DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per
Trust (social science)
In a social context, trust has several connotations. Definitions of trust refer to a situation characterized by the following aspects: One party is willing to rely on the actions of another party. In addition, the trustor abandons control over the actions performed by the trustee; as a consequence, the trustor is uncertain about the outcome of the other's actions. The uncertainty involves the risk of failure or harm to the trustor if the trustee will not behave as desired. Trust can be attributed to relationships between people, it can be demonstrated that humans have a natural disposition to trust and to judge trustworthiness that can be traced to the neurobiological structure and activity of a human brain. Some studies indicate; when it comes to the relationship between people and technology, the attribution of trust is a matter of dispute. The intentional stance demonstrates that trust can be validly attributed to human relationships with complex technologies. However, rational reflection leads to the rejection of an ability to trust technological artefacts.
One of the key current challenges in the social sciences is to re-think how the rapid progress of technology has impacted constructs such as trust. This is true for information technology that alters causation in social systems. In the social sciences, the subtleties of trust are a subject of ongoing research. In sociology and psychology the degree to which one party trusts another is a measure of belief in the honesty, fairness, or benevolence of another party; the term "confidence" is more appropriate for a belief in the competence of the other party. A failure in trust may be forgiven more if it is interpreted as a failure of competence rather than a lack of benevolence or honesty. In economics, trust is conceptualized as reliability in transactions. In all cases trust is a heuristic decision rule, allowing the human to deal with complexities that would require unrealistic effort in rational reasoning; when it comes to trust, sociology is concerned with the position and role of trust in social systems.
Interest in trust has grown since the early eighties, from the early works of Luhmann and Giddens. This growth of interest in trust has been stimulated by on-going changes in society, characterised as late modernity and post-modernity. Trust is one of an element of the social reality, it does not exist outside of our vision of the other. This image can be real or imaginary. Other constructs discussed together with trust, are: control, risk and power. Trust is attributable to relationships between social actors, both individuals and groups; because trust is a social construct, it is valid to discuss whether trust can be trusted, i.e. whether social trust operates as expected. Sviatoslav contends that society needs trust because it finds itself operating at the edge between confidence in what is known from everyday experience, contingency of new possibilities. Without trust, all contingent possibilities should be always considered, leading to a paralysis of inaction. Trust can be seen as a bet on one of the one that may deliver benefits.
Once the bet is decided, the trustor suspends his or her disbelief, the possibility of a negative course of action is not considered at all. Because of it, trust acts as a reductor of social complexity, allowing for actions that are otherwise too complex to be considered. Sociology tends to focus on two distinct views: the macro view of social systems, a micro view of individual social actors. Views on trust follow this dichotomy. Therefore, on one side the systemic role of trust can be discussed, with a certain disregard to the psychological complexity underpinning individual trust; the behavioural approach to trust is assumed while actions of social actors are measurable, leading to statistical modelling of trust. This systemic approach can be contrasted with studies on social actors and their decision-making process, in anticipation that understanding of such a process will explain the emergence of trust. Sociology acknowledges that the contingency of the future creates dependency between social actors, that the trustor becomes dependent on the trustee.
Trust is seen as one of the possible methods to resolve such a dependency, being an attractive alternative to control. Trust is valuable if the trustee is much more powerful than the trustor, yet the trustor is under social obligation to support the trustee. Modern information technologies not only facilitated the transition towards post-modern society, but they challenged traditional views on trust. Empirical studies confirms the new approach to the traditional question regarding whether technology artefacts can be attributed with trust. Trust is not attributable to artefacts, but it is a representation of trust in social actors such as designers and operators of technology. Properties of technological artefacts form a message to determine trustworthiness of those agents; the discussion about the impact of information technologies is still in progress. However, a conceptual re-thinking of technology-mediated social groups, or the proposition of a unifying socio-technical view on trust, from the perspective of social actors.
