Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, located on the shore of Lake Erie in downtown Cleveland, Ohio and archives the history of the best-known and most influential artists, producers and other notable figures who have had some major influence on the development of rock and roll. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Foundation was established on April 20, 1983, by Atlantic Records founder and chairman Ahmet Ertegun. In 1986, Cleveland was chosen as the Hall of Fame's permanent home. Founder Ahmet Ertegun assembled a team that included attorney Suzan Evans, Rolling Stone magazine editor and publisher Jann S. Wenner, attorney Allen Grubman, record executives Seymour Stein, Bob Krasnow, Noreen Woods; the Foundation began inducting artists in 1986. The search committee considered several cities, including Philadelphia, Detroit, New York City, Cleveland. Cleveland lobbied for the museum, with civic leaders in Cleveland pledging $65 million in public money to fund the construction, citing that WJW disc jockey Alan Freed both coined the term "rock and roll" and promoted the new genre—and that Cleveland was the location of Freed's Moondog Coronation Ball credited as the first major rock and roll concert.
Freed was a member of the hall of fame's inaugural class of inductees in 1986. In addition, Cleveland cited radio station WMMS, which played a key role in breaking several major acts in the U. S. during the 1970s and 1980s, including David Bowie, who began his first U. S. tour in the city, Bruce Springsteen, Roxy Music, Rush among many others. A petition drive was signed by 600,000 fans favoring Cleveland over Memphis, Cleveland ranked first in a 1986 USA Today poll asking where the Hall of Fame should be located. On May 5, 1986, the Hall of Fame Foundation chose Cleveland as the permanent home of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum. Author Peter Guralnick said. Cleveland may have been chosen as the organization's site because the city offered the best financial package; as The Plain Dealer music critic Michael Norman noted, "It was $65 million... Cleveland wanted it here and put up the money." Co-founder Jann Wenner said, "One of the small sad things is we didn't do it in New York in the first place," but added, "I am delighted that the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum is in Cleveland."
During early discussions on where to build the Hall of Fame and Museum, the Foundation's board considered the Cuyahoga River. The chosen location was along East Ninth Street in downtown Cleveland by Lake Erie, east of Cleveland Stadium. At one point in the planning phase, when a financing gap existed, planners proposed locating the Rock Hall in the then-vacant May Company Building, but decided to commission architect I. M. Pei to design a new building. Initial CEO Dr. Larry R. Thompson facilitated I. M. Pei in designs for the site. Pei came up with the idea of a tower with a glass pyramid protruding from it; the museum tower was planned to stand 200 ft high, but had to be cut down to 162 ft due to its proximity to Burke Lakefront Airport. The building's base is 150,000 square feet; the groundbreaking ceremony took place on June 7, 1993. Pete Townshend, Chuck Berry, Billy Joel, Sam Phillips, Ruth Brown, Sam Moore of Sam and Dave, Carl Gardner of the Coasters and Dave Pirner of Soul Asylum all appeared at the groundbreaking.
The museum was dedicated on September 1, 1995, with the ribbon being cut by an ensemble that included Yoko Ono and Little Richard, among others, before a crowd of more than 10,000 people. The following night an all-star concert was held at the stadium, it featured Chuck Berry, Bob Dylan, Al Green, Jerry Lee Lewis, Aretha Franklin, Bruce Springsteen, Iggy Pop, John Fogerty, John Mellencamp, many others. In addition to the Hall of Fame inductees, the museum documents the entire history of rock and roll, regardless of induction status. Hall of Fame inductees are honored in a special exhibit located in a wing that juts out over Lake Erie. Since 1986, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame has selected new inductees; the formal induction ceremony has been held in New York City 26 times. As of 2018, the induction ceremonies alternate each year between New Cleveland; the 2009 and 2012 induction weeks were made possible by a public–private partnership between the City of Cleveland, the State of Ohio, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, local foundations, civic organizations and individuals.
