Clarion Co. Ltd. is a Japanese manufacturer of car audio, automotive navigation systems, AutoPCs, visual equipment, bus equipment, communication equipment. It is majority joined by Foxconn. Up until the end of 2005, products in Japan were marketed under the brand name AddZest, while outside Japan the same product carried the Clarion name brand; this was changed in 2006, the brand "Clarion" along with a redesigned logo are now used worldwide. It is known for its close relationship with Nissan, who uses Clarion products exclusively in its vehicles, owned a 6.25% share in them until 2002. Clarion has an OEM relationship with many automotive companies, providing car headunits and components to them for their production vehicles. Clients include Saab Automobile, Ford, Proton, Toyota and Peugeot. A contest is held annually to select the Clarion Girl, chosen to represent Clarion's car audio equipment in television and print advertising campaigns during the following year; the contest was started in 1975, is now co-sponsored by Fuji TV.
December 1940 – Established as Hakusan Wireless Electric Company in 21 Hakusanmae-cho, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo. November 1943 – Merges with Takizawa Wireless Electric Industries Co. Ltd.. December 1970 – Trade name changed to Clarion Co. Ltd. December 1970 – First overseas factory established as a joint venture in Malaysia. July 1983 – Factory established in France. October 1989 – Manufacturing company established in the Philippines. January 1995 – Clarion Orient Co. established in Hong Kong. March 1995 – ISO9001 certification obtained at all Clarion business sites. April 1995 – Manufacturing company established in China. October 1997 – Manufacturing company established in Hungary. January 1998 – In-car PC “Clarion AutoPC” jointly developed with Microsoft Corporation. December 1998 – Launch of the world's first in-vehicle computer "AutoPC" in the United States. December 1999 – OEM supply of "AutoPC" to French automaker Citroën begins. November 2001 – “AutoPC CADIAS” exhibits at Tokyo Motor Show. March 2002 – Launch of satellite radio receiver in North America.
August 2003 – Started supplying CD car audio to Shanghai GM, China. February 2004 – World First Launch of Linux, Java J2ME CDC equipped in-vehicle information terminal for commercial vehicles. December 2006 – Becomes a Hitachi Group company. January 2007 – Xanavi Informatics Corporation becomes a wholly owned subsidiary. November 2008 – Launch of mobile communication terminal “ClarionMiND” in North America. April 2009 – Wholly owned subsidiary Xanavi Informatics Corp. is absorbed and merged. January 2010 – Car audio supplied to Tata Motors, India for its "Nano" car. October 2010 – Registered Head Office transferred to Saitama Shintoshin. March 2011 – World's first in-vehicle full-digital speakers developed. June 2012 – "Smart Access" cloud-based information network service for vehicles launches in North America. May 2013 – Sales company established in India. September 2015 – Development and release of a new Full Digital Sound August 2018- JL Audio assumes responsibility for Clarion's Marine Audio Electronics and Accessories Business in North America, South America and New Zealand.
October 2018 - Faurecia Automotive announces plans to acquire 100% of Clarion to form a new business unit Faurecia Clarion Electronic Systems to be headquartered in Tokyo Japan, transaction is expected to be complete in the first quarter of 2019. System licensed by Trigence, Demo exhibition held at the Frankfurt Motor Show. Official website Clarion Corporation of America Clarion Japan Clarion Taiwan 歌樂旺企業股份有限公司
HGST Travelstar is a brand of 2.5-inch hard disk drives manufactured by HGST, a subsidiary of Western Digital. These drives are used with laptop computers and small form factor desktop computers. Models are manufactured with capacities ranging from 250 GB to 1 TB, with rotational speeds of 5400 RPM or 7200 RPM and in 7mm or 9.5mm z-heights. All Travelstar drives use the SATA interface. Older models were offered with some in a 1.8" form factor. HGST hard drive product list
The Billiken is a charm doll created by an American art teacher and illustrator, Florence Pretz of Kansas City, said to have seen the mysterious figure in a dream. It is believed that Pretz found the name Billiken in Bliss Carman's 1896 poem Mr. Moon: A Song Of The Little People. In 1908, she obtained a design patent on the ornamental design of the Billiken, which she sold to the Billiken Company of Chicago; the Billiken was monkey-like with pointed ears, a mischievous smile and a tuft of hair on his pointed head. His arms were short and he was sitting with his legs stretched out in front of him. Billiken is known as "The God of Things As They Ought to Be." To buy a Billiken was said to give the purchaser luck, but to receive one as a gift would be better luck. The image was copyrighted and a trademark was put on the name. After a few years of popularity, the Billiken faded into obscurity. Although they are similar, the Billiken and the baby-like Kewpie figures that debuted in the December 1909 Ladies' Home Journal are not the same.