Computing is any activity that uses computers. It includes developing hardware and software, using computers to manage and process information and entertain. Computing is a critically important, integral component of modern industrial technology. Major computing disciplines include computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems, information technology; the ACM Computing Curricula 2005 defined "computing" as follows: "In a general way, we can define computing to mean any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. Thus, computing includes designing and building hardware and software systems for a wide range of purposes; the list is endless, the possibilities are vast." and it defines five sub-disciplines of the computing field: computer science, computer engineering, information systems, information technology, software engineering. However, Computing Curricula 2005 recognizes that the meaning of "computing" depends on the context: Computing has other meanings that are more specific, based on the context in which the term is used.
For example, an information systems specialist will view computing somewhat differently from a software engineer. Regardless of the context, doing computing well can be complicated and difficult; because society needs people to do computing well, we must think of computing not only as a profession but as a discipline. The term "computing" has sometimes been narrowly defined, as in a 1989 ACM report on Computing as a Discipline: The discipline of computing is the systematic study of algorithmic processes that describe and transform information: their theory, design, efficiency and application; the fundamental question underlying all computing is "What can be automated?" The term "computing" is synonymous with counting and calculating. In earlier times, it was used in reference to the action performed by mechanical computing machines, before that, to human computers; the history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without the aid of tables.
Computing is intimately tied to the representation of numbers. But long before abstractions like the number arose, there were mathematical concepts to serve the purposes of civilization; these concepts include one-to-one correspondence, comparison to a standard, the 3-4-5 right triangle. The earliest known tool for use in computation was the abacus, it was thought to have been invented in Babylon circa 2400 BC, its original style of usage was by lines drawn in sand with pebbles. Abaci, of a more modern design, are still used as calculation tools today; this was the first known calculation aid - preceding Greek methods by 2,000 years. The first recorded idea of using digital electronics for computing was the 1931 paper "The Use of Thyratrons for High Speed Automatic Counting of Physical Phenomena" by C. E. Wynn-Williams. Claude Shannon's 1938 paper "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits" introduced the idea of using electronics for Boolean algebraic operations. A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions called a computer program.
The program has an executable form. The same program in its human-readable source code form, enables a programmer to study and develop a sequence of steps known as an algorithm; because the instructions can be carried out in different types of computers, a single set of source instructions converts to machine instructions according to the central processing unit type. The execution process carries out the instructions in a computer program. Instructions express, they trigger sequences of simple actions on the executing machine. Those actions produce effects according to the semantics of the instructions. Computer software or just "software", is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system.
Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast with the old term hardware. In contrast to hardware, software is intangible. Software is sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Application software known as an "application" or an "app", is a computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks. Examples include enterprise software, accounting software, office suites, graphics software and media players. Many application programs deal principally with documents. Apps may be published separately; some users need never install one. Application software is contrasted with system software and middleware, which manage and integrate a computer's capabilities, but
Digital rights management
Digital rights management tools or technological protection measures are a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works. DRM technologies try to control the use and distribution of copyrighted works, as well as systems within devices that enforce these policies; the use of digital rights management is not universally accepted. Proponents of DRM argue that it is necessary to prevent intellectual property from being copied just as physical locks are needed to prevent personal property from being stolen, that it can help the copyright holder maintain artistic control, that it can ensure continued revenue streams; those opposed to DRM contend there is no evidence that DRM helps prevent copyright infringement, arguing instead that it serves only to inconvenience legitimate customers, that DRM helps big business stifle innovation and competition. Furthermore, works can become permanently inaccessible if the DRM scheme changes or if the service is discontinued.