Collectively these entities invested $5.8 million in 2009 and $7.9 million in 2012 to produce a week of events, including free concerts, a gospel celebration, exhibition openings, free admission to the museum, induction ceremonies filled with both fans and VIPs at Public Hall. Millions viewed the television broadcast of the Cleveland inductions; the economic impact of the 2009 induction week activities was more than $13 million, it provided an additional $20 million in media exposure for the region. The 2012 induction week yielded similar results. There are seven levels in the building. On the lower level is the Ahmet M. Ertegun Exhibition Hall, the museum's main gallery, it includes exhibits on the roots of roll. It featu
Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb, more known as Dr. Strangelove, is a 1964 political satire black comedy film that satirizes the Cold War fears of a nuclear conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States; the film was directed, co-written by Stanley Kubrick, stars Peter Sellers, George C. Scott and Slim Pickens. Production took place in the United Kingdom; the film is loosely based on Peter George's thriller novel Red Alert. The story concerns an unhinged United States Air Force general who orders a first strike nuclear attack on the Soviet Union, it follows the President of the United States, his advisors, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a Royal Air Force officer as they try to recall the bombers to prevent a nuclear apocalypse. It separately follows the crew of one B-52 bomber. In 1989, the United States Library of Congress included Dr. Strangelove in the first group of films selected for preservation in the National Film Registry, it was listed as number three on AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs list.
United States Air Force Brigadier General Jack D. Ripper is commander of Burpelson Air Force Base, which houses the Strategic Air Command 843rd Bomb Wing, flying B-52 bombers armed with hydrogen bombs; the 843rd Wing is flying on airborne alert, two hours from their targets inside the USSR. General Ripper orders his executive officer, Group Captain Lionel Mandrake of the UK Royal Air Force, to put the base on alert. Ripper issues "Wing Attack Plan R" to the patrolling aircraft, one of, commanded by Major T. J. "King" Kong. All of the aircraft commence an attack flight on the USSR and set their radios to allow communications only through their CRM 114 discriminators, designed to accept only communications preceded by a secret three-letter code known only to General Ripper. Mandrake discovers that no war order has been issued by the Pentagon and he tries to stop Ripper, who locks them both in his office. Ripper tells Mandrake that he believes the Soviets have been using fluoridation of the American water supplies to pollute the "precious bodily fluids" of Americans.
Mandrake realizes. In the War Room at the Pentagon, General Buck Turgidson briefs President Merkin Muffley and other officers about how Plan R enables a senior officer to launch a strike against the Soviets if all superiors have been killed in a first strike on the United States. Turgidson reports that his men are trying every possible three-letter CRM code to issue the stand-down order, but that could take over two days and the planes are due to reach their targets in a couple of hours. Muffley orders the U. S. Army to arrest General Ripper. Turgidson attempts to convince Muffley to let the attack continue, but Muffley refuses to be party to a nuclear first strike. Instead, he brings Soviet ambassador Alexei de Sadeski into the War Room to telephone Soviet Premier Dimitri Kissov on the "hot line". Muffley warns the Premier of the impending attack and offers to reveal the positions of the bombers and targets so that the Soviets can protect themselves. After a heated discussion in Russian with the Premier, the ambassador informs President Muffley that the Soviet Union has created a doomsday machine, which consists of many buried bombs jacketed with "cobalt-thorium G" connected to a computer network set to detonate them automatically should any nuclear attack strike the country.
Within two months after detonation, the cobalt-thorium G would encircle the planet in a radioactive "doomsday shroud", wiping out all human and animal life, rendering the surface of the Earth uninhabitable for about 93 years. The device cannot be dismantled or "untriggered", as it is programmed to explode if any such attempt is made; when the President's wheelchair-bound scientific advisor, the former Nazi German Dr. Strangelove, points out that such a doomsday machine would only be an effective deterrent if everyone knew about it, de Sadeski replies that the Soviet Premier had planned to reveal its existence to the world the following week. Meanwhile, U. S. Army troops arrive at Burpelson, still sealed by Ripper's order, to take over the base after a heated firefight with Air Force security policemen. General Ripper shoots and kills himself, while Mandrake identifies Ripper's CRM code from his desk blotter and relays this code to the Pentagon. Using the recall code, SAC recalls all of the bombers but one.