Today, the Billiken is the official mascot of Saint Louis University and St. Louis University High School, both Jesuit institutions located in St. Louis; the Billiken is the official mascot of the Royal Order of Jesters, an invitation only Shriner group, affiliated with Freemasonry. The Billiken became the namesake of Billiken Shokai, the Japanese toy & model manufacturing company. Many current online articles about the Billikens are based on an article by anthropologist Dorothy Jean Ray that first appeared in Alaska Sportsman in 1960, with an updated version in Alaska Journal in 1973; the Billiken sprang from the height of the "Mind-Cure" craze in the United States at the start of the twentieth century. It represented the "no worry" ideal, was a huge hit. Variations appeared, such as the Billycan/Billycant pair; the Billiken helped touch off the doll craze of the era. At least two Billiken-themed songs were recorded, including "Billiken Rag" and the "Billiken Man Song." The latter was recorded by Blanche Ring.
The Billiken, as a good luck charm, appears multiple times in the Vivien Leigh and Robert Taylor movie Waterloo Bridge. It is employed as a device that both prompts recollections of the male lead, Robert Taylor, that links several scenes within the movie as the plot unfolds. Wizard of Oz author L. Frank Baum kept a Billiken doll on his piano; the Billiken made its Japanese debut in 1908. A statue was installed in the uppermost level of the original Tsutenkaku Tower as it was opened to the public in 1912; when the nearby Luna Park was closed in 1925, the tower's Billiken statue disappeared. In 1980, a replacement statue made its appearance in a new Tsutenkaku Tower, built in 1956. In its heyday, the Billiken enjoyed worldwide celebrity. In America he became the athletic mascot of Saint Louis University, because the figure was said to resemble coach John R. Bender; the school's athletic teams remain the Billikens to this day. A bronze statue of the Billiken stands in front of the Chaifetz Arena on the Saint Louis University Campus.
A junior version of the Billiken became the mascot of nearby Saint Louis University High School. Bud Billiken was a youth-club mascot for the Chicago Defender, was created in 1923, is known more contemporarily as the inspiration for the yearly parade of the same name held shortly before the start of the school year; the Billiken was the team nickname for several minor league professional baseball teams, including the Fort Wayne Billikens of the 1908–1910 Central League, the Montgomery Billikens of the 1910 Southern Association, the Bay City Billikens of the 1911 and 1912 Southern Michigan League, the McLeansboro Billikens of the 1910 Kentucky–Illinois–Tennessee League, a Class D professional baseball league that ran from 1903 until 1955. McLeansboro is located 116 miles from St. Louis; the Billiken is now used as the mascot for Saint Louis University. In 1909, the Billiken began its appearance in souvenir shops of Alaska. In Nome, Alaska, an Eskimo carver by the name Angokwazhuk copied a Billiken figurine in ivory brought to him by a merchant.
Since that first appearance in Alaska, some Eskimo carvers began to include the billiken in the collection of figurines they created. By the 1960s the Billiken was ubiquitous in larger Alaskan cities like Anchorage, touristed areas. Billikens were carved from Alaskan ivory and were used in jewelry and knick-knacks; these souvenirs were accompanied by printed, romanticized Billiken lore. In Anchorage, the name was adopted by merchants, as in the Billiken Drive-In movie theater. Throughout Japan representations of the Billiken were enshrined. Pre-World War II statues of the Billiken can be found in Kobe city's Chinju Inari and Matsuo Inari shrines. Both of these statues were removed from display for many years at the onset of the war when foreign deities fell out of favor; the most famous representation of the Billiken was in an amusement park, Luna Park, in the Shinsekai district of Osaka, Japan. In 1912, he was enshrined in the park as a symbol of Americana and there was revered as "The God of Things As They Ought to Be".
