Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time daylight savings time or daylight time and summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. In effect, DST causes a lost hour of an extra hour of sleep in the fall. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895; the German Empire and Austria-Hungary organized the first nationwide implementation starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used at various times since particularly since the 1970s energy crisis. DST is not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it; some countries observe it only in some regions. Only a minority of the world's population uses DST, because Asia and Africa do not observe it. DST clock shifts sometimes complicate timekeeping and can disrupt travel, record keeping, medical devices, heavy equipment, sleep patterns.
Computer software adjusts clocks automatically, but policy changes by various jurisdictions of DST dates and timings may be confusing. Industrialized societies follow a clock-based schedule for daily activities that do not change throughout the course of the year; the time of day that individuals begin and end work or school, the coordination of mass transit, for example remain constant year-round. In contrast, an agrarian society's daily routines for work and personal conduct are more governed by the length of daylight hours and by solar time, which change seasonally because of the Earth's axial tilt. North and south of the tropics daylight lasts longer in summer and shorter in winter, with the effect becoming greater the further one moves away from the tropics. By synchronously resetting all clocks in a region to one hour ahead of standard time, individuals who follow such a year-round schedule will wake an hour earlier than they would have otherwise. However, they will have one less hour of daylight at the start of each day, making the policy less practical during winter.
While the times of sunrise and sunset change at equal rates as the seasons change, proponents of Daylight Saving Time argue that most people prefer a greater increase in daylight hours after the typical "nine to five" workday. Supporters have argued that DST decreases energy consumption by reducing the need for lighting and heating, but the actual effect on overall energy use is disputed; the manipulation of time at higher latitudes has little impact on daily life, because the length of day and night changes more throughout the seasons, thus sunrise and sunset times are out of phase with standard working hours regardless of manipulations of the clock. DST is of little use for locations near the equator, because these regions see only a small variation in daylight in the course of the year; the effect varies according to how far east or west the location is within its time zone, with locations farther east inside the time zone benefiting more from DST than locations farther west in the same time zone.
Ancient civilizations adjusted daily schedules to the sun more flexibly than DST does dividing daylight into 12 hours regardless of daytime, so that each daylight hour became progressively longer during spring and shorter during autumn. For example, the Romans kept time with water clocks that had different scales for different months of the year. From the 14th century onwards, equal-length civil hours supplanted unequal ones, so civil time no longer varies by season. Unequal hours are still used in a few traditional settings, such as some monasteries of Mount Athos and all Jewish ceremonies. Benjamin Franklin published the proverb "early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy and wise", he published a letter in the Journal de Paris during his time as an American envoy to France suggesting that Parisians economize on candles by rising earlier to use morning sunlight; this 1784 satire proposed taxing window shutters, rationing candles, waking the public by ringing church bells and firing cannons at sunrise.
Despite common misconception, Franklin did not propose DST. However, this changed as rail transport and communication networks required a standardization of time unknown in Franklin's day. In 1810, the Spanish National Assembly Cortes of Cádiz issued a regulation that moved certain meeting times forward by one hour from May 1 to September 30 in recognition of seasonal changes, but it did not change the clocks, it acknowledged that private businesses were in the practice of changing their opening hours to suit daylight conditions, but they did so of their own volition. New Zealand entomologist George Hudson first proposed modern DST, his shift-work job gave him leisure time to collect insects and led him to value after-hours daylight. In 1895, he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society proposing a two-hour daylight-saving shift, considerable interest was expressed in
Svaneti or Svanetia is a historic province of Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country. It is inhabited by an ethnic subgroup of Georgians. Situated on the southern slopes of the central Caucasus Mountains and surrounded by 3,000–5,000 meter peaks, Svaneti is the highest inhabited area in the Caucasus. Four of the 10 highest peaks of the Caucasus are located in the region; the highest mountain in Georgia, Mount Shkhara at 5,201 meters, is located in the province. Prominent peaks include Tetnuldi, Shota Rustaveli, Mount Ushba, Ailama, as well as Lalveri and others. Svaneti has two parts corresponding to two inhabited valleys: Upper Svaneti on the upper Inguri River. Historical Svaneti included the Kodori Gorge in the adjoining rebel province of Abkhazia, part of the adjacent river valleys of Kuban and Baksan north of the crest of the Caucasus. Writing in 1848, Bodenstedt said that Upper Svaneti could only be reached by a difficult footpath, closed in winter; the landscape of Svaneti is dominated by mountains.
Most of the region which lies below 1,800 meters above sea level is covered by mixed and coniferous forests. The forest zone is made up of tree species such as spruce, beech and hornbeam. Other species that are less common but may still be found in some areas include chestnut, maple and box; the zone which extends from 1,800 meters to about 3,000 meters above sea level consists of alpine meadows and grasslands. Eternal snows and glaciers take over in areas; the region is notable for its picturesque summits. Svaneti's signature peak is Mount Ushba which towers over the Inguri Gorge and can be seen from many parts of the region; the climate of Svaneti is humid and is influenced by the air masses coming in from the Black Sea throughout the year. Average temperatures and precipitation vary with elevation. Annual precipitation ranges between 1000 and 3200 mm; the highest amount of precipitation falls on the Greater Caucasus Mountains. The region is characterized by heavy snowfall in the winter and avalanches are a frequent occurrence.