DRM can restrict users from exercising their legal rights under the copyright law, such as backing up copies of CDs or DVDs, lending materials out through a library, accessing works in the public domain, or using copyrighted materials for research and education under the fair use doctrine. The Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Free Software Foundation consider the use of DRM systems to be an anti-competitive practice. Worldwide, many laws have been created which criminalize the circumvention of DRM, communication about such circumvention, the creation and distribution of tools used for such circumvention; such laws are part of the United States' Digital Millennium Copyright Act, the European Union's Copyright Directive. The rise of digital media and analog-to-digital conversion technologies has vastly increased the concerns of copyright-owning individuals and organizations within the music and movie industries. While analog media lost quality with each copy generation, in some cases during normal use, digital media files may be duplicated an unlimited number of times with no degradation in the quality.
The rise of personal computers as household appliances has made it convenient for consumers to convert media in a physical, analog or broadcast form into a universal, digital form for portability or viewing later. This, combined with the Internet and popular file-sharing tools, has made unauthorized distribution of copies of copyrighted digital media much easier. In 1983, a early implementation of Digital Rights Management was the Software Service System devised by the Japanese engineer Ryuichi Moriya. and subsequently refined under the name superdistribution. The SSS was based on encryption, with specialized hardware that controlled decryption and enabled payments to be sent to the copyright holder; the underlying principle of the SSS and subsequently of superdistribution was that the distribution of encrypted digital products should be unrestricted and that users of those products would not just be permitted to redistribute them but would be encouraged to do so. Common DRM techniques include restrictive licensing agreements: The access to digital materials and public domain is restricted to consumers as a condition of entering a website or when downloading software.
Encryption, scrambling of expressive material and embedding of a tag, designed to control access and reproduction of information, including backup copies for personal use. DRM technologies enable content publishers to enforce their own access policies on content, such as restrictions on copying or viewing; these technologies have been criticized for restricting individuals from copying or using the content such as by fair use. DRM is in common use by the entertainment industry. Many online music stores, such as Apple's iTunes Store, e-book publishers and vendors, such as OverDrive use DRM, as do cable and satellite service operators, to prevent unauthorized use of content or services. However, Apple dropped DRM from all iTunes music files around 2009. Industry has expanded the usage of DRM to more traditional hardware products, such as Keurig's coffeemakers, Philips' light bulbs, mobile device power chargers, John Deere's tractors. For instance, tractor companies try to prevent farmers from making DIY repairs under usage of DRM-laws as DMCA.
Computer games sometimes use DRM technologies to limit the number of systems the game can be installed on by requiring authentication with an online server. Most games with this restriction allow three or five installs, although some allow an installation to be'recovered' when the game is uninstalled; this not only limits users who have more than three or five computers in their homes, but can prove to be a problem if the user has to unexpectedly perform certain tasks like upgrading operating systems or reformatting the computer's hard drive, tasks which, depending on how the DRM is implemented, count a game's subsequent reinstall as a new installation, making the game unusable after a certain period if it is only used on a single computer. In mid-2008, the Windows version of Mass Effect marked the start of a wave of titles making use of SecuROM for DRM and requiring authentication with a server; the use of t
A secure cryptoprocessor is a dedicated computer on a chip or microprocessor for carrying out cryptographic operations, embedded in a packaging with multiple physical security measures, which give it a degree of tamper resistance. Unlike cryptographic processors that output decrypted data onto a bus in a secure environment, a secure cryptoprocessor does not output decrypted data or decrypted program instructions in an environment where security cannot always be maintained; the purpose of a secure cryptoprocessor is to act as the keystone of a security subsystem, eliminating the need to protect the rest of the subsystem with physical security measures. Smartcards are the most deployed form of secure cryptoprocessor, although more complex and versatile secure cryptoprocessors are deployed in systems such as Automated teller machines, TV set-top boxes, military applications, high-security portable communication equipment; some secure cryptoprocessors can run general-purpose operating systems such as Linux inside their security boundary.
