Trust law

A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers a property upon the second party for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary. A testamentary trust arises after the death of the settlor. An inter vivos trust is created during the settlor's lifetime by a trust instrument. A trust may be irrevocable. An irrevocable trust can be "broken" only by a judicial proceeding; the trustee is the legal owner of the property in trust, as fiduciary for the beneficiary or beneficiaries who is/are the equitable owner of the trust property. Trustees thus have a fiduciary duty to manage the trust to the benefit of the equitable owners, they must provide a regular accounting of trust income and expenditures. Trustees may be reimbursed their expenses. A court of competent jurisdiction can remove a trustee; some breaches of fiduciary duty can be tried as criminal offences in a court of law. A trustee can be a business entity or a public body. A trust in the United States may be subject to federal and state taxation.

A trust is created by a settlor, who transfers title to some or all of his or her property to a trustee, who holds title to that property in trust for the benefit of the beneficiaries. The trust is governed by the terms. In most jurisdictions, this deed, it is possible for a single individual to assume the role of more than one of these parties, for multiple individuals to share a single role. For example, in a living trust it is common for the grantor to be both a trustee and a lifetime beneficiary while naming other contingent beneficiaries. Trusts have existed since Roman times and have become one of the most important innovations in property law. Trust law has evolved through court rulings differently in different states, so statements in this article are generalizations; some U. S. states are adapting the Uniform Trust Code to codify and harmonize their trust laws, but state-specific variations still remain. An owner placing property into trust turns over part of his or her bundle of rights to the trustee, separating the property's legal ownership and control from its equitable ownership and benefits.

This may be done for tax reasons or to control the property and its benefits if the settlor is absent, incapacitated, or deceased. Testamentary trusts may be created in wills, defining how money and property will be handled for children or other beneficiaries. While the trustee is given legal title to the trust property, in accepting title the trustee owes a number of fiduciary duties to the beneficiaries; the primary duties owed include the duty of loyalty, the duty of prudence, the duty of impartiality. Trustees may be held to a high standard of care in their dealings in order to enforce their behavior. To ensure beneficiaries receive their due, trustees are subject to a number of ancillary duties in support of the primary duties, including duties of openness and transparency, duties of recordkeeping and disclosure. In addition, a trustee has a duty to know and abide by the terms of the trust and relevant law; the trustee may be compensated and have expenses reimbursed, but otherwise must turn over all profits from the trust properties.

There are strong restrictions regarding a trustee with a conflict of interest. Courts can reverse a trustee's actions, order profits returned, impose other sanctions if they find a trustee has failed in any of its duties; such a failure is termed a breach of trust and can leave a neglectful or dishonest trustee with severe liabilities for its failures. It is advisable for both settlors and trustees to seek qualified legal counsel prior to entering into a trust agreement. A possible early concept which developed into what today is understood as a trust related to land. An ancient king grants property back to its previous owner during his absence, supported by witness testimony. In essence and in this case, the king, in place of the state issues ownership along with past proceeds to the original beneficiary: On the testimony of Gehazi the servant of Elisha that the woman was the owner of these lands, the king returns all her property to her. From the fact that the king orders his eunuch to return to the woman all her property and the produce of her land from the time that she left... Roman law had a well-developed concept of the trust in terms of "testamentary trusts" created by wills but never developed the concept of the inter vivos trusts which apply while the creator lives.

This was created by common law jurisdictions. Personal trust law developed in England at the time of the Crusades, during the 12th and 13th centuries. In medieval English trust law, the settlor was known as the feoffor to uses while the trustee was known as the feoffee to uses and the beneficiary was known as the cestui que use, or cestui que trust. At the time, land ownership in England was based on the feudal system; when a landowner left England to fight in the Crusades, he conveyed ownership of his lands in his absence to manage the estate and pay and receive feudal dues, on the understanding that the ownership w

Dahiru Musdapher

Dahiru Musdapher was a Nigerian jurist. In 2011, he was appointed the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Nigeria, he served as Chief Judge of the Kano State Judiciary from 1979 to 1985, as a member of the Court of Appeal from 1985 until 2003.. He was born a member of the Bani Ya'muusa clan in Babura Town in Babura, a local government area in the north of Jigawa State. Babura Elementary School, 1950–1953 Birnin Kudu Middle School, 1954–1956 Rumfa College, Kano, 1957–1962 Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, 1963–1964 University of London's School of Oriental and African Studies, 1964–1967 Inns of Court School of Law, 1964–1967 Nigerian Law School, 1967–1968 Private legal practice, 1968–1976 Attorney-General and Commissioner for Justice, Kaduna State, 1976–1978 Judge High Court of Kano State, 1979 Chief Judge, Kano State Judiciary, 1979–1985 Justice, Court of Appeal, 1985–2003 Justice, Supreme Court of Nigeria, since 2003 Regular Contributor/Discussant, BBC West Africa Service, 1964–1967 Member, Kano Emirate Council, 1968–1975 Member, Kano Metropolitan Council, 1969–1976 Non-Executive Director, National Electric Power Authority Board, 1974–1976 Director, Kano Co-operative Bank, 1972–1976 Commander of the Order of the Niger, CON 2003 Commander of the Federal Republic, CFR 2008 Grand Commander of the Order of the Niger, GCON 2011 He was married to Hajiya Amina Maikano in 1967, but the marriage ended in 1981.