Popular Billiken souvenirs in the park included manju. When the park closed in 1923, the wooden statue of the Billiken went missing. A replica of the statue was placed in the second-generation Tsutenkaku Tower in 1980; the Billiken was a star in Sakamoto Junji's 1996 comedy Bill
Renesas Electronics Corporation TYO: 6723 is a Japanese semiconductor manufacturer headquartered in Tokyo. It has manufacturing and sales operations in around 20 countries, it was the world's largest auto semiconductor maker in 2014, the world's largest maker of microcontrollers. It makes mixed-signal integrated circuits and system on a chip. "Renesas" is a contraction of RENaissance SEmiconductor for Advanced Solutions. Renesas Electronics started operation in April 2010, through the integration of NEC Electronics Corporation and Renesas Technology Corporation. NEC Electronics was established in November 2002 by a spin-off of the semiconductor operations of NEC. Renesas Technology was established on April 1, 2003, as a joint venture of Hitachi, Ltd. and Mitsubishi Electric. In April 2009, Renesas Technology and NEC Electronics reached a basic agreement to merge by around April 2010. On April 1, 2010 NEC Electronics and Renesas Technology merged, forming Renesas Electronics which became the fourth largest semiconductor company according to iSuppli published data.
In December 2010 Renesas Mobile Corporation was created by integrating the Mobile Multimedia Business Unit of Renesas with the acquired Nokia Wireless Modem Business Unit. In 2011, Renesas Electronics was adversely affected by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami and flooding in Thailand. In 2012, the company decided to restructure its business, including the sale and consolidation of its Japanese domestic plants, to get profitable. In December 2012, INCJ, Japan’s government-backed fund, several key clients decided to invest in the company. Through the investment, Renesas aimed to secure 150 billion yen as fresh capital by September 2013 and use it for realizing the Smart Society through investment in the microcontroller and Analog & Power semiconductor development, plant improvements and industrial semiconductor solutions and corporate acquisitions. In September 2013, Broadcom Corporation acquired most of Renesas Mobile Communication. With the allotment of third-party shares to Innovation Network Corporation of Japan and 8 other companies in September 2013, Innovation Network Corporation of Japan became the largest shareholder.
In the fiscal year ending March 2014, Renesas records its first net profit since it operated as Renesas Electronics Corporation in 2010. To achieve a profit-generating corporate structure, Renesas announced its new business direction and issued its corporate presentation titled "Reforming Renesas” in October 2013. In September 2016, Renesas announced. Renesas presented its Mid-Term Growth Strategy in November, 2016. In February 2017, Renesas completed the acquisition of Intersil Corporation. In April 2017, Renesas unveiled in a self-driving demo car at a global developer conference that it will start delivering a new line of products for self-driving cars in December 2017 as it takes on global giants such as Intel Corp; the new technology acts as an onboard nerve center and controlling vehicle functions. In September 2018, Renesas announced; the deal is expected to close in the first half of 2019. In March 2019, Renesas completed the acquisition of IDT. Renesas Electronics' products include: Microcontrollers/microprocessors System LSIs ASICs Logic ICs Analog ICs ASSP Discrete devices Memory ICs The largest stockholders and their ownership ratio of Renesas are as follows as of December 31, 2018.
At the end of September 2013, Renesas issued new shares through third-party allotment resulting in Innovation Network Corporation of Japan becoming the new largest shareholder and non-parental controlling shareholder. In early May 2012, NEC transferred part of its stake in Renesas to its employee pension trust; as a result, the NEC pension fund held 32.4 percent of Renesas. Official website
The Euclid Company of Ohio was a company specialized in heavy equipment for earthmoving, namely dump trucks and wheel tractor-scrapers, that operated from the United States of America from the 1920s to the 1950s it was purchased and converted into a section of General Motors and on by Hitachi Construction Machinery. The Euclid Company of Ohio specialized in off-road heavy haulers designed as off-road haulers - as compared to other companies, that modified on-road trucks for off-road earth-hauling; the Euclid Crane and Hoist Co, owned by George A. Armington and his 5 sons, was a large and profitable operation, when they introduced the Euclid Automatic Rotary Scraper in 1924 - soon followed by the Euclid Wheeler scraper; these earth-moving products were conceived by George's eldest son, who envisioned a good future in designing earth-moving equipment, steered the company into the earth-moving field. The two models of scrapers were successful, a third model, the Euclid Contractors Special, designed to cope with hard ground, was more successful.
Arthur and his father had built a successful prototype crawler, tested it on the family farm, but the idea was dropped for reasons unknown. The success of the scrapers led to the formation of the Road Machinery Division, of Euclid Crane and Hoist, in 1926. Big public works construction programs of 1927 and 1928, requiring large excavations, saw further success of the Euclid Road Machinery division. Euclid produced crawler wagons on tracks known as Euclid Tu-Way haulers; the crawler track speed restriction was seen as a problem, the next version used steel wheels for improved speed. George Armington Jr was a keen hydraulics designer, produced the first hydraulic Euclid dumpers around 1930; the Great Depression did not appear to affect Euclid and the expansion of the earthmoving portion of the Euclid business, led to the incorporation of the Euclid Road Machinery Co, on July 11, 1931. This company remained a subsidiary of Euclid Armington Corp, until January 1, 1933, when the companies were separated - and Euclid Road Machinery, became a producer of fast, off-road earthmoving haulers.
