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Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa)

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission was a court-like restorative justice body assembled in South Africa after the end of apartheid. Witnesses who were identified as victims of gross human rights violations were invited to give statements about their experiences, some were selected for public hearings. Perpetrators of violence could give testimony and request amnesty from both civil and criminal prosecution; the TRC, the first of the 1003 held internationally to stage public hearings, was seen by many as a crucial component of the transition to full and free democracy in South Africa. Despite some flaws, it is thought to have been successful; the Institute for Justice and Reconciliation was established in 2000 as the successor organisation of the TRC. The TRC was set up in terms of the Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act, No. 34 of 1995, was based in Cape Town. The hearings started in 1996; the mandate of the commission was to bear witness to, in some cases grant amnesty to the perpetrators of crimes relating to human rights violations, as well as offering reparation and rehabilitation to the victims.

A register of reconciliation was established so that ordinary South Africans who wished to express regret for past failures could express their remorse. The TRC had a number of high-profile members, including Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Alex Boraine, Sisi Khampepe, Wynand Malan, Emma Mashinini; the work of the TRC was accomplished through three committees: The Human Rights Violations Committee investigated human rights abuses that occurred between 1960 and 1994. The Reparation and Rehabilitation Committee was charged with restoring victims' dignity and formulating proposals to assist with rehabilitation; the Amnesty Committee considered applications from individuals who applied for amnesty in accordance with the provisions of the Act. Public hearings of the Human Rights Violations Committee and the Amnesty Committee were held at many venues around South Africa, including Cape Town and Randburg; the commission was empowered to grant amnesty to those who committed abuses during the apartheid era, as long as the crimes were politically motivated and there was full disclosure by the person seeking amnesty.

To avoid victor's justice, no side was exempt from appearing before the commission. The commission heard reports of human rights violations and considered amnesty applications from all sides, from the apartheid state to the liberation forces, including the African National Congress; the Commission found more. An additional 2,975 victims were identified through the applications for amnesty. In reporting these numbers, the Commission voiced its regret that there was little overlap of victims between those seeking restitution and those seeking amnesty. A total of 5,392 amnesty applications were refused, granting only 849 out of the 7,111; the TRC's emphasis on reconciliation was in sharp contrast to the approach taken by the Nuremberg Trials and other de-Nazification measures. The reconciliatory approach was seen as a successful way of dealing with human-rights violations after political change, either from internal or external factors. Other countries have instituted similar commissions, though not always with the same scope or the allowance for charging those in power.

There are varying opinions as to whether the restorative justice method is more or less effective than the retributive justice method. In one survey study, the effectiveness of the TRC Commission was measured on a variety of levels: Its usefulness in terms of confirming what had happened during the apartheid regime The feelings of reconciliation that could be linked to the Commission The positive effects that the Commission brought about. In the study by Orlando Lentini, the opinions of three ethnic groups were measured in this study: the British Africans, the Afrikaners, the Xhosa. According to the researchers, all of the participants perceived the TRC to be effective in bringing out the truth, but to varying degrees, depending on the group in question; the differences in opinions about the effectiveness can be attributed to how each group viewed the proceedings. Some viewed them as not accurate, as many people would lie in order to keep themselves out of trouble while receiving amnesty for their crimes.

Some said that the proceedings only helped to remind them of the horrors that had taken place in the past when they had been working to forget such things. Thus, the TRC's effectiveness in terms of achieving those things within its title is still debatable; the hearings were set to be heard in camera, but the intervention of 23 non-governmental organisations succeeded in gaining media access to the hearings. On 15 April 1996, the South African National Broadcaster televised the first two hours of the first human rights violation committee hearing live. With funding from the Norwegian government, radio continued to broadcast live throughout. Additional high-profile hearings, such as Winnie Mandela's testimony, were televised live; the rest of the hearings were presented on television each Sunday, from April 1996 to June

GEC Series 63

The GEC Series 63 was a 32-bit minicomputer produced by GEC Computers Limited of the UK during the 1980s in conjunction with A. B. Dick in USA. During development, the computer was known as the R Project; the hardware development was done in Scottsdale, Arizona whilst the software was the responsibility of GEC in Dunstable, UK. The hardware made early use of pipeline concepts, processing one instruction whilst completing the preceding one; the OS4000 operating system from the GEC 4000 series was ported as OS6000 but subsequently a version of UNIX System V Release 2 was added - to compete with VAX machines which were becoming the fashionable computer of choice amongst academics, concerned about being able to access software from US colleagues. This was the first port of UNIX to a different processor order code undertaken in the UK; the C compiler, necessary to effect the implementation, was first produced for OS4000 and cross compiled. There were plans for six models, but only two models of the GEC Series 63 were produced: the 63/30 and the 63/40.

The 63/40 added an embedded GEC 4160 minicomputer running OS4000 to provide additional communications features. The Series 63 was used including the Alvey Project. One of the first student-run university computing facilities in the UK, The Tardis Project, was established in 1987 in the Department of Computer Science of the University of Edinburgh using a Series 63; the name came from the resemblance of the Series 63's large blue cabinet to Doctor Who's time machine. The Series 63 was discontinued in August 1987 after disappointing sales. 22 systems were sold during the lifetime of the system. GEC Computers Computing at Chilton, GEC Series 63


Hardfacing is a metalworking process where harder or tougher material is applied to a base metal. It is welded to the base material, takes the form of specialized electrodes for arc welding or filler rod for oxyacetylene and gas tungsten arc welding welding. Powder metal alloys are used in called powder plasma welding and thermal spray processes like high-velocity oxygen fuel coating, plasma spray and fuse, etc. SAW, FCAW and MIG / MAG uses continuously fed wire varying in diameter depending on process and current Strip cladding process uses strips from 50 mm wide to 125 mm with a thickness of 0.5mm. Open arc welding uses continuously fed tubular electrode which may not contain flux. Hardfacing may be applied to a new part during production to increase its wear resistance, or it may be used to restore a worn-down surface. Hardfacing by arc welding is a surfacing operation to extend the service life of industrial components, preemptively on new components, or as part of a maintenance program.

