters of the National Science Foundation; the historic center of Alexandria is known as Old Town. With its concentration of boutiques, antique shops and theaters, it is a major draw for all who live in Alexandria as well for visitors.
Like Old Town, many Alexandria neighborhoods are walkable. It is the 7th largest and highest-income independent city in Virginia. A large portion of adjacent Fairfax County south but west of the city, is named "Alexandria," but it is under the jurisdiction of Fairfax County and separate from the city. In 1920, Virginia's General Assembly voted to incorporate what had been Alexandria County as Arlington County to minimize confusion. On October 21, 1669 a patent granted 6,000 acres to Robert Howsing for transporting 120 people to the Colony of Virginia; that tract would become the City of Alexandria. Virginia's comprehensive Tobacco Inspection Law of 1730 mandated that all tobacco grown in the colony must be brought to locally designated public warehouses for inspection before sale. One of the sites designated for a warehouse on the upper Potomac River was at the mouth of Hunting Creek. However, the ground proved to be unsuitable, the warehouse was built half a mile up-river, where the water was deep near the shore.
Following the 1745 settlement of the Virginia's 10 year dispute with Lord Fairfax over the western boundary of the Northern Neck Proprietary, when the Privy Council in London found in favor of Lord Fairfax's expanded claim, some of the Fairfax County gentry formed the Ohio Company of Virginia. They intended to conduct trade into the interior of America, they required a trading center near the head of navigation on the Potomac; the best location was Hunting Creek tobacco warehouse, since the deep water could accommodate sailing ships. Many local tobacco planters, wanted a new town further up Hunting Creek, away from nonproductive fields along the river. Around 1746, Captain Philip Alexander II moved to what is south of present Duke Street in Alexandria, his estate, which consisted of 500 acres, was bounded by Hunting Creek, Hooff's Run, the Potomac River, the line which would become Cameron Street. At the opening of Virginia's 1748–49 legislative session, there was a petition submitted in the House of Burgesses on November 1, 1748, that the "inhabitants of Fairfax praying that a town may be established at Hunting Creek Warehouse on Potowmack River," as Hugh West was the owner of the warehouse.
The petition was introduced by Lawrence Washington, the representative for Fairfax County and, more the son-in-law of William Fairfax and a founding member of the Ohio Company. To support the company's push for a town on the river, Lawrence's younger brother George Washington, an aspiring surveyor, made a sketch of the shoreline touting the advantages of the tobacco warehouse site. Since the river site was amidst his estate, Philip opposed the idea and favored a site at the head of Hunting Creek, it has been said that in order to avoid a predicament the petitioners offered to name the new town Alexandria, in honor of Philip's family. As a result and his cousin Captain John Alexander gave land to assist in the development of Alexandria, are thus listed as the founders; this John was the son of Robert Alexander II. On May 2, 1749, the House of Burgesses approved the river location and ordered "Mr. Washington do go up with a Message to the Council and acquaint them that this House have agreed to the Amendments titled An Act for erecting a Town at Hunting Creek Warehouse, in the County of Fairfax."
A "Public Vendue" was advertised for July, the county surveyor laid out street lanes and town lots. The auction was conducted on July 13–14, 1749. Upon establishment, the town founders called the new town "Belhaven", believed to be in honor of a Scottish patriot, John Hamilton, 2nd Lord Belhaven and Stenton, the Northern Neck tobacco trade being dominated by Scots; the name Belhaven was used in official lotteries to raise money for a Church and Market House, but it was never approved by the legislature and fell out of favor in the mid-1750s. The town of Alexandria did not become incorporated until 1779. In 1755, General Edward Braddock organized his fatal expedition against Fort Duquesne at Carlyle House in Alexandria. In April 1755, the governors of Virginia, the provinces of Maryland, Pennsylvania and New York met to determine upon concerted action against the French in America. In March 1785, commissioners from Virginia and Maryland met in Alexandria to discuss the commercial relations of the two states, finishing their business at Mount Vernon.
The Mount Vernon Conference concluded o
George Mason IV was an American planter and delegate to the U. S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, one of three delegates who refused to sign the Constitution, his writings, including substantial portions of the Fairfax Resolves of 1774, the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776, his Objections to this Constitution of Government in opposition to ratification, have exercised a significant influence on American political thought and events. The Virginia Declaration of Rights, which Mason principally authored, served as a basis for the United States Bill of Rights, of which he has been deemed the father. Mason was born in 1725, most in what is now Fairfax County, Virginia, his father died when he was young, his mother managed the family estates until he came of age. He married in 1750, built Gunston Hall, lived the life of a country squire, supervising his lands and slaves, he served in the House of Burgesses and involved himself in community affairs, sometimes serving with his neighbor George Washington.