The Euclid company produced its first designed, 7 yards long, off-road dump truck, the Model 1Z, in January 1934. It was powered by a 100HP Waukesha gasoline engine, it used a specially designed heavy duty, Euclid rear axle, fitted with a new 17.5 x 24 tire, which had just been released by the tire industry. Although Mack had produced a 14 yards long, heavy duty off-road hauler in 1931 for the Boulder Dam project - it was a beefed-up, road-going, chain-drive AC Bulldog Mack; the next Euclid design, was an tractor/trailer style, bottom dumper. This was known as the Model Z or ZW. Euclid went on to produce thousands of off-road haulers and scrapers, of improving and larger design and became a large corporation by the early 1950s. In 1953 the Euclid Corporation was purchased by General Motors, in what the leaders of both companies saw as an advantageous deal, with complementary product lines; this deal came about, due to GM's awakened desire to enter into the earthmoving manufacturing field and the realisation by the Armington family, that a GM takeover would provide capital and design ability that they could only dream about.
The GM takeover deal was announced on September 30, 1953, with the official takeover date being January 1, 1954. Arthur Armington had died in 1937, leading to a stumble in Euclids fortunes - but George Armington died in 1954, at the age of 89, after overseeing the sale of Euclid to GM. Sons Stuart & Everett Armington retired in 1953, George Jr retired in 1958 - with the youngest son Ray, being the last Armington to retire in 1960, after 7 years as General Manager of GM's Euclid Division; the 1950s and 1960s were good years for Euclid Trucks. Euclid produced the industry's first 50-ton, 3 axle dump truck, with twin Cummins power, in 1951. Euclid produced two and three axle dump trucks in this period; some of the largest three axle units, being used as tractors for larger end dumps, bottom dump haulers. In 1959 the Department of Justice under Attorney General William P. Rogers initiated an anti-trust suit, under the Clayton Act, against General Motors Corporation, it charged that GM was too dominant, its business methods stifled competition in the off-road hauler and earthmoving market.
GM fought the suit for 8 years surrendering in 1968, agreeing to sell the Euclid Division. After the sale of Euclid to White Motor Corporation, GM formed the Terex brand. Under the sale agreement with White, GM was not allowed to produce trucks in competition with White for 4 years – from July 1, 1968, to July 1, 1972. GM could produce off-road haul trucks in this period, but could not sell them in the US. GM equipment dealers in the US were offered a franchise deal from White to sell the White/Euclid line of trucks for a period of 4 years; the international Euclid dealerships were still owned by GM, thus forcing White to form all-new international dealerships. GM produced haul trucks in the 1968-1972 period that it had developed during its ownership of Euclid from plants in Canada and Scotland, that it had been allowed to keep; these were sold as Terex, but were the same as the Euclid line. The Euclid Company lost its prominence after the sale to White, never achieved the standing that it enjoyed before the GM acquisition.
After the company was purchased by Hitachi Construction Machinery Co. Ltd. it is now producing a range of models of truck under the Hitachi name (although it is branded as a Euclid, several component
Hitachi Rail Italy
Hitachi Rail Italy S.p. A. is a rail transport engineering company based in Italy whose main products are the design and manufacturing of railway and mass transit vehicles. AnsaldoBreda S.p. A. A subsidiary of Finmeccanica, the company was sold in 2015 to Hitachi Rail along with the 40% share of Ansaldo STS that Finmeccanica owned. After the deal was finalized, the current name was adapted in November 2015 to reflect the new ownership. In 1853, the company Gio. Ansaldo & C. was registered in Genoa as a manufacturer of steam locomotives, rail rolling stock and steam engines. The company was supported by the Minister of Finance, Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, who aimed to reduce the State of Savoy's dependence on imported trains and rolling stock. Ansaldo entered the age of the steam locomotive in 1854 with its model FS113 known as Sampierdarena. In 1886, Ernesto Breda founded Ing. Ernesto Breda and C. the company which became Società Italiana Ernesto Breda in 1899. In 1908 SIEB's thousandth locomotive was built, a model FS 685 with serial number 600 now preserved in the Leonardo da Vinci Museum of Science and Technology in Milan.