No one in the War Room knows that a Soviet surface-to-air missile has damaged the fuel tanks of that plane and destroyed its radio equipment, making it impossible to recall this particular plane with the correct recall code. Muffley discloses the plane's target to help the Soviets find it, but its commanding officer, Major Kong, with his fuel dwindling, has selected a nearer target instead; as the plane approaches the new target, the crew is unable to open the damaged bomb bay doors. Kong enters the bomb bay and repairs the broken electrical wiring, whereupon the doors open and the H-bomb is dropped. With Kong straddling it, the bomb detonates over a Soviet ICBM site. Back in the War Room, Dr. Strangelove recommends that the President gather several hundred thousand people to live in deep underground mines where the radiation will not penetrate, he suggests a 10:1 female-to-male ratio for a breeding program to repopulate the Earth once the radiation has subsided. Turgidson, worried that the Soviets will do the same, warns about a "mineshaft gap".
Dr. Strangelove declares he has a plan, but rises from his wheelchair and announces that he can walk again. Soon, the Doomsday Machine kicks into operation, the film ends with a montage of many nuclear explosion
Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby was an American singer and actor. The first multimedia star, Crosby was a leader in record sales, radio ratings, motion picture grosses from 1931 to 1954, his early career coincided with recording innovations that allowed him to develop an intimate singing style that influenced many male singers who followed him, including Perry Como, Frank Sinatra, Dick Haymes, Dean Martin. Yank magazine said that he was "the person who had done the most for the morale of overseas servicemen" during World War II. In 1948, American polls declared him the "most admired man alive", ahead of Jackie Robinson and Pope Pius XII. In 1948, Music Digest estimated that his recordings filled more than half of the 80,000 weekly hours allocated to recorded radio music. Crosby won an Academy Award for Best Actor for his role as Father Chuck O'Malley in the 1944 motion picture Going My Way and was nominated for his reprise of the role in The Bells of St. Mary's opposite Ingrid Bergman the next year, becoming the first of six actors to be nominated twice for playing the same character.
In 1963, Crosby received the first Grammy Global Achievement Award. He is one of 33 people to have three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, in the categories of motion pictures and audio recording, he was known for his collaborations with longtime friend Bob Hope, starring in the Road to... films from 1940 to 1962. Crosby influenced the development of the postwar recording industry. After seeing a demonstration of a German broadcast quality reel-to-reel tape recorder brought to America by John T. Mullin, he invested $50,000 in a California electronics company called Ampex to build copies, he convinced ABC to allow him to tape his shows. He became the first performer to pre-record his radio shows and master his commercial recordings onto magnetic tape. Through the medium of recording, he constructed his radio programs with the same directorial tools and craftsmanship used in motion picture production, a practice that became an industry standard. In addition to his work with early audio tape recording, he helped to finance the development of videotape, bought television stations, bred racehorses, co-owned the Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team.
Crosby was born on May 3, 1903 in Tacoma, Washington, in a house his father built at 1112 North J Street. In 1906, his family moved to Spokane and in 1913, his father built a house at 508 E. Sharp Avenue; the house sits on the campus of Gonzaga University. It functions today as a museum housing over 200 artifacts from his life and career, including his Oscar, he was the fourth of seven children: brothers Laurence Earl, Everett Nathaniel, Edward John, George Robert. His parents were Harry Lowe Crosby, a bookkeeper, Catherine Helen "Kate", his mother was a second generation Irish-American. His father was of English descent. Through another line on his father's side, Crosby is descended from Mayflower passenger William Brewster. On November 8, 1937, after Lux Radio Theatre's adaptation of She Loves Me Not, Joan Blondell asked Crosby how he got his nickname: Crosby: "Well, I'll tell you, back in the knee-britches day, when I was a wee little tyke, a mere broth of a lad, as we say in Spokane, I used to totter around the streets, with a gun on each hip, my favorite after school pastime was a game known as "Cops and Robbers", I didn't care which side I was on, when a cop or robber came into view, I would haul out my trusty six-shooters, made of wood, loudly exclaim bing! bing!, as my luckless victim fell clutching his side, I would shout bing! bing!, I would let him have it again, as his friends came to his rescue, shooting as they came, I would shout bing! bing! bing! bing! bing! bing! bing! bing!"Blondell: "I'm surprised they didn't call you "Killer" Crosby!