The result of significant savings in machine down time and production costs has meant that this process has been adopted across many industries such as steel, mining, power, sugar cane and food. According to the results of an experimental study, the shielded metal arc welding and the gas metal arc welding hardfacing processes were effective in reducing the wear on the mouldboard ploughshare. With the SMAW and GMAW hardfacing processes, the life span of the ploughshare was increased 2 times. Extensive work in research has resulted in the development of a wide range of alloys and welding procedures; the optimum alloy selection is made considering the component service conditions and feedback of the service performance. For each industrial application and wear phenomena, there is a welding electrode to provide wear resistance. Hardfacing can be deposited by various welding methods: Shielded metal arc welding Gas metal arc welding, including both gas-shielded and open arc welding Oxyfuel welding Submerged arc welding Electroslag welding Plasma transferred arc welding called powder plasma welding Thermal spraying Cold polymer compounds Laser claddingCommonly applied materials include cobalt-based alloys, nickel-based alloys, chromium carbide alloys and NOREM.

Hardfacing is sometimes followed by hot stamping to refinish the part or add color or instructional information to the part. Foils or films can be used for other protection. Case hardening

Rita Ortiz

Rita Ortiz is a character in the long running police drama series NYPD Blue. She was played by Jacqueline Obradors. Joining eight episodes into season nine to replace the long-departed Diane Russell she was partnered up with Connie McDowell and the two became close friends as well as partners. During this time she had to deal with her jealous violent, unfaithful ADA husband Don, whom she tossed out and began divorce proceedings against after she caught him in the act, but Don was murdered by the husband of the married woman he'd been cheating on Rita with. After some time to get over Don's death, she became involved with John Clark, Jr.. Her relationship with Clark floundered and fell apart when he pushed her away after the suicide of his father, she requested a transfer out of the 15th from Tony Rodriguez but changed her mind after she saved the Lt.'s life. Her next relationship was within the squad, this time with Lt. Rodriguez, it was revealed a year that she was again single, the assumption being that the relationship had ended in the interim.

After McDowell's departure she was partnered up with Laura Murphy for the show's final season. After some initial scepticism on Ortiz's part about what she perceived to be Murphy's flirting, by the end of the show they had become a good team. In the show's final episode they say goodnight together to their new boss, Andy Sipowicz

Ein Zivan

Ein Zivan is an Israeli settlement and kibbutz in the northern Golan Heights under the jurisdiction of the Golan Regional Council. The international community considers Israeli settlements in the Golan Heights illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this. In 2018 it had a population of 348; the kibbutz was founded in 1968 by Israeli-born youth from kibbutzim. They were joined by Gar'inei Nahal and volunteers from abroad. In the 2000s a community expansion program was open to accommodate families seeking a high quality of life away from urban centers; the population of Ein Zivan today consists thus of kibbutz residents. It was the first kibbutz to initiate the process of privatization of common property. In November 2011 the kibbutz had a population of 83 families. Ein Zivan's economy is based on agriculture, it has one of the largest deciduous orchards, containing apples, peaches and nectarines. The northern kibbutz has vineyards, linked to the Golan Heights Winery. Chocolatier Carina Chaplinsky, a new immigrant from Argentina, runs a chocolate business at the kibbutz that includes a factory, a boutique outlet, a workshop and tasting rooms.

The Pelter Winery, established in 2002, is located at Ein Zivan. The winery produced 85,000 bottles in 2010. Winemaker Tal Pelter has been hailed by Haaretz wine critic Daniel Rogov as a "rising star". Ein Zivan runs a bed and breakfast establishment, Lan BaGolan. Commune Israeli wine Israeli-occupied territories

Aurelio's Pizza

Aurelio's Pizza is an Illinois restaurant chain which centers its business around the thin crust variety of Chicago-style pizza. Aurelio's Pizza has 37 franchised locations in 6 states. Aurelio's Pizza is the oldest Chicago pizza franchise restaurant, franchising since 1974. James Aurelio founded Macomb, Illinois' first pizza restaurant, The Italian Village, in 1952. In the mid-1950s, one of James' nephews, Joe Aurelio Jr. came to Macomb IL to work in the restaurant. Joe moved back home to the Chicago area in 1959 and his cousin Louis Gaetano became co-owner of The Italian Village. Joe founded his own pizza restaurant, named Aurelio's; this was a small, 4 table restaurant on Ridge Rd. in Homewood. Both Aurelios specialized in a distinctive thin crust pizza, sliced in "Chicago style" square pieces; the company's slogan is "Aurelio's is Pizza!" When James Aurelio died, Louis Gaetano sold The Italian Village and it became an Aurelio's Pizza franchise. The chain's main competition is Rosati's Pizza, Nancy's Pizza, Home Run Inn, as well as many smaller family-owned establishments.

The son of James Aurelio, Larry Aurelio, subsequently started a new pizza chain named Larry A's. The chain's specialties are "calabrese," known by most as a calzone. List of pizza chains of the United States Official website