As tensions grew between Britain and the American colonies, Mason came to support the colonial side, used his knowledge and experience to help the revolutionary cause, finding ways to work around the Stamp Act of 1765 and serving in the pro-independence Fourth Virginia Convention in 1775 and the Fifth Virginia Convention in 1776. Mason prepared the first draft of the Virginia Declaration of Rights in 1776, his words formed much of the text adopted by the final Revolutionary Virginia Convention, he wrote a constitution for the state. During the American Revolutionary War, Mason was a member of the powerful House of Delegates of the Virginia General Assembly but, to the irritation of Washington and others, he refused to serve in the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, citing health and family commitments. Mason was in 1787 named one of his state's delegates to the Constitutional Convention and traveled to Philadelphia, his only lengthy trip outside Virginia. Many clauses in the Constitution bear his stamp, as he was active in the convention for months before deciding that he could not sign it.
He cited the lack of a bill of rights most prominently in his Objections, but wanted an immediate end to the slave trade and a supermajority for navigation acts, which might force exporters of tobacco to use more expensive American ships. He failed to attain these objectives there, again at the Virginia Ratifying Convention of 1788, but his prominent fight for a bill of rights led fellow Virginian James Madison to introduce one during the First Congress in 1789. Obscure after his death, Mason has come to be recognized in the 20th and 21st centuries for his contributions both to the early United States and to Virginia. George Mason's great-grandfather, George Mason I, had been a Cavalier: militarily defeated in the English Civil War, some of them came to America in the 1640s and 1650s, he had been born in 1629 in the English county of Worcestershire. The immigrant George Mason settled in what is now Stafford County, having obtained land as a reward for bringing his party to the colony as 50 acres were awarded for each person transported into the Colony of Virginia.
His son, George Mason II, was the first to move to what in 1742 became Fairfax County at the frontier between English and Native American areas. George Mason III served in the House of Burgesses and, like his father, was county lieutenant. George Mason IV's mother, Ann Thomson Mason, was the daughter of a former Attorney General of Virginia who had immigrated from London and was of a Yorkshire family; the Masons lived in a colonial Virginia that had few roads, as most commerce was carried on Chesapeake Bay or along the waters of its tributaries, such as the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers. Most settlement took place near the rivers. Thus, colonial Virginia developed few towns, since estates were self-sufficient, could get what they needed without the need to purchase locally; the capital, saw little activity when the legislature was not in session. Local politics was dominated by large landowners like the Masons; the Virginia economy rose and fell with tobacco, the main crop, raised for export to Britain.
Into this world was born George Mason, fourth of that name, on December 11, 1725. He may have been born at his father's plantation on Dogue's Neck, but this is uncertain as his parents lived on their lands across the Potomac in Maryland. On March 5, 1735, George Mason III died, his widow Ann raised their son George and two younger siblings as co-guardian with lawyer John Mercer, their uncle by marriage, having wed George Mason III's sister Catherine. Ann Mason selected property at Chopawamsic Creek as her dower house and there lived with her children and administered the lands that her elder son would control upon reaching his 21st birthday. In 1736, George began his education with a Mr. Williams, hired to teach him for the price of 1,000 pounds of tobacco per annum. George's studies began at his mother's house, but the following year, he was boarded out to a Mrs. Simpson in Maryland, with Williams continuing as teacher through 1739. By 1740, George Mason was again under the tutelage of a Dr. Bridges.
Mason's biographers have speculated that this was Charles Bridges, who helped develop the sc
Difficult Run is a 15.9-mile-long tributary stream of the Potomac River in Northern Virginia in the United States. The area has had many historical uses dating back to the early 1800s. Today, the area is used recreationally by visitors interested in the watershed's variety of options including hiking, fishing, boating and bird watching; the wildlife at Difficult Run is vast. There are 41 different soil types found alongside the stream; the stream is part of the greater 57.7- square-mile Drainage basin, or watershed, located in the north-central portion of Fairfax County and drains directly to the Potomac River. Difficult Run flows through Fairfax County to Great Falls Park, on the Virginia side of the Potomac River; the portion of the run through the park has been characterized as "a miniature Mather Gorge and Great Falls." The stream picks up speed as it narrows into a steep gorge with waterfalls and reaches the same level as the Potomac. At the mouth of Difficult Run, one can see a panoramic view of the Potomac River.
The Difficult Run is a tributary stream of the Potomac River. The tributary stream is about 15.9 miles long. The stream drains right into the Potomac River, it is named not for the nature of the stream's rapids themselves. One of the Mills, along the trail is Tolston's Mill; this mill was located on the east side of the trail. The Madeira School owns this specific mill now. Leigh Mill was once located on the west side of the trail and was once used to grind and produce corn in flour during the late 1800s. Colvin's Mill, a part of Colvin Run Mill Park used to be managed by Fairfax County Park Authority. Brown's Mill was located on a tributary of the trail. Brown's Mill was right across from Beulah Road. Old Georgetown Pike developed into a state highway in June 1974; the pike was a route followed by colonists and Indians where commerce was brought from Loudoun County and the Shenandoah Valley to Georgetown. Another road that went along the trail is the Old Leesburg Pike; this pike went through the Difficult Run on the northern side of the current bridge.