Now tell me another story, Grandpa! Crosby: "No, so help me, it's the truth, ask Mister De Mille."De Mille: "I'll vouch for it, Bing."That story was pure whimsy for dramatic effect and the truth is that a neighbor - Valentine Hobart - named him "Bingo from Bingville" after a comic feature in the local paper called "The Bingville Bugle" which the young Harry liked. In time, Bingo got shortened to Bing. In 1917, Crosby took a summer job as property boy at Spokane's "Auditorium," where he witnessed some of the finest acts of the day, including Al Jolson, who held him spellbound with ad libbing and parodies of Hawaiian songs, he described Jolson's delivery as "electric."Crosby graduated from Gonzaga High School in 1920 and enrolled at Gonzaga University. He did not earn a degree; as a freshman, he played on the university's baseball team. The university granted him an honorary doctorate in 1937. Today, Gonzaga University houses a large collection of photographs and other material related to Crosby.
In 1923, Crosby was invited to join a new band composed of high school students a few years younger than himself. Al Rinker, Miles Rinker, James Heaton, Claire Pritchard and Robert Pritchard, along with drummer Crosby, formed the Musicaladers, who performed at dances both for high school students and club-goers; the group disbanded after two years. Crosby and Al Rinker obtained work at the Clemmer Theatre in Spokane. Crosby was a member of a vocal trio called'The Three Harmo
Isaac Lee Hayes Jr. was an American singer-songwriter, voice actor and producer. Hayes was one of the creative forces behind the Southern soul music label Stax Records, where he served both as an in-house songwriter and as a session musician and record producer, teaming with his partner David Porter during the mid-1960s. Hayes and Porter, along with Bill Withers, the Sherman Brothers, Steve Cropper, John Fogerty were inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2005 in recognition of writing scores of songs for themselves, the duo Sam & Dave, Carla Thomas, others. In 2002, Hayes was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame; the song "Soul Man", written by Hayes and Porter and first performed by Sam & Dave, has been recognized as one of the most influential songs of the past 50 years by the Grammy Hall of Fame. It was honored by The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, by Rolling Stone magazine, by the Recording Industry Association of America as one of the Songs of the Century. During the late 1960s, Hayes began a career as a recording artist.
He had several successful soul albums such as Black Moses. In addition to his work in popular music, he worked as a composer of musical scores for motion pictures, he was well known for his musical score for the film Shaft. For the "Theme from Shaft", he was awarded the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1972, he became the third African-American, after Sidney Poitier and Hattie McDaniel, to win an Academy Award in any competitive field covered by Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. He won two Grammy Awards for that same year, he was given his third Grammy for his music album Black Moses. In 1992 Hayes was crowned honorary king of the Ada region of Ghana in recognition of his humanitarian work there, he acted in motion pictures and television, such as in the movies Truck Turner and I'm Gonna Git You Sucka, as Gandolf "Gandy" Fitch in the TV series The Rockford Files. He voiced the character Chef from the animated Comedy Central series South Park from its debut in 1997 until 2005, his influences were Percy Mayfield, Big Joe Turner, James Brown, Jerry Butler, Sam Cooke, Fats Domino, Marvin Gaye, Otis Redding, psychedelic soul groups like The Chambers Brothers and Sly and the Family Stone.
On August 5, 2003, Hayes was honored as a BMI Icon at the 2003 BMI Urban Awards for his enduring influence on generations of music makers. Throughout his songwriting career, Hayes received five BMI R&B Awards, two BMI Pop Awards, two BMI Urban Awards and six Million-Air citations; as of 2008, his songs generated more than 12 million performances. Isaac Hayes, Jr. was born in Tennessee, in Tipton County. He was Isaac Hayes, Sr.. After his mother died young and his father abandoned his family, Isaac, Jr. was raised by his maternal grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. Willie Wade, Sr; the child of a sharecropper family, he grew up working on farms in Shelby County, in Tipton County. At age five Hayes began singing at his local church. Hayes dropped out of high school, but his former teachers at Manassas High School in Memphis encouraged him to complete his diploma, which he did at age 21. After graduating from high school, Hayes was offered several music scholarships from colleges and universities, he turned down all of them to provide for his immediate family, working at a meat-packing plant in Memphis by day and playing nightclubs and juke joints several evenings a week in Memphis and nearby northern Mississippi.
