Human rights are "the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled" Examples of rights and freedoms which are thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life and property, freedom of expression, pursuit of happiness and equality before the law. All human beings are born equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Ancient peoples did not have the same modern-day conception of universal human rights; the true forerunner of human-rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval natural law tradition that became prominent during the European Enlightenment. From this foundation, the modern human rights arguments emerged over the latter half of the 20th century.17th-century English philosopher John Locke discussed natural rights in his work, identifying them as being "life and estate", argued that such fundamental rights could not be surrendered in the social contract.
In Britain in 1689, the English Bill of Rights and the Scottish Claim of Right each made illegal a range of oppressive governmental actions. Two major revolutions occurred during the 18th century, in the United States and in France, leading to the United States Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen both of which articulated certain human rights. Additionally, the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776 encoded into law a number of fundamental civil rights and civil freedoms. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life and the pursuit of Happiness. Philosophers such as Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill and Hegel expanded on the theme of universality during the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1831 William Lloyd Garrison wrote in a newspaper called The Liberator that he was trying to enlist his readers in "the great cause of human rights" so the term human rights came into use sometime between Paine's The Rights of Man and Garrison's publication.
In 1849 a contemporary, Henry David Thoreau, wrote about human rights in his treatise On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, influential on human rights and civil rights thinkers. United States Supreme Court Justice David Davis, in his 1867 opinion for Ex Parte Milligan, wrote "By the protection of the law, human rights are secured. In Western Europe and North America, labour unions brought about laws granting workers the right to strike, establishing minimum work conditions and forbidding or regulating child labour; the women's rights movement succeeded in gaining for many women the right to vote. National liberation movements in many countries succeeded in driving out colonial powers. One of the most influential was Mahatma Gandhi's movement to free his native India from British rule. Movements by long-oppressed racial and religious minorities succeeded in many parts of the world, among them the civil rights movement, more recent diverse identity politics movements, on behalf of women and minorities in the United States.
The foundation of the International Committee of the Red Cross, the 1864 Lieber Code and the first of the Geneva Conventions in 1864 laid the foundations of International humanitarian law, to be further developed following the two World Wars. The League of Nations was established in 1919 at the negotiations over the Treaty of Versailles following the end of World War I; the League's goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation and improving global welfare. Enshrined in its Charter was a mandate to promote many of the rights which were included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the League of Nations had mandates to support many of the former colonies of the Western European colonial powers during their transition from colony to independent state. Established as an agency of the League of Nations, now part of United Nations, the International Labour Organization had a mandate to promote and safeguard certain of the rights included in the UDHR: the primary goal of the ILO today is to promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity and human dignity.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a non-binding declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 in response to the barbarism of World War II. The UDHR urges member nations to promote a number of human, civil and social rights, asserting these rights are part of the "foundation of freedom and peace in the world"; the declaration was the first international legal effort to limit the behavior of states and press upon them duties to their citizens following the model of the rights-duty duality....recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom and peace in the world The UDHR was framed by members of the Human Rights Commission, with Eleanor Roosevelt as Chair, who began to discuss an International Bill of Rights in 1947. The members of the Commission did not agree on the form of such a bill of rights, whe
A dictatorship is an authoritarian form of government, characterized by a single leader or group of leaders with either no party or a weak party, little mass mobilization, limited political pluralism. According to other definitions, democracies are regimes in which "those who govern are selected through contested elections". With the advent of the 19th and 20th centuries and constitutional democracies emerged as the world's two major forms of government eliminating monarchies, one of the traditional widespread forms of government of the time. In a dictatorial regime, the leader of the country is identified with the title of dictator, although their formal title may more resemble something similar to "leader". A common aspect that characterized dictators is taking advantage of their strong personality by suppressing freedom of thought and speech of the masses, in order to maintain complete political and social supremacy and stability. Dictatorships and totalitarian societies employ political propaganda to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems.