Cryptoprocessors input program instructions in encrypted form, decrypt the instructions to plain instructions which are executed within the same cryptoprocessor chip where the decrypted instructions are inaccessibly stored. By never revealing the decrypted program instructions, the cryptoprocessor prevents tampering of programs by technicians who may have legitimate access to the sub-system data bus; this is known as bus encryption. Data processed by a cryptoprocessor is frequently encrypted; the Trusted Platform Module is an implementation of a secure cryptoprocessor that brings the notion of trusted computing to ordinary PCs by enabling a secure environment. Present TPM implementations focus on providing a tamper-proof boot environment, persistent and volatile storage encryption. Security chips for embedded systems are available that provide the same level of physical protection for keys and other secret material as a smartcard processor or TPM but in a smaller, less complex and less expensive package.
They are referred to as cryptographic authentication devices and are used to authenticate peripherals, accessories and/or consumables. Like TPMs, they are turnkey integrated circuits intended to be embedded in a system soldered to a PC board. Hardware security modules contain one or more cryptoprocessors; these devices are high grade secure cryptoprocessors used with enterprise servers. A hardware security module can have multiple levels of physical security with a single-chip cryptoprocessor as its most secure component; the cryptoprocessor does not reveal keys or executable instructions on a bus, except in encrypted form, zeros keys by attempts at probing or scanning. The crypto chip may be potted in the hardware security module with other processors and memory chips that store and process encrypted data. Any attempt to remove the potting will cause the keys in the crypto chip to be zeroed. A hardware security module may be part of a computer that operates inside a locked safe to deter theft and tampering.
Security measures used in secure cryptoprocessors: Tamper-detecting and tamper-evident containment. Conductive shield layers in the chip that prevent reading of internal signals. Controlled execution to prevent timing delays from revealing any secret information. Automatic zeroization of secrets in the event of tampering. Chain of trust boot-loader which authenticates the operating system before loading it. Chain of trust operating system which authenticates application software before loading it. Hardware-based capability registers. Secure cryptoprocessors, while useful, are not invulnerable to attack for well-equipped and determined opponents who are willing to expend massive resources on the project. One attack on a secure cryptoprocessor targeted the IBM 4758. A team at the University of Cambridge reported the successful extraction of secret information from an IBM 4758, using a combination of mathematics, special-purpose codebreaking hardware. However, this attack was not practical in real-world systems because it required the attacker to have full access to all API functions of the device.
Normal and recommended practices use the integral access control system to split authority so that no one person could mount the attack. While the vulnerability they exploited was a flaw in the software loaded on the 4758, not the architecture of the 4758 itself, their attack serves as a reminder that a security system is only as secure as its weakest link: the strong link of the 4758 hardware was rendered useless by flaws in the design and specification of the software loaded on it. Smartcards are more vulnerable, as they are more open to physical attack. Additionally, hardware backdoors can undermine security in smartcards and other cryptoprocessors unless investment is made in anti-backdoor design methods. In the case of full disk encryption applications when implemented without a boot PIN, a cryptoprocessor would not be secure against a cold boot attack if data remanence could be exploited to dump memory contents after the operating system has retrieved the cryptographic keys from its TPM.
However, if all of the sensitive data is stored only in cryptoprocessor memory and not in external storage, the cryptoprocessor is designed to be unable to reveal keys or decrypted or unencrypted data on chip bonding pads or solder bumps such protected data would be accessible only by probing the cryptoprocessor chip after removing any packaging and metal shielding layers from the cryptoprocessor chip. This would require both physical possession of the device as well as skills and equipment beyon
A DVD recorder is an optical disc recorder that uses optical disc recording technologies to digitally record analog or digital signals onto blank writable DVD media. Such devices are available as either installable drives for computers or as standalone components for use in television studios or home theater systems; as of March 1, 2007 all new tuner-equipped television devices manufactured or imported in the United States must include an ATSC tuner. The US Federal Communications Commission has interpreted this rule broadly, including apparatus such as computers with TV tuner cards with video capture ability, videocassette recorders and standalone DVD recorders. NTSC DVD recorders are undergoing a transformation, either adding a digital ATSC tuner or removing over-the-air broadcast television tuner capability entirely. However, these DVD recorders can still record analog video. Standalone DVD recorders have been scarce in the United States due to "restrictions on video recording." DVD recorders supported one of three standards: DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, none of which are directly compatible.