He married Hajiya Fatima Suleiman, more referred to as Sabuwa, with three children, Khadijah and Suleiman. He has nine grandchildren, with Nabil being Dahiru Jr the youngest. List of jurists List of Nigerians "Hon. Justice Dahiru Musdapher". Supreme Court of Nigeria. Retrieved 17 October 2007

Plainsong (band)

Plainsong was a British country rock/folk rock band, formed in early 1972 by Ian Matthews of Fairport Convention and Matthews Southern Comfort, Andy Roberts of The Liverpool Scene. The band's line-up consisted of Matthews, guitarist Dave Richards and American bassist Bob Ronga; the original group split up before the end of 1972 but, since the early 1990s, Matthews and Roberts have intermittently performed and recorded together as Plainsong, either as a duo or with other musicians. Their most recent performance was as a trio with Mark Griffiths in August 2017 at the Cropredy Festival. Matthews had been a member of Fairport Convention between 1967 and 1969, singing vocals on the band's first two albums, the self-titled Fairport Convention and What We Did On Our Holidays singing alongside Judy Dyble and later Sandy Denny. By the time of the recording of band's third album Unhalfbricking, under Denny's influence, had abandoned their original American singer-songwriter material and were moving towards what would become known as English folk rock.

The genre was somewhat alien to Matthews' tastes leading to a discontent within Fairport that saw him fired from the band after a meeting with producer Joe Boyd in February 1969. He left to work solo, soon afterwards forming his own band, Matthews Southern Comfort whose greatest success was topping the UK Singles Chart with their version of Joni Mitchell's "Woodstock" in late October 1970. After that band split up, he recorded two solo albums, If You Saw Thro' My Eyes and Tigers Will Survive in 1971, on both of which Andy Roberts had played guitar. Matthews and Roberts formed Plainsong with Richards and Ronga in early 1972, after a meeting at Matthews' Highgate flat in December 1971 where they tried out the song "Along Comes Mary" and agreed that if it worked they would go ahead and form a band; the band's name was picked on a whim when they randomly opened a copy of The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music to find Plainsong at pages 450-451. After a month of rehearsals, Plainsong hit the road at the beginning of February, touring both the UK and Holland in their early months.

The band signed to Elektra Records and recorded their debut album, In Search of Amelia Earhart, released on 6 October 1972. The album mixed songs by both Matthews and Roberts with several covers, including versions of'Red River Dave' McEnery's song "Amelia Earhart's Last Flight", Paul Siebel's "Louise" and Jerry Yester and Judy Henske's "Raider"; the album included "True Story Of Amelia Earhart's Last Flight", a Matthews song based on research that suggests that Amelia Earhart on her round-the-world flight in 1937 may have been spying on Japanese bases in the Pacific islands. Now viewed as somewhat of a classic album, In Search Of Amelia Earhart was critically well-received on its release but was not a commercial success; the group toured extensively throughout 1972 and began recording a second album titled'Plainsong III' to reflect the fact that they were by now a trio, Ronga having left the band due to a drinking problem. However and Richards disagreed on the direction the album should take, the band broke up in December 1972.

With no band to promote the album, ‘Plainsong III’ remained unreleased and Matthews and Roberts moved on to begin recording again as solo artists. Several tracks from that intended album subsequently appeared on their solo albums. In Search of Amelia Earhart in its original form was unavailable on CD for many years, being issued as a Japanese-only CD by Warner-Elektra in 1991 and reissued by Matthews' own label Perfect Pitch in 2001, more by Man In The Moon Records in 2016; the unissued'Plainsong III', now entitled'Now We Are 3' saw the light of day as the second disc of a 2CD re-issue in 2005 by Water Records just entitled Plainsong, where both Plainsong albums featured along with radio recordings and singles, including'Along Comes Mary'. Three albums of archive recordings by Plainsong have been released on CD since the 1990s, including And That's That - The Demos, comprising recordings made for the band's unreleased second album, two versions of On Air containing tracks recorded at the BBC studios in several sessions throughout 1972.

Plainsong recorded two television sessions for the BBC2 music programme The Old Grey Whistle Test, appearing on 7 March and 17 October respectively. Introduced by presenter Bob Harris, Plainsong's performance of "Even The Guiding Light" from the October OGWT show can be viewed on YouTube. In 1991, some eighteen years after the original band broke up, Roberts encountered Matthews again when he was performing in a pub in Brighton, the two decided to revive Plainsong. Adding Mark Griffiths and Julian Dawson, they reformed the band in 1992 and recorded three albums - Dark Side of the Room, Voices Electric, Sister Flute - before Dawson left to pursue a solo career, his replacement was Clive Gregson, once of Any Trouble and Gregson & Collister. The new line-up recorded New Place Now in 1999, before Matthews and Roberts recorded a 6-track mini-album in 2001, A To B, as a duo under the Plainsong name. For the next Plainsong album, Pangolins in 2003, Dawson rejoined the band replacing Gregson. In its various line-ups, Plainsong toured throughout the 1990s and 2000s.

What was planned to be their final album, Fat Lady Singing was released in 2012, that year marking the 40th anniversary of the formation of the band. Plainsong promoted the album by un