The word "dictator" comes from the classical Latin language word dictātor, agent noun from dictare In Latin use, a dictator was a judge in the Roman republic temporarily invested with absolute power. Right after the end of World War II, with a more relaxed political and social climate, several studies regarding the classification of various forms of government have been conducted. Among these, has been intensely discussed by historians and political scientists the conceptualization and definition of the dictatorship form of government, it has been concluded that dictatorship is a form of government in which the absolute power is concentrated in the hands of a leader, a "small clique", or a "government organization", it aims the abolition of political pluralism and civilian mobilization. On the other hand, compared to the concept of dictatorship, is defined as a form of government where the supremacy belongs to the population and rulers are elected through contested elections. A new form of government that, in the 20th century, marked the beginning of a new political era and is linked to the concept of dictatorship, is known as totalitarianism.
This form of government is characterized by the presence of a single political party and more by a powerful leader who imposes his personal and political prominence. The two fundamental aspects that contribute to the maintenance of the power are: a steadfast collaboration between the government and the police force, a developed ideology. Here, the government has "total control of mass communications and social and economic organizations". According to Hannah Arendt, totalitarianism is a new and extreme form of dictatorship composed of "atomized, isolated individuals". In addition, she affirmed that ideology plays a leading role in defining how the entire society should be organized. According to the political scientist Juan Linz, the distinction between an authoritarian regime and a totalitarian one is that while an authoritarian regime seeks to suffocate politics and political mobilization, totalitarianism seeks to control politics and political mobilization. However, one of the most recent classification of dictatorships, formulated, do not identify Totalitarianism as a form of dictatorship.
In Barbara Geddes's study, she focused in how elite-leader and elite-mass relations influence authoritarian politics. Geddes typology identifies the key institutions; the study is based and directly related to factors like: the simplicity of the categorizations, cross-national applicability, the emphasis on elites and leaders, the incorporation of institutions as central to shaping politics. According to Barbara Geddes, a dictatorial government may be classified in five typologies: Military Dictatorships, Single-party Dictatorships, Personalist Dictatorships, Hybrid Dictatorships. Military dictatorships are regimes in which a group of officers holds power, determines who will lead the country, exercises influence over policy. High-level elites and a leader are the members of the military dictatorship. Military dictatorships are characterized by rule by a professionalized military as an institution. In military regimes, elites are referred to as junta members. Single-party dictatorships are regimes.
In single-party dictatorships, a single party has control over policy. Other parties may exist, compete in elections, hold legislative seats, yet true political power lies with the dominant party. In single-party dictatorships, party elites are members of the ruling body of the party, sometimes called the central committee, politburo, or secretariat; these groups of individuals controls the selection of party officials and "organizes the distribution of benefits to supporters and mobilizes citizens to vote and show support for party leaders". Personalist dictatorships are regimes. Personalist dictatorships differ from other forms of dictatorships in their access to key political positions, other fruits of office, depend much more on the discretion of the personalist dictator. Personalist dictators may be leaders of a political party. Yet, neither the military nor the party exercises power
National Party (South Africa)
The National Party known as the Nationalist Party, was a political party in South Africa founded in 1914 and disbanded in 1997. The party was an Afrikaner ethnic nationalist party that promoted Afrikaner interests in South Africa; however in the early 1990s it became a South African civic nationalist party seeking to represent all South Africans. It first became the governing party of the country in 1924, it was in opposition during World War II but it returned to power and was again in the government from 4 June 1948 until 9 May 1994. Beginning in 1948 the party as the governing party of South Africa began implementing its policy of racial segregation, known as apartheid. Although White-minority rule and racial segregation based on White supremacy were in existence in South Africa with non-Whites not having voting rights and efforts made to encourage segregation, apartheid intensified the segregation with stern penalties for non-Whites entering into areas designated for Whites-only without having a pass to permit them to do so, interracial marriage and sexual relationships were illegal and punishable offences, blacks faced significant restrictions on property rights.