General Braddock utilized the old highway during the French and Indian Wars where he marched his troops throughout the road on their way to Fort Duquesne. The old access to the bridge is still visible, but not in use; the Thomas Peacock house is still located on the eastern part of the Difficult Run. This land was once owned by George Washington. After Washington owned it the Sheppards bought it from him and built the house on this land in the early 19th century; the 18th Century Miller's house stands on the Difficult Run and was built by the miller of the mill on Hunter Mill Road. Wiley's Tavern is located on the south side of current Leesburg Pike. There are various other sites along the trail, which include Drover's Rest, Old Quarry, Old Dominion Drive Bridge, Colvin Run Village, Day Family Cemetery. Today the trail is used for hiking, sightseeing, etc; the stream is known for its various rapids that flow down it. The different rapids are all classified differently; the seven rapids that occur in the stream all have classifications that range from Class III to V.
The Difficult Run is famously known for its views of the Potomac and Mather Gorge cliffs. Recreational activities at Difficult Run include hiking, climbing, boating and sightseeing; the watershed itself encompasses a few parks and trails originating in Reston and reaching all the way to the Potomac River, at the end of the Difficult Run trail in Great Falls. Additionally, Difficult Run offers access to Great Falls National Park from certain areas of the trail, adding to the options for recreational activity. Using community planning, a secluded 12-mile hiking and biking trail was built along Difficult Run from Reston to Great Falls Park; the trail is well known among area mountain biking enthusiasts for its rolling terrain which makes for fast, smooth rides although there are portions requiring technical skills. The portion of the trail that sees the most mountain biking activity starts near the end of Michael Faraday Court, behind SkateQuest-Reston ice skating rink and follows the tributary stream valley to Lake Fairfax.
From Lake Fairfax the trail crosses over Hunter Mill Road and follows Difficult Run itself all the way to Great Falls Park. Great Falls Park is a unit of the George Washington Memorial Parkway, is administered by the National Park Service. In addition the entire length of Difficult Run is paralleled by the Cross County Trail, maintained by the Fairfax County Park Authority for continuous coverage along the run; the Difficult Run trail enters Great Falls Park and offers views of the Potomac River and Great Falls. The trail is estimated to take 2.5 hours. The various trails of Great Falls National Park are accessible from this hike; the trail is well marked with signs. Along the trail is the Cow Hoof Rock, a popular spot for many of the parks rock climbers. While fishing is allowed at Great Falls National Park and Difficult Run, a license is required for fishermen 16 years or older; this section of the Potomac River is known for hosting Smallmouth Bass and Catfish. It is encouraged that all mess is cleaned, as the park has a no trash policy and has no trash cans available on-site.
This is the most
Ashby Gap, more known as Ashby's Gap is a wind gap in the Blue Ridge Mountains on the border of Clarke County, Loudoun County and Fauquier County in Virginia. The gap is traversed by U. S. Route 50; the Appalachian trail passes across the gap. At 1,027 feet the gap is 500 feet below the adjacent ridge line to the north, 700 feet above the Shenandoah River, which flows to the north, west of the gap. To the west lies Virginia's Shenandoah Valley, part of the Great Appalachian Valley and to the east lies Virginia's Piedmont region. Just south of this gap is Sky Meadows State Park; the gap serves as the western demarcation point for the border between Fauquier and Loudoun counties marked by a "double-bodied poplar tree standing in or near the middle of the thoroughfare of Ashby's Gap on the top of the Blue Ridge." The tree has since died and the thoroughfare, modern day U. S. Route 50, realigned to the south so that Loudoun County is not entered when traveling through the gap; the earliest known use of the gap was as part of a trail of the Native Americans.
Upon European colonization, the gap was first referred to as the "Upper Thoroughfare of the Blue Ridge". It was named "Ashby's Bent" when Thomas Ashby received lands along Goose Creek, settled Paris, Virginia at the eastern entrance to the gap, it came to be called Ashby's Gap. In the early 19th century the Ashby's Gap Turnpike was completed from Aldie to the crest of the gap where it met up with the Millwod Pike; those roads in turn became the modern U. S. Route 50 in 1922. During the American Civil War, Ashby's Gap was used by the Confederate Army and Union Army in the several Shenandoah Valley campaigns; the nearby ridgetop was used by the Confederate Signal Corps. In July 1861 Brigadier General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson lead his 1st Virginia Brigade through Ashby's Gap on his way from Winchester to Piedmont Station where they boarded railcars on the Manassas Gap Railroad and were taken to Manassas Junction where the First Battle of Manassas was underway. This marked the first use of railroads for troop movement in a war.