It used. Breda entered the electric locomotive era in 1936 with the production of the FS Class ETR 200 series electric multiple unit. In 1939 this type set the land speed record for rail vehicles at 203 km/h. Although only 18 trains of this type were constructed they remained in service for a long time until they were withdrawn from service in 1993. In 1976 the FS ETR 400 entered service. Fiat Ferroviaria manufactured the body and bogies, whilst Ansaldo produced the power unit, it was the first train in the world featuring active body tilting to enter commercial service and was capable of speeds of up to 250 km/h. AnsaldoBreda was formed in 2001 by the merger of Ansaldo Trasporti and Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie, was part of the Finmeccanica group, it has production sites at four locations in Italy: Naples, Reggio Calabria and Pistoia. The TREVI Consortium, of which Ansaldo and Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie were members, introduced the high speed FS ETR 500 series in 1989. AnsaldoBreda won the contract for 82 new IC4 trains for the Danish national operator DSB.
However, the introduction of the units was plagued by problems, whilst the trains were scheduled to come into service in 2003, the final unit was delivered in 2013. Following more train failures, DSB announced the fleet would be phased out from 2024; the first high-speed trains to run on Turkish rails were two ETR 500 train sets leased from Trenitalia of Italy and were used for testing the completed part of the high-speed railway network between Eskişehir and Ankara on April 23, 2007. During the tests, ETR 500 Y2 achieved the current rail speed record in Turkey; the train was capable of exceeding 300 km/h. It reached 362 km/h in the Monte Bibele tunnel between Florence and Bologna in 2009, setting a speed record for trains in a tunnel. Another high speed train Frecciarossa 1000 high speed train was developed in a consortium with Bombardier Transportation; the first ETR1000 was christened Mennea in honour of the Italian athlete Pietro Mennea who had died five days earlier. Besides the construction of locomotives, AnsaldoBreda manufactures railway cars and trains for commuter rail, high-speed rail, main lines.
Finmeccanica and Hitachi announced on 2 November 2015 the'closing of transactions' covering the acquisition by Hitachi of AnsaldoBreda and Finmeccanica’s 40% stake in Ansaldo STS. Under the agreements signed on 24 February 2015, following a dividend distribution announced on 6 March, the purchase price for Finmeccanica’s stake in Ansaldo STS has been set at €9.50 per share, amounting to a total of €761m. The total net consideration to be paid for AnsaldoBreda as a going concern, including property assets, amounts to around €30m; as a part of the deal Finmeccanica would keep the responsibility for some residual contracts. On 2 November 2015 AnsaldoBreda was changed its name to Hitachi Rail Italy. Since acquired by Hitachi, production of some British Rail Class 802 has been shifted to Hitachi Rail Italy's Pistoia plant due to Hitachi Rail's Newton Aycliffe, England plant being at capacity. Elettrotreno ETR 200 for Fortaleza Metro running in the Linha Sul AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro for Copenhagen Metro.
Diesel multiple unit IC4 for DSB AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Athens Tram. high-speed ETR 500 for Trenitalia of Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane. High-speed Frecciarossa 1000 for Trenitalia of Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane. Locomotive E.402 locomotive E.403 multiple unit Treno Servizio Regionale for LeNORD. Multiple unit Treno ad alta frequentazione for Ferrovie Nord Milano. Multiple unit Caravaggio for Trenitalia and FNM. three-car articulated units ETR 211 Metrostar for Circumvesuviana. The Circumvesuviana operate a fleet of twenty-six "Metrostar". Meneghino for Milan Metro. Leonardo for Milan Metro. AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro for Milan Metro and Brescia Metro. AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Tramvie Elettriche Bergamasche of Bergamo. AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Rete tranviaria di Firenze of Florence. AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Naples tramway network of Naples and for Sassari metro-tramway. Multiple unit TAF Z2M for ONCF; the ONCF operates a fleet of 24 trains. Electric multiple unit NSB Class 72 for Norwegian State Railways.