Upon South Africa being condemned in the British Commonwealth for its policies of apartheid the NP-led government had South Africa leave the Commonwealth, abandon its monarchy led by the British monarch and become a republic. During the 1970s and 1980s, the NP-led government faced internal unrest in South Africa and international pressure for accommodation of non-Whites in South Africa resulted in policies of granting concessions to the non-White population, while still retaining the apartheid system, such as the creation of Bantustans that were autonomous self-governing Black homelands, removing legal prohibitions on interracial marriage, legalizing non-White and multiracial political parties; those identified as Coloureds and Indian South Africans were granted separate legislatures in 1983 alongside the main legislature that represented Whites to provide them self-government while maintaining apartheid, but no such legislature was provided to the Black population as their self-government was to be provided through the Bantustans.
The NP-led government began changed laws affected by the apartheid system that had come under heavy domestic and international condemnation such as removing the pass laws, granting Blacks full property rights that ended previous major restrictions on Black ownership of land, the right to form trade unions. Following escalating economic sanctions over apartheid, negotiations between the NP-led government led by P. W. Botha and the outlawed ANC led by then-imprisoned Nelson Mandela began in 1987 with Botha seeking to accommodate the ANC's demands and consider releasing Mandela and legalizing the ANC on the condition that it would renounce use of political violence to attain its aims. In the 1989 South African general election, the party under F. W. de Klerk's leadership declared that it intended to negotiate with the Black South African community for a political solution to accommodate Black South Africans. This resulted in De Klerk declaring in February 1990 the decision to transition South Africa out of apartheid, permitted the release of Mandela from prison and ending South Africa's ban on the ANC and other anti-apartheid movements, began negotiations with the ANC for a post-apartheid political system.
However there was significant opposition among hardliner supporters of apartheid that resulted in De Klerk's government responding to them by holding a national referendum on Apartheid in 1992 for the White population only allowed to vote in that asked them if they supported the government's policy to end apartheid and establish elections open to all South Africans, a large majority voted in favour of the government's policy. With support for ending apartheid secured among White South Africans, the party opened up its membership to all racial groups and rebranded itself as no longer being an ethnic nationalist party only representing Afrikaners, but would henceforth be a civic nationalist and conservative party representing all South Africans. In the 1994 elections it managed to expand its base to include many non-Whites including significant support from Coloured and Indian South Africans, it participated in the Government of National Unity between 1994 and 1996. In an attempt to distance itself from its past, the party was renamed the New National Party in 1997.
The attempt was unsuccessful and the new party was decided to merge with the ANC. The National Party was founded in Bloemfontein in 1914 by Afrikaner nationalists soon after the establishment of the Union of South Africa, its founding was rooted in disagreements among South African Party politicians Prime Minister Louis Botha and his first Minister of Justice, J. B. M. Hertzog. After Hertzog began speaking out publicly against the Botha government's "one-stream" policy in 1912, Botha removed him from the cabinet. Hertzog and his followers in the Orange Free State province subsequently moved to establish the National Party to oppose the government by advocating a "two-stream" policy of equal rights for the English and Afrikaner communities. Afrikaner nationalists in the Transvaal and Cape provinces soon followed suit, so that three distinct provincial NP organisations were in existence in time for the 1915 general elections; the NP first came to power in coalition w
Vergangenheitsbewältigung is a German term describing processes that since the 20th century have become key in the study of post-1945 German literature and culture. The German Duden lexicon defines Vergangenheitsbewältigung as "public debate within a country on a problematic period of its recent history—in Germany on National Socialism, in particular"—where "problematic" refers to traumatic events that raise sensitive questions of collective culpability. In Germany, the term refers to embarrassment about and remorse for Germans' complicity in the war crimes of the Wehrmacht and related events of the early and mid-20th century, including World War II. In this sense, the word can refer to the psychic process of denazification. With the absorption into the current Federal Republic of Germany of East Germany since 1990 and the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Vergangenheitsbewältigung can refer to coming to terms with the excesses and human rights abuses associated with that former Communist state.