In June 1863, Confederate Major General J. E. B. Stuart's cavalry held this gap to prevent elements from the Union Army under Major General Joseph Hooker from interfering with General Robert E. Lee's army as it marched north toward Pennsylvania in the Gettysburg Campaign. On July 19, 1864 a small cavalry battle, sometimes referred to as the Battle of Ashby's Gap, was fought at the gap when Union cavalry attempted to force passage across the gap and Shenandoah River in an attempt to attack the rear of Confederate Lieutenant General Jubal Early's army and supply trains as he repositioned himself near Berryville as part of the Valley Campaigns of 1864. U. S. Route 50 in Virginia for additional historical information
United States Bill of Rights
The United States Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed following the bitter 1787–88 debate over ratification of Constitution, written to address the objections raised by Anti-Federalists, the Bill of Rights amendments add to the Constitution specific guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, explicit declarations that all powers not granted to the U. S. Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the people; the concepts codified in these amendments are built upon those found in earlier documents the Virginia Declaration of Rights, as well as the English Bill of Rights and the Magna Carta. Due to the efforts of Representative James Madison, who studied the deficiencies of the constitution pointed out by anti-federalists and crafted a series of corrective proposals, Congress approved twelve articles of amendment on September 25, 1789, submitted them to the states for ratification.
Contrary to Madison's proposal that the proposed amendments be incorporated into the main body of the Constitution, they were proposed as supplemental additions to it. Articles Three through Twelve were ratified as additions to the Constitution on December 15, 1791, became Amendments One through Ten of the Constitution. Article Two became part of the Constitution on May 1992, as the Twenty-seventh Amendment. Article One is still pending before the states. Although Madison's proposed amendments included a provision to extend the protection of some of the Bill of Rights to the states, the amendments that were submitted for ratification applied only to the federal government; the door for their application upon state governments was opened in the 1860s, following ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment. Since the early 20th century both federal and state courts have used the Fourteenth Amendment to apply portions of the Bill of Rights to state and local governments; the process is known as incorporation.
There are several original engrossed copies of the Bill of Rights still in existence. One of these is on permanent public display at the National Archives in Washington, D. C. Prior to the ratification and implementation of the United States Constitution, the thirteen sovereign states followed the Articles of Confederation, created by the Second Continental Congress and ratified in 1781. However, the national government that operated under the Articles of Confederation was too weak to adequately regulate the various conflicts that arose between the states; the Philadelphia Convention set out to correct weaknesses of the Articles, apparent before the American Revolutionary War had been concluded. The convention took place from May 14 to September 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Although the Convention was purportedly intended only to revise the Articles, the intention of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one.
The convention convened in the Pennsylvania State House, George Washington of Virginia was unanimously elected as president of the convention. The 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution are among the men known as the Founding Fathers of the new nation. Thomas Jefferson, Minister to France during the convention, characterized the delegates as an assembly of "demi-gods." Rhode Island refused to send delegates to the convention. On September 12, George Mason of Virginia suggested the addition of a Bill of Rights to the Constitution modeled on previous state declarations, Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts made it a formal motion. However, after only a brief discussion where Roger Sherman pointed out that State Bills of Rights were not repealed by the new Constitution, the motion was defeated by a unanimous vote of the state delegations. Madison an opponent of a Bill of Rights explained the vote by calling the state bills of rights "parchment barriers" that offered only an illusion of protection against tyranny.
Another delegate, James Wilson of Pennsylvania argued that the act of enumerating the rights of the people would have been dangerous, because it would imply that rights not explicitly mentioned did not exist. 84. Because Mason and Gerry had emerged as opponents of the proposed new Constitution, their motion—introduced five days before the end of the convention—may have been seen by other delegates as a delaying tactic; the quick rejection of this motion, however endangered the entire ratification process. Author David O. Stewart characterizes the omission of a Bill of Rights in the original Constitution as "a political blunder of the first magnitude" while historian Jack N. Rakove calls it "the one serious miscalculation the framers made as they looked ahead to the struggle over ratification". Thirty-nine delegates signed the finalized Constitution. Thirteen delegates left before it was completed, three who remained at the convention until the end refused to sign it: Mason and Edmund Randolph of Virginia.
Afterward, the Constitution was presented to the Articles of Confederation Congress with the request that it afterwards be submitted to a convention of delegates, chosen in each State by the people, for their assent and ratification. Following the Philadelphia Convention, some leading revolutionary figures such as Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, Richard Henry Lee publicly opposed the new frame of government, a position known as "Anti-Federalism". Elbridge Gerry wrote the most popular Anti-Federalist tract, "Hon. Mr. Gerry's Objections"