The NSB operates a fleet of 36 trains. Multiple unit SL95 for Oslo Tramway. Sporveien Trikken operates a fleet of articulated trams. Over the years, AnsaldoBreda has updated the equipment to meet the requirements and demands of the operator in Norway. Multiple unit AnsaldoBreda series S7000 operates on the Line 10 Madrid Metro; the Madrid Metro operates a fleet of 37 trains
A skyway, skybridge, or skywalk is a type of pedway consisting of an enclosed or covered footbridge between two or more buildings in an urban area. This protects pedestrians from the weather. In North America skyways are owned by businesses, are therefore not public spaces. However, in Asia, such as Bangkok's and Hong Kong's skywalks, they are built and owned separately by the city government, connecting between run rail stations or other transport with their own footbridges, run many kilometers. Skyways connect on the first few floors above the ground-level floor, though they are sometimes much higher, as in Petronas Towers; the space in the buildings connected by skyways is devoted to retail business, so areas around the skyway may operate as a shopping mall. Non-commercial areas with associated buildings, such as university campuses, can have skyways and/or tunnels connecting buildings; the world's largest discontinuous skyway network – Calgary, Canada's "+15 Walkway" system – has a total length of 18 km.
The Minneapolis Skyway System is the world's largest continuous system and spans 11 miles connecting 80 blocks in downtown Minneapolis. On a smaller scale, terminals of large airports are connected by skywalk systems, as at Manchester Airport, United Kingdom; some cities have the equivalent of a skyway underground, there are mixed subway/skyway systems. Florence, Vasari Corridor, connects Palazzo Vecchio to Uffizi and to Palazzo Pitti, 16th century Venice, Bridge of Sighs, connects Doge's Palace and prison, 16th century Copenhagen, Denmark: skywalk connecting courts building to adjacent uses, 18th century Faaborg, Denmark: skywalk in centrum, 18th century Besides pedestrian safety and convenience, the chief reasons assigned by urban planners for skywalk development are decrease of traffic congestion, reduction in vehicular air pollution and separation of people from vehicular noise. A number of cities have given intricate analysis to skywalk systems employing computer models to optimize skywalk layout.
There is debate about the negative impact on urban areas of skyways. Robertson noted the negative impacts to street activities, reductions to the property value at ground level. Woo found. Cui called for more research into the impact of skyways in developing countries. There are significant skyway networks in many cities in the US Midwest, such as Minneapolis, Saint Paul, Des Moines, Cedar Rapids, Rochester and Duluth. Most networks in North America are owned. A notable exception in are the Saint Paul skyways. Highest cantilevered skybridge between buildings in the world now placed in local Raffles City skyscrapers complex in Chongqing, China. World longest 430-meters pedestrian hanging skywalk Zhangjiajie Glass Bridge between mountain peaks situated in China. One of the most famous similar cantilevered skybridges known in Singapore's Marina Bay Sands resort complex of skyscrapers. Wide known the world's highest 2-story skybridge, 170 m above the ground and 58 m long, between the two towers on 41st and 42nd floors in Petronas Twin Towers dual skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Malaysia have the mountainarian tourist pedestrian glass-bottom Langkawi Sky Bridge in Kedah, Langkawi. One of the most impessionable hanging pedestrian skybridges, supported by two giant hands, Golden Bridge now attracts the tourists in Ba Na Hills near Da Nang, Vietnam. In Bangkok, Thailand there are more than 5.4 km of covered wide dedicated elevated skywalks with lighting. These were developed due to lack of proper sidewalks as well as street hawkers and local merchants taking advantage of any sidewalk space as makeshift commercial real estate. Common reasons skywalks were built include to avoid street pollution, wetness from food vendors and/or rain, long queues and uneven pavement, supporting urbanism but most tourism receipts. Most skywalks connect to a BTS station and utilize space underneath the rail line and BTS pillar supports; these skywalks have connector ramps which connect stations to malls seamlessly and are paid for by the malls themselves, otherwise the city and BTS fund walkway development.
A 50km long extension project was shelved in 2011 due to funding issues the system is growing organically. In Hong Kong, there are numerous foot bridge networks across the city. Large networks exists around elevated or at grade MTR stations and connections between malls and housing estates in new town centers; the largest network spans Admiralty and parts of Sheung Wan districts in the CBD and consists of the Central Elevated and Central–Mid-Levels Walkway systems which link up over 40 major office buildings. The Central–Mid-Levels walkway system is the longest outdoor covered escalator system in the world according to Guinness World Records. Other large systems exist in Mong Kok; the Mumbai Skywalk Project is a planned discontinuous network of over 50 km of skywalks in Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India. The skyways will connect Mumbai Suburban Railway stations to important junctions, each 1 to 2 km in length; the first of these is a 1.3 km long skywalk connecting the suburban regions of Kurla.
Additionally, short skyways are used to connect buildings in other Asian locations. Brussels, Belgium has a skyway between the two Belgacom Towers. London has skywalks on the Barbican London Wall; the City of London Pedway S