Vergangenheitsbewältigung describes the attempt to analyze and learn to live with the past, in particular the Holocaust. The focus on learning is much in the spirit of philosopher George Santayana's oft-quoted observation that "those who forget the past are condemned to repeat it", it is a technical term used in English, coined after 1945 in West Germany, relating to the atrocities committed during the Third Reich, when Adolf Hitler was in power in Germany, to both historical and contemporary concerns about the extensive compromise and co-optation of many German cultural and political institutions by Nazism. The term therefore deals at once with the concrete responsibility of the German state and of individual Germans for what took place "under Hitler", with questions about the roots of legitimacy in a society whose development of the Enlightenment collapsed in the face of Nazi ideology. More the term Vergangenheitsbewältigung has been used in the former East Germany to refer to the process of working through the brutalities of Communist institutions.
Vergangenheitsbewältigung is seen as the logical "next step" after a denazification driven at first under Allied Occupation and by the Christian Democratic Union government of Konrad Adenauer. It dates from the late 1950s and early 1960s the period in which the work of the Wiederaufbau became less absorbing and urgent. Having replaced the institutions and power structures of Nazism, the aim of liberal Germans was to deal with the guilt of recent history. Vergangenheitsbewältigung is characterised in part by learning from the past; this includes admitting that such a past did indeed exist, attempting to remedy as far as possible the wrongs committed, attempting to move on from that past. The German churches, of which only a minority played a significant role in the resistance to Nazism, have led the way in this process, they have developed a German post-war theology of repentance. At the regular mass church rallies, the Lutheran Kirchentag and the Catholic Katholikentag, for example, have developed this theme as a leitmotiv of Christian youth.
Vergangenheitsbewältigung has been expressed by the society through its schools, where in most German states the centrally-written curriculum provides each child with repeated lessons on different aspects of Nazism in German history and religion classes from the fifth grade onwards, related to their maturity. Associated school trips may have destinations of concentration camps. Jewish Holocaust survivors are invited to schools as guest speakers, though the passage of time limits these opportunities as their generation has aged. In philosophy, Theodor Adorno's writings include the lecture "Was bedeutet: Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit?", a subject related to his thinking of "after Auschwitz" in his work. He delivered the lecture at a conference on education held in Wiesbaden. Writing in the context of a new wave of anti-Semitic attacks against synagogues and Jewish community institutions occurring in West Germany at that time, Adorno rejected the contemporary catch phrase "working through the past" as misleading.
He argued that it masked a denial, rather than signifying the kind of critical self-reflection that Freudian theory called for in order to "come to terms" with the past. Adorno's lecture is seen as consisting in part of a variably implicit and explicit critique of the work of Martin Heidegger, whose formal ties to the Nazi Party are well known. Heidegger, distinct from his role in the Party during the Third Reich, attempted to provide a historical conception of Germania as a philosophical notion of German origin and destiny. Alexander Garcia Düttman's "Das Gedächtnis des Denkens. Versuch über Heidegger und Adorno" attempts to treat the philosophical value of these opposed and incompatible terms "Auschwitz" and "Germania" in the philosophy of both men. In the cultural sphere, the term Vergangenheitsbewältigung is associated with a movement in German literature, characterised by such authors as Günter Grass and Siegfried Lenz. Lenz's novel Deutschstunde and Grass's Danziger Trilogie both deal with childhoods under Nazism.
The erection of public monuments to Holocaust victims has been a tangible commemoration of Germany's Vergangenheitsbewältigung. Concentration camps, such as Dachau, Buchen
Truth and Justice Commission
The Truth and Justice Commission of Mauritius was an independent truth commission established in 2009, which explored the impact of slavery and indentured servitude in Mauritius. The Commission was tasked to investigate the dispossession of land, “determine appropriate measures to be extended to descendants of slaves and indentured laborers.” It was “unique in that it with socio-economic class abuses" and explored the possibility of reparations. The inclusion of reparations, whether for individuals or communities, was a controversial decision within the country which aimed to correct inequality; the Commission attempted to cover more than 370 years, the longest period of time that a truth commission has covered. The Commission consisted of five members who were appointed by the President Sir Anerood Jugnauth; the President selected Alex Boraine, the former deputy chair of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, four Mauritians to oversee the research and publication of a document consisting of seven volumes, detailing over three centuries of Mauritian history.