Snow cover may reach 5 meters in some areas. In general, the lowest regions of Svaneti are characterized by long, warm summers and cold and snowy winters. Middle altitudes experience warm summers and cold winters. Areas above 2000 meters above sea level lie within a zone that experiences short, cool summers and long and cold winters. Large parts of Svaneti lie above 3000 meters above sea level, a zone which does not have a real summer. Due to Svaneti's close proximity to the Black Sea, the region is spared from the cold winter temperatures that are characteristic of high mountains; the Svans are identified with the Soanes mentioned by Greek geographer Strabo, who placed them more or less in the area still occupied by the modern-day Svans. The province had been a dependency of Colchis, of its successor kingdom of Lazica until AD 552, when the Svans took advantage of the Lazic War, repudiated this connection and went over to the Persians; the Byzantines wanted the region, for if they secured its passes, they could prevent Persian raids on the border areas of Lazica.
With the end of the war, Svanetia again became part of Lazica. The province joined the Kingdom of Abkhazia to form a unified monarchy, incorporated into the Kingdom of Georgia in the early 11th century. Svanetia became a duchy within it, governed by a duke; the province’s Orthodox culture flourished during the Georgian “golden age” under Queen Tamar, respected as goddess by the Svanetians. The legend has it; the Svans had been known as fierce warriors for centuries. Their inflatable war banner was named Lemi because of its shape; the marauding Mongols never reached Svanetia and, for a time, the region became a cultural safe house. Following the final disintegration of the Kingdom of Georgia in the 1460s, fighting broke out for controlling the province. Part of Upper Svanetia formed an independent principality under the Princes Dadeshkeliani, a branch of the Gelovani family, while Lower Svanetia ruled by the Princes Gelovani, was temporarily usurped and subdued by the Mingrelian princes Dadiani.
Facing serious internal conflict, Prince Tsioq’ Dadeshkeliani of Svanetia signed a treaty of protectorate with the Russian Empire on November 26, 1833. Difficult to access, the region retained significant autonomy until 1857, when Russia took advantage of the dynastic feud in Svanetia and abolished the principality’s autonomy. In 1875, the Russians toughened their rule by imposing additional taxes. Protests ensued, Russia deployed troops against the province. Despite having suffered heavy losses, the Russian army units crushed the rebels burning their stronghold Khalde to the ground in 1876. Part of the Russian governorate of Kutais, Svanetia was divided into two raions — Mestia (for
Kobuleti is a town in Adjara, western Georgia, situated on the eastern coast of the Black Sea. It is the seat of Kobuleti Municipality and a seaside resort, visited annually by Georgians and many former Soviet Union residents, it is popular with Armenian tourists. The town is situated in the south-western part of Georgia, i.e. the northern part of the Autonomous Republic of Ajara. It borders with Ozurgeti Region to the north; the Regional centre is Kobuleti City. Kobuleti Region consists of two district and seventeen village councils. There are 48 villages in the Region. Representatives of 24 different nationalities live together with Georgians in the Region. Kobuleti is known with its traditions, climatic areas, mild subtropical climate, ionized maritime air, bright shining sun and warm sea; the unique sandy beach inclined to the sea is noted with its marvelous views beautified by sky-scraped endemic pine trees, bamboo, cypress grove and cocoa palms. The Kintrishi and Tikeri reserve areas are unique with their bio-diversity.
One can find rare flora in the Ispani marsh. The surrounding region has diverse soil: seashore lowland is rich in peatbog soil. There are alpine rocks in the highlands, red soil is found in the hill areas; the mountainous area is good for subtropical species. Kobuleti has several rivers; the most important ones are the Kintrishi River, the Chakvistskali River, the Acharistskali River, the Ochkhamuri River, the Achkva River, the Dekhva River. Kintrishi Protected Landscape and Kobuleti Managed Reserve are located in Kobuleti. Kakhaber Mzhavanadze, footballer Jano Ananidze, footballer Adjara Media related to Kobuleti at Wikimedia Commons
Gantiadi or Tsandryphsh, is an urban-type settlement on the Black Sea coast in Georgia, in the Gagra District of Abkhazia, 5 km from the Russian border. Gantiadi in historical times, was known as Sauchi; until 1944 as Yermolov, after the Russian general Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov. From 1944 until 1991, the settlement was known from the Georgian word for Dawn. After the 1992-93 war in Abkhazia, Gantiadi was renamed as Tsandrypsh by the de facto government, but the name Gantiadi is still used informally among Abkhazians and in other languages; the name Tsandrypsh derives from the princely family Tsanba. Gantiadi is said to have been the historical capital of the principality of Saniga before the 6th century AD, it became the capital of Sadzen. In 2011, Gantiadi had a population of 5,170. Of these, 55.9% were Armenians, 19.6% Abkhaz, 18.4% Russians, 1.2% Ukrainians, 0.9% Georgians and 0.7% Greeks. Tsandryphsh houses a 6th century Georgian Christian church. A personal residence of Joseph Stalin is located here.
Gagra District De facto government's website of Gantiadi
Chakvi spelled Chakva, is a resort town in Georgia by the Black Sea coast. It is part of Kobuleti Municipality. Chakvi is known throughout Georgia as being the birthplace of tea production in Georgia. Chakvi was one of several tea producing areas. Wild tea plants can still be found, some limited tea production still continues, in the hills above Chakvi. In July 2007 the $600,000 Chakvi radar station was constructed through oversight of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Europe District, it serves both the military port. Adjara Media related to Chakvi at Wikimedia Commons