His first professional gigs, in the late 1950s, were as a singer at Curry's Club in North Memphis, backed by Ben Branch's houseband. Hayes began his recording career in the early 1960s, as a session player for various acts of the Memphis-based Stax Records, he wrote a string of hit songs with songwriting partner David Porter, including "You Don't Know Like I Know", "Soul Man", "When Something Is Wrong with My Baby" and "Hold On, I'm Comin'" for Sam & Dave. Hayes and Stax studio band Booker T. & the M. G.'s were the producers for Sam & Dave, Carla Thomas and other Stax artists during the mid-1960s. Hayes-Porter contributed to the Stax sound made famous during this period, Sam & Dave credited Hayes for helping develop both their sound and style. In 1968, Hayes released his debut album, Presenting Isaac Hayes, a jazzy improvised effort, commercially unsuccessful, his next album was Hot Buttered Soul, released in 1969 after Stax had gone through a major upheaval. The label had lost its largest star, Otis Redding, in a plane crash in December 1967.
Stax lost all of its back catalog to Atlantic Records in May 1968. As a result, Stax executive vice president Al Bell called for 27 new albums to be completed in mid-1969; this album is noted for his distinct sound. On the album, Hayes reinterpreted "Walk On By" into a 12-minute exploration. "By the Time I Get to Phoenix" starts with an eight-minute-long monologue before breaking into song, the lone original number, the funky "Hyperbolicsyllabicsesquedalymistic" runs nearly ten minutes, a significant break from the standard three-minute soul/pop songs. "Walk On By" would be the first of many times Hayes would take a Burt Bacharach standard made famous as three-minute pop songs by Dionne Warwick or Dusty Springfield, transform it into a soulful and gospel number. In 1970, Hayes
Watch the Throne
Watch the Throne is a collaborative studio album by American rappers Jay-Z and Kanye West, released on August 8, 2011 by Roc-A-Fella Records, Roc Nation, Def Jam Recordings. Before the album, Jay-Z and Kanye had collaborated on various singles, with the latter as a producer on the former's work, they sought out to record a five-song EP together, but the project evolved into a full-length album. The project features guest appearances from Frank Ocean, The-Dream, Beyoncé and Mr. Hudson, as well as posthumous vocals by Otis Redding and Curtis Mayfield, it features vocal contributions from Kid Cudi, Justin Vernon, Elly Jackson, Connie Mitchell, Charlie Wilson and Pete Rock, among others. Recording sessions took place at various locations and began in November 2010, with production on led by West and a variety of high-profile producers, including Mike Dean, Swizz Beatz, Tyler Pase, Jeff Bhasker, The Neptunes, Q-Tip. Expanding on the dense production style of West's 2010 album My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, Watch the Throne incorporates orchestral and progressive rock influences, unconventional samples, dramatic melodies in its sound.
Its braggadocio lyrics exhibit themes of opulence, materialism and the burdens of success, as well as political and socioeconomic context. The album expresses other topics, such as Jay-Z's thoughts on fatherhood, West's reflection on being deemed a social villain, their success as performers. Many writers interpreted the subject matter to concern the rappers' plight as African Americans struggling with financial success in America; the album produced seven singles, including "H•A•M", "Otis", "Lift Off", "No Church in the Wild", the Billboard Hot 100 top five hit "Niggas in Paris", which all received music videos. Jay-Z and West promoted the album with the Watch the Throne Tour that spanned October 2011 to June 2012 and became the second highest grossing hip hop concert tour in history, after Drake's and Future's Summer Sixteen Tour. Watch the Throne debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200, selling 436,000 copies its first week. While some critics found its lyrical content uninspiring, its production and the rappers' performances were praised.