The Truth and Justice Commission documented the "economics of colonialism and indentured servitude, the experiences of indentured Africans and French engagés, living and working conditions on sugar estates." In order to aid Mauritians in reconciling the past the commission recommended: "1) memorializing slavery. Many of these recommendations have yet to be acted upon; the Truth and Justice Commission of Mauritius, beginning its work in February 2009, sought to explore the impact of slavery and indentured labour on the islands since colonization in 1638. Traditionally the historic narrative presented to Mauritians has been “the history of the ruling class consisting of French colons and their descendants.” Slavery and indentured labourers entry into the popular Mauritian historiography has been a recent phenomenon, something which the commission hoped to rectify. Uniquely the Mauritian Truth commission sought to “investigate complaints of the dispossession of land, to ‘determine appropriate measures to be extended to descendants of slaves and indentures labours.’" The inclusion of reparations, whether for individuals or communities, was a controversial decision within the country which aimed to correct inequality.
Despite the advance brought by the last century many of Afro-Malagasy origin are living in poverty, while descendants of the plantation class enjoy higher living conditions, land ownership. The Truth and Justice Commission wished to correct this land owning imbalance on the islands. Prime Minister Ramgoolam, calling for the creation of the commission, argued: “Years have passed since slavery and indentured labor were abolished; the horrors of such brutality and bondage no longer exist today. But such treatment meted out to human beings does have its psychological impact, which can be permanent and as destructive if not more so, compared to physical slavery.” The Prime Minister outlined his hopes for the commission stating: The history of our country is based on a continuous quest for freedom and social justice. Our past has been marked by the forcible removal of thousands of people from the mainland of Africa and Asia; these are most shameful pages of our history. The introduction of indentured labour under slavish conditions was evil.
The Prime Minister stated his hope that: This Commission will pave the way to reconciliation, social justice and national unity through the process of re-establishing the historical truth. It is the legitimate expectation of everyone to know our true history, it is. It is important therefore that we recognise our past history and lay that past to rest so that we can move on to reconciliation and national unity; the Dutch East India Company introduced slavery to Mauritius in 1638. The labour force from Batavia, were the preferred form of labour used by the Dutch; the company would maintain their control of the islands until 1710, leaving due to piracy, the result of wars with both France and Britain. Before their exit however, the Dutch made several attempts to develop the slave trade in the Indian Ocean; the French were the next colonial power to enter the Mauritians, taking possession of what they named Isle de France, in 1715. The French continued the Dutch practice of using slave labour in the islands agricultural sector.
The Islands were ceded to the French East India Company who began dividing the land, the upper classes receiving 126 hectares and the soldiers and workers being given 63 hectares. Throughout the French rule of the territory, until its loss following the Treaty of Paris of 1814, the slave trade would continue to grow in economic importance in the Indian Ocean. Following the defeat of Napoleon and the loss of Mauritius to Great Britain, the territory continued to rely upon slave labour until slavery's abolition in the British Empire in the 1830s; this would not end exploitation however, as the plantocracy, reliant upon cheap labour, turned to indentured labourers from India and China to work the fields. These labourers, having little rights, would be ruthlessly exploited by the planter class until the late colonial period. Dr. Alexander Boraine - Chairperson from January 2010 unt
Apartheid was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa from 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid was characterised by an authoritarian political culture based on baasskap, which encouraged state repression of Black African and Asian South Africans for the benefit of the nation's minority white population; the economic legacy and social effects of apartheid continue to the present day. Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into petty apartheid, which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, grand apartheid, which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race. Prior to the 1940s, some aspects of apartheid had emerged in the form of minority rule by White South Africans and the enforced separation of Black South Africans from other races, which extended to pass laws and land apportionment. Apartheid was adopted as a formal policy by the South African government after the election of the National Party at the 1948 general election.