Most current DVD drives support both the + and - standards, while few support the DVD-RAM standard, not directly compatible with standard DVD drives. Recording speed is denoted in values of X, where 1X in DVD usage is equal to 1.321 MB/s equivalent to a 9X CD-ROM. In practice, this is confined to computer-based DVD recorders, since standalone units record in real time, that is, 1X speed. Recorders use a laser to write DVDs; the reading laser is not stronger than 5 mW, while the writing laser is more powerful. The faster the writing speed is rated, the stronger the laser. DVD burner lasers peak at about 100-400 mW in continuous wave. DVD recorder drives are standard equipment in many computer systems on the market, after being popularized by the Pioneer/Apple SuperDrive. DVD recorder drives can be used in conjunction with DVD authoring software to create DVDs near or equal to commercial quality, are widely used for data backup and exchange; as a general rule, computer-based DVD recorders can handle CD-R and CD-RW media.
More manufacturers have begun to phase out DVD drives from laptop computers in favor of portability and digital media. Most internal drives are designed with SATA interfaces, with parallel ATA becoming rare. External drives use the USB standard for connectivity. DVD recorder drives manufactured since January 2000 are required by the DVD consortium to respect DVD region codes when reading a disc; the drives are incapable of assigning region codes when writing a disc as this is stored on a part of the disc to which PC based and standalone video recorders do not have write access. DVD duplication systems are built out of stacks of drives, connected through a computer-based backplane; when the standalone DVD recorder first appeared on the Japanese consumer market in 1999, early units were expensive, costing between $2500 and $4000 USD. More DVD recorders from notable brands have dropped in price. Early units supported only DVD-RAM and DVD-R discs, but newer units can record to DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R, DVD+RW, DVD-R DL and DVD+R DL.
Certain models include mechanical hard disk drive-based digital video recorders to improve ease of use. Standalone DVD recorders have basic DVD authoring software built in. In 2009, Panasonic introduced the world's first Blu-ray disc recorder, capable of recording both DVDs and Blu-ray discs and featured built in satellite HDTV tuners. A year Panasonic introduced Blu-ray disc recorders with terrestrial HDTV tuners. DVD recorders have technical advantages over VCRs, including: Superior video and audio quality Easy-to-handle smaller form-factor disc media, higher durability compared to magnetic tape Random access to video chapters without rewinding or fast-forwarding Onscreen multilingual subtitles and labeling not available on VCRs Reduced playback wear and tear High-quality digital copying, with little or no generational quality loss Improved editing on rewritable media Playlisting No risk of accidentally recording over existing content or unexpectedly running out of space during recording Easily accessible recordings as a result of chapter menusNote: Blu-ray disc recorders can record full high definition videos on BD-Rs and BD-REs.
Disadvantages include: Slow initial access/load times due to the optical nature of the disc Limited rewritability on DVD-RW/+RW discs. DVD-RAM is better suited for high frequency re-recording Relatively short life of the laser diodes. In addition, DVDs recorded with DVD recorders in the standard DVD format must be finalized to view in other DVD players; this disadvantage does not apply to discs recorded in the newer and more flexible DVD-VR format or the DVD+VR format - the latter being compatible with DVD players. The implementation of MPEG-2 compression used on most standalone DVD recorders is required to compress the picture data in real time, producing results that may not be up to par with professionally rendered DVD video, which can take days to compress. Standard definition VCR replacement DVD video recorders has a set of standard recording modes for fitting 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 hour modes on single layer 12cm discs; these modes are comparable to those found on VHS VCRs usin
Dongles were created in the 1970s to protect computer software which would function only if the dongle was plugged in – see the "History" section below. The term is now used generically for any sort of small device or adapter plugged into a computer, games console, TV or other system. For example: WiFi adapters, Bluetooth adapters, USB "sticks" or "drives", are referred to as dongles. Other devices include digital media players such as Amazon Fire TV Stick, Roku Streaming Stick and Intel Compute Stick; the first software protection dongle was invented and named in 1978 by Graham Heggie, Pete Dowson and Mike Lake to protect the Wordcraft word processor running on the Commodore PET. It consisted of a 74LS165 shift register connected to the external cassette port on the rear of the PET; the 8 data lines of the shift register were connected at random to ground or 5V and Pete Dowson wrote obfuscated assembler routines to waggle a clock line to the shift register and shift bits in from it on another line.