Many critics and publications placed the album in their year-end best-of lists. It earned Jay-Z and West seven Grammy Award nominations, was certified platinum in the US. Jay-Z and Kanye West first worked together on the song "This Can't Be Life", from Jay-Z's 2000 album The Dynasty: Roc La Familia, produced by West on Jay-Z's 2001 album The Blueprint, which showcased West distinctive style of hip hop production at the time. West's early production work on Jay-Z's music helped raise his profile in the music industry. While only viewed as a producer, West was seen as both a viable rapper and producer thanks to the success of his debut album The College Dropout and its singles. West continued to be one of Jay-Z's main producers on subsequent albums such as The Black Album and Kingdom Come. Jay-Z appeared on Kanye's first two albums as well, the two collaborated. Further collaborative work by the two included singles such as "Swagga Like Us" from rapper T. I.'s Paper Trail, "Run This Town" from Jay-Z's The Blueprint 3, "Monster" from West's My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy.
During the promotional stages of West's My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, a remix of the song "Power" surfaced featuring Jay-Z. Following this, Kanye West announced on Twitter his intention to drop a five-track EP with Jay-Z, titled Watch the Throne. According to the rapper, the track "Monster" was intended for the EP, though that failed to surface, it was revealed by Yeezy that the project had been expanded into a full-length album in an October 2010 interview for MTV. He said in the interview. Recording sessions for the album took place at Avex Recording Studio in Hawaii. Production began in November 2010 in England and continued during available times in Jay-Z's and West's schedules at locations in Australia, Abu Dhabi, New York City, Los Angeles. In an interview for Billboard, Jay-Z said that they recorded in hotel rooms and that the album went through three iterations, as he and West had scaled back from their original musical direction, he noted difficulties in the recording process, including arguments with West regarding their direction.
Following the release of lead single, "H•A•M" in January 2011, Jay-Z stated that the less-than-stellar reception caused a change in the production of the album. Jay-Z announced that it was unlikely that the track would make the album; the issues at the beginning of production had caused a delay in the release. In an interview for Rolling Stone, Jay-Z discussed their insistence on recording in person and attributed it to the delay in releasing the album, stating "If we were gonna do it, we were gonna do it together. No mailing it in"; the album's earlier sessions produced a little material. West had brought a majority of his usual production crew onto the project, the same crew that had assisted in the creation of My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy. One of the main exceptions was producer No I. D. who felt that the two artists weren't pushing forward enough with the music. In an interview with Complex, No I. D. commented about the project that "you're going to sell, because you're big. But you guys are important to push this forward.
Push intelligence and decadence and all of the above forward in a creative manner." While his advic
Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington was an American composer and leader of a jazz orchestra, which he led from 1923 until his death over a career spanning more than fifty years. Born in Washington, D. C. Ellington was based in New York City from the mid-1920s onward and gained a national profile through his orchestra's appearances at the Cotton Club in Harlem. In the 1930s, his orchestra toured in Europe. Although considered to have been a pivotal figure in the history of jazz, Ellington embraced the phrase "beyond category" as a liberating principle and referred to his music as part of the more general category of American Music rather than to a musical genre such as jazz; some of the jazz musicians who were members of Ellington's orchestra, such as saxophonist Johnny Hodges, are considered to be among the best players in the idiom. Ellington melded them into the best-known orchestral unit in the history of jazz; some members stayed with the orchestra for several decades. A master at writing miniatures for the three-minute 78 rpm recording format, Ellington wrote more than one thousand compositions.
Ellington recorded songs written by his bandsmen, for example Juan Tizol's "Caravan", "Perdido", which brought a Spanish tinge to big band jazz. In the early 1940s, Ellington began a nearly thirty-year collaboration with composer-arranger-pianist Billy Strayhorn, whom he called his writing and arranging companion. With Strayhorn, he composed many extended compositions, or suites, as well as additional short pieces. Following an appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival, in July 1956, Ellington and his orchestra enjoyed a major revival and embarked on world tours. Ellington recorded for most American record companies of his era, performed in several films, scored several, composed a handful of stage musicals. Ellington was noted for his inventive use of the orchestra, or big band, for his eloquence and charisma, his reputation continued to rise after he died, he was awarded a posthumous Pulitzer Prize Special Award for music in 1999. Ellington was born on April 29, 1899, to James Edward Ellington and Daisy Ellington in Washington, D.