A codified system of racial stratification began to take form in South Africa under the Dutch Empire in the late-eighteenth century, although informal segregation was present much earlier due to social cleavages between Dutch colonists and a creolised, ethnically diverse slave population. With the rapid growth and industrialisation of the British Cape Colony in the nineteenth century, racial policies and laws became rigid. Cape legislation that discriminated against Black South Africans began appearing shortly before 1900; the policies of the Boer republics were racially exclusive. The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949, followed by the Immorality Amendment Act of 1950, which made it illegal for most South African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines; the Population Registration Act, 1950 classified all South Africans into one of four racial groups based on appearance, known ancestry, socioeconomic status, cultural lifestyle: "Black", "White", "Coloured", "Indian", the last two of which included several sub-classifications.
Places of residence were determined by racial classification. From 1960–1983, 3.5 million Non-White South Africans were removed from their homes and forced into segregated neighbourhoods, in one of the largest mass evictions in modern history. Most of these targeted removals were intended to restrict the Black population to ten designated "tribal homelands" known as bantustans, four of which became nominally independent states; the government announced that relocated persons would lose their South African citizenship as they were absorbed into the bantustans. Apartheid sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the twentieth century, it was the target of frequent condemnation in the United Nations and brought about an extensive arms and trade embargo on South Africa. During the 1970s and 1980s, internal resistance to apartheid became militant, prompting brutal crackdowns by the National Party government and protracted sectarian violence that left thousands dead or in detention.
Some reforms of the apartheid system were undertaken, including allowing for Indian and Coloured political representation in parliament, but these measures failed to appease most activist groups. Between 1987 and 1993, the National Party entered into bilateral negotiations with the African National Congress, the leading anti-apartheid political movement, for ending segregation and introducing majority rule. In 1990, prominent ANC figures such as Nelson Mandela were released from prison. Apartheid legislation was repealed on 17 June 1991, pending democratic, multiracial elections set for April 1994. Apartheid is an Afrikaans word meaning "separateness", or "the state of being apart" "apart-hood", its first recorded use was in 1929. Under the 1806 Cape Articles of Capitulation the new British colonial rulers were required to respect previous legislation enacted under Roman Dutch law and this led to a separation of the law in South Africa from English Common Law and a high degree of legislative autonomy.
The governors and assemblies that governed the legal process in the various colonies of South Africa were launched on a different and independent legislative path from the rest of the British Empire. In the days of slavery, slaves required passes to travel away from their masters. In 1797 the Landdrost and Heemraden of Swellendam and Graaff-Reinet extended pass laws beyond slaves and ordained that all Khoikhoi moving about the country for any purpose should carry passes; this was confirmed by the British Colonial government in 1809 by the Hottentot Proclamation, which decreed that if a Khoikhoi were to move they would need a pass from their master or a local official. Ordinance No. 49 of 1828 decreed that prospective black immigrants were to be granted passes for the sole purpose of seeking work. These passes were to be issued for Coloureds and Khoikhoi, but not for other Africans, who were still forced to carry passes; the United Kingdom's Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished slavery throughout the British Empire and overrode the Cape Articles of Capitulation.
To comply with the act the South African legislation was expanded to include Ordinance 1 in 1835, which changed the status of slaves to indentured labourers. This was followed by Ordinance 3 in 1848, which introduced an indenture system for Xhosa, little different from slave
Santiago, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas. It is the center of Chile's largest and most densely populated conurbation, the Santiago Metropolitan Region, whose total population is 7 million; the city is located in the country's central valley. Most of the city lies between 500 650 m above mean sea level. Founded in 1541 by the Spanish conqueror Pedro de Valdivia, Santiago has been the capital city of Chile since colonial times; the city has a downtown core of 19th-century neoclassical architecture and winding side-streets, dotted by art deco, neo-gothic, other styles. Santiago's cityscape is shaped by several stand-alone hills and the fast-flowing Mapocho River, lined by parks such as Parque Forestal; the Andes Mountains can be seen from most points in the city. These mountains contribute to a considerable smog problem during winter; the city outskirts are surrounded by vineyards and Santiago is within an hour of both the mountains and the Pacific Ocean.