The 255 random combinations were considered sufficient protection at that time. The same design was used to protect Wordcraft and other software products on 25 pin parallel, 25 pin serial and 9 pin serial ports on a variety of microcomputers including the IBM PC; the name dongle arose because a strip of Veroboard was dangling from wires connected to the cassette port of a Commodore PET on Graham Heggie's kitchen table when the device was first created. "Dangle" became "dongle" after a brief "what shall we call it?" session. The first dongles closed off the use of the port for other purposes so pass-through dongles were developed to attach to the parallel port of the IBM PC to allow normal operation of the printer. Note: IBM used a DB-25 way parallel connector, not the original 36 way Centronics connector – though the word "Centronics" had by become a generic name for parallel ports; the CD-based parts catalog used by Volkswagen Group since 2000 requires a coded dongle be plugged into a host computer's port in order to run.
Some professional digital audio workstation packages on the Atari TOS platform required the presence of the supplied dongle in the computer's cartridge port in order to run. Steinberg's Cubase range and C-Lab's Creator and Notator packages send data to the dongle, which sends a response determined by the electronics inside the cartridge; some unlicensed game cartridges have a "daisy chain" that allows licensed games to pass along their authorization, for instance to circumvent the 10NES chip on the Nintendo Entertainment System. Small devices that plug into other equipment to add functionality are referred to as dongles. MHL. A dongle enables adaptation to legacy standards such as HDMI via conversion circuitry contained in the dongle itself. MHL dongles allow USB connections and/or device charging as well. Short cables that connect large jacks to smaller plugs allowing cables to be installed and removed from equipment with limited space available for connectors; the Chromecast device mentioned above, for example, comes with a short HDMI extension cable to allow its use in cramped quarters.
Some devices come with a permanently attached length of cable that negates the need for a short adapter cable. Cassette adapters enable cassette-radios to allow AUX in, like with iPod/MP3 player/smartphone/portable CD player. Personal FM transmitters allow content from a portable media player, portable CD player, portable cassette player, or other portable audio system to be heard on an FM radio. IDE/PATA connectivity can be re-channeled with some dongles: Floppy disk drives have been emulated on solid-state "dongles" to ensure legacy recognition, allowing SD cards to serve software to old Commodore 64 and Apple II era computers. Allows SD cards to be recognized as "hard drives" on old DOS computers Old school video game consoles: The Everdrive series of game cartridges has enabled classic systems such as the Sega Mega Drive and Nintendo 64 to allow one cartridge to have a number of games that were on multiple cartridges of their own, by use of an SD card with ROMs on them; the Sega 32X was an add-on for the Sega Megadrive which allowed a 32-bit library of games to play on a system, just 16-bit, though it suffered from having its own video output, its own AC adapter in order to work.
The Nintendo DS had a secondary cartridge port to act as a dongle for several games. USB host connectivity grants more flexibility to computer-based devices Bluetooth legacy game controllers have special adapters SD card readers Flash drives Surfstick with SIM card enabling LTE, UMTS, HSUPA and EDGE mobile broadband Older cars that "externalized" their CD players and changers from the head unit can now use "emulators" that allow USB and SD cards with MP3s and other audio files to be recognized as "tracks" to the CD control unit circuitry. Adapter