C. Both his parents were pianists. Daisy played parlor songs and James preferred operatic arias, they lived with his maternal grandparents at 2129 Ida Place, NW, in the West End neighborhood of Washington, D. C. Duke's father was born in Lincolnton, North Carolina, on April 15, 1879, moved to Washington, D. C. in 1886 with his parents. Daisy Kennedy was born in Washington, D. C. on January 4, 1879, the daughter of a former American slave. James Ellington made blueprints for the United States Navy; when Ellington was a child, his family showed racial pride and support in their home, as did many other families. African Americans in D. C. worked to protect their children from the era's Jim Crow laws. At the age of seven, Ellington began taking piano lessons from Marietta Clinkscales. Daisy surrounded her son with dignified women to reinforce his manners and teach him to live elegantly. Ellington's childhood friends noticed that his casual, offhand manner, his easy grace, his dapper dress gave him the bearing of a young nobleman, began calling him "Duke."
Ellington credited his friend Edgar McEntree for the nickname. "I think he felt that in order for me to be eligible for his constant companionship, I should have a title. So he called me Duke."Though Ellington took piano lessons, he was more interested in baseball. "President Roosevelt would come by on his horse sometimes, stop and watch us play", he recalled. Ellington went to Armstrong Technical High School in Washington, D. C, he gained his first job selling peanuts at Washington Senators baseball games. In the summer of 1914, while working as a soda jerk at the Poodle Dog Café, Ellington wrote his first composition, "Soda Fountain Rag", he created the piece by ear, as he had not yet learned to write music. "I would play the'Soda Fountain Rag' as a one-step, two-step, waltz and fox trot", Ellington recalled. "Listeners never knew. I was established as having my own repertoire." In his autobiography, Music is my Mistress, Ellington wrote that he missed more lessons than he attended, feeling at the time that playing the piano was not his talent.
Ellington started sneaking into Frank Holiday's Poolroom at the age of fourteen. Hearing the poolroom pianists play ignited Ellington's love for the instrument, he began to take his piano studies seriously. Among the many piano players he listened to were Doc Perry, Lester Dishman, Louis Brown, Turner Layton, Gertie Wells, Clarence Bowser, Sticky Mack, Blind Johnny, Cliff Jackson, Claude Hopkins, Phil Wurd, Caroline Thornton, Luckey Roberts, Eubie Blake, Joe Rochester, Harvey Brooks. Ellington began listening to, imitating ragtime pianists, not only in Washington, D. C. but in Philadelphia and Atlantic City, where he vacationed with his mother during the summer months. He would sometimes hear strange music played by those who could not afford much sheet music, so for variations, they played the sheets upside down. Henry Lee Grant, a Dunbar High School music teacher, gave him private lessons in harmony. With the additional guidance of Washington pianist and band leader Oliver "Doc" Perry, Ellington learned to read sheet music, project a professional style, improve his technique.
Ellington was inspired by his first encounters with stride pianists James P. Johnson and Luckey Roberts. In New York he took advice from Will Marion Cook, Fats Waller, Sidney Bechet. Ellington started to play gigs in cafés and clubs in and aro
The Commitments (film)
The Commitments is a 1991 musical comedy-drama film based on the 1987 novel of the same name by Roddy Doyle. It was directed by Alan Parker from a screenplay written by Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais. Set in the northside of Dublin, the film tells the story of Jimmy Rabbitte, a young music fanatic who assembles a group of working-class youths to form a soul band named "The Commitments". Producers Lynda Myles and Roger Randall-Cutler acquired the film rights to the novel in 1988, commissioned Doyle, a first-time screenwriter, to write an adaptation. Doyle spent one year working on the script before Myles brought in veteran screenwriters Clement and La Frenais to help complete it. Upon reading the novel, Parker signed on as the film's director in 1989. An international co-production between Ireland, the United States and the United Kingdom, The Commitments was the first film to be produced by Beacon Pictures, which provided an estimated budget of $12–15 million; the film's young lead actors were inexperienced, were cast because of their musical backgrounds and resemblance to the characters in the novel.