Santiago is the cultural and financial center of Chile and is home to the regional headquarters of many multinational corporations. The Chilean executive and judiciary are located in Santiago, but Congress meets in nearby Valparaíso. Santiago is named after the biblical figure St. James. Santiago will host the 2023 Pan American Games. In Chile, there are several entities which bear the name of "Santiago" that are confused; the Commune of Santiago, sometimes referred to as "downtown" or "Central Santiago", is an administrative division that comprises the area occupied by the city during its colonial period. The commune, administered by the Municipality of Santiago and headed by a mayor, is part of the Santiago Province headed by a provincial governor, in itself a subdivision of the Santiago Metropolitan Region headed by an intendant. Despite these classifications, when the term "Santiago" is used without another descriptor, it refers to what is known as Greater Santiago, a territorial extension defined by its urban continuity that includes the Commune of Santiago in addition to 36 other communes, which together comprise the majority of the Santiago Province and some areas of neighboring provinces.
The city and region's demonym is santiaguinas. According to certain archaeological investigations, it is believed that the first human groups reached the Santiago basin in the 10th millennium BC; the groups were nomadic hunter-gatherers, who traveled from the coast to the interior in search of guanacos during the time of the Andean snowmelt. About the year 800, the first sedentary inhabitants began to settle due to the formation of agricultural communities along the Mapocho River maize and beans, the domestication of camelids in the area; the villages established in the areas belonging to the Picunches or Promaucae people, were subject to the Inca Empire throughout the late fifteenth century and into the early sixteenth century. The Incas settled in the valley of mitimaes, the main installation settled in the center of the present city, with strongholds such as Huaca de Chena and the sanctuary of El Plomo hill; the area would have served as a basis for the failed Inca expeditions southward road junction as the Inca Trail.
Having been sent by Francisco Pizarro from Peru and having made the long journey from Cuzco, Extremadura conquistador Pedro de Valdivia reached the valley of the Mapocho on 13 December 1540. The hosts of Valdivia camped by the river in the slopes of the Tupahue hill and began to interact with the Picunche people who inhabited the area. Valdivia summoned the chiefs of the area to a parliament, where he explained his intention to found a city on behalf of the king Carlos I of Spain, which would be the capital of his governorship of Nueva Extremadura; the natives accepted and recommended the foundation of the town on a small island between two branches of the river next to a small hill called Huelén. On 12 February 1541 Valdivia founded the city of Santiago del Nuevo Extremo in honor of St. James, patron saint of Spain, near the Huelén, renamed by the conqueror as "St. Lucia". Following colonial rule, Valdivia entrusted the layout of the new town to master builder Pedro de Gamboa, who would design the city grid layout.
In the center of the city, Gamboa designed a Plaza Mayor, around which various plots for the Cathedral and the governor's house were selected. In total, eight blocks from north to south, ten from east to west, were built; each solar was given to the settlers, who built houses of straw. Valdivia left months to the south with his troops, beginning the War of Arauco. Santiago was left unprotected; the indigenous hosts of Michimalonco used this to their advantage, attacked the fledgling city. On 11 September 1541, the city was destroyed by the natives, but the 55-strong Spanish Garrison managed to defend the fort; the resistance was led by a mistress to Valdivia. When she realized they were being overrun, she ordered the execution of all native prisoners, proceeded to put their heads on pikes and threw a few heads to the natives. In face of this barbaric act, the natives dispersed in terror; the city would be rebuilt, giving prominence to the newly founded Concepción, where the Royal Audiencia of Chile was founded in 1565.
However, the constant danger faced by Concepción, due to its proximity to the War of Arauco and