Principal photography commenced from late August 1990 to October of that year. Upon release, The Commitments grossed $14.9 million during its North American theatrical run. Reviewers praised the music and humour, while criticism was aimed at the pacing and direction; the film received an Academy Award nomination for Best Film Editing, won four BAFTA Awards for Best Film, Best Direction, Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Editing. While only a modest success with North American audiences, The Commitments has gained cult status and is regarded as one of the best Irish films made, it is the first in a series of films known as The Barrytown Trilogy, followed by The Snapper and The Van. In the northside of Dublin, Jimmy Rabbitte is a young music fanatic who aspires to manage an Irish soul band in the tradition of 1960s African-American recording artists, he holds auditions in his parents' home. After being deluged by scores of disastrous performers, Jimmy decides to put together a band consisting of friends and people he encounters—lead singer Deco Cuffe, guitarist Outspan Foster, pianist Steven Clifford, saxophonist Dean Fay, bassist Derek Scully, drummer Billy Mooney, female backup singers Bernie McGloughlin, Natalie Murphy and Imelda Quirke.
Jimmy meets Joey "The Lips" Fagan, a veteran musician who offers his services, has unlikely stories about meeting and working with famous musicians. Joey names the band "The Commitments". After purchasing a drum set and acquiring a piano from Joey's mother, Jimmy secures the remainder of the band's musical equipment from Duffy, a black market dealer; the band rehearses on the second floor above a snooker hall, after much practice, they convince a local church community centre to give them a gig, under the pretence of it being an anti-heroin campaign. Jimmy hires Mickah Wallace, a hot-tempered bouncer, to act as the band's security; the band draws a good crowd, but after Deco inadvertently hits Derek with his microphone stand, the amplifiers explode, resulting in a power outage. Tensions run high among the band members, as Joey begins seducing Imelda and Bernie, Deco grows obnoxious and unruly; the band performs at another venue where, at the end of one song, Billy accidentally knocks over his hi-hat cymbals, leading to a heated argument between him and Deco.
Billy leaves the band in fear of going to jail if he beats up Deco—much to Jimmy's frustration—and Mickah replaces him as the band's drummer. During the band's next performance at a roller disco, Jimmy is confronted by Duffy, who demands payment for the equipment he provided the band. Mickah intervenes and violently attacks Duffy, escorted out. Jimmy goes on stage and introduces the band, which elicits boisterous cheers from the audience. After the band secures another gig, Joey promises Jimmy that he can get his friend, Wilson Pickett, to sing alongside them. On this promise, Jimmy convinces several journalists to attend the band's next performance. At the venue, the band draws a large crowd, but its members begin arguing with each other offstage, become doubtful when it appears that Pickett will not show, they go back on stage, where Deco denounces Jimmy for misleading the audience about Pickett's appearance. After the performance, the fighting continues. Joey follows Jimmy. Just as Joey leaves, Pickett's limousine pulls up next to Jimmy, his driver asks for directions to the club.
In a closing monologue, Jimmy explains that the band's members have since gone their separate ways, with many of them continuing to pursue musical careers, implies that he and Natalie are in a relationship. Following the 1988 publication of Roddy Doyle's novel The Commitments in the United Kingdom, producers Lynda Myles and Roger Randall-Cutler acquired the film rights, asked Doyle to write an adaptation. Doyle, an inexperienced screenwriter, spent one year drafting the script, accompanied by Myles and Randall-Cutler. Although a script was completed, Myles felt it needed improvement, passed the book on to Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais, hoping that they would suggest a more experienced writer. Upon reading the novel, Clement and La Frenais agreed to help write the script themselves. In 1989, Myles took the project to Beacon Pictures, an independent film company established that year by Tom Rosenberg, a former