The Yarlung Tsangpo called Yarlung Zangbo or Yalu Zangbu is the longest river of Tibet Autonomous Region, China. It is the upper stream of the Brahmaputra River. Originating at Angsi Glacier in western Tibet, southeast of Mount Kailash and Lake Manasarovar, it forms the South Tibet Valley and Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon before passing into the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Downstream from Arunachal Pradesh the river is called the Siang. After reaching Assam, the river is known as Brahmaputra. From Assam, the river enters Bangladesh at Ramnabazar. From there until about 200 years ago it used to flow eastward and joined the Meghna River near Bhairab Upazila; this old channel has been dying. At present the main channel of the river is called Jamuna River, which flows southward to meet Ganges, which in Bangladesh is called the Padma; when leaving the Tibetan Plateau, the River forms the world's largest and deepest canyon, Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon. The Yarlung Tsangpo River is the highest major river in the world.
Its longest tributary is the Nyang River. Major tributaries of Yarlung Tsangpo include Nyangchu River, Lhasa River, Nyang River, Parlung Tsangpo. In Tibet the river flows through the South Tibet Valley, 1,200 kilometres long and 300 kilometres wide; the valley descends from 4,500 metres above sea level to 3,000 metres. As it descends, the surrounding vegetation changes from cold desert to arid steppe to deciduous scrub vegetation, it changes into a conifer and rhododendron forest. The tree line is 3,200 metres. Sedimentary sandstone rocks found near the Tibetan capital of Lhasa contain grains of magnetic minerals that record the Earth's alternating magnetic field current; the basin of the Yarlung River, bounded by the Himalayas in the south and Kang Rinpoche and Nyenchen Tanglha Mountains in the north, has less severe climate than the more northern parts of Tibet, is home to most of the population of the Tibetan Autonomous Region. The Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon, formed by a horse-shoe bend in the river where it leaves the Tibetan Plateau and flows around Namcha Barwa, is the deepest, longest canyon in the world.
The Yarlung Tsangpo River has three major waterfalls in its entire course. The largest waterfall of the river, the "Hidden Falls", was not publicized in the West until 1998, when its sighting by Westerners was hailed as a "discovery." They were portrayed as the discovery of the great falls, the topic of stories told to early Westerners by Tibetan hunters and Buddhist monks, but which had never been found by Western explorers at the time. The Chinese authorities protested, saying that Chinese geographers, who had explored the gorge since 1973, had taken pictures of the falls in 1987 from a helicopter. Since the 1990s the Yarlung Tsangpo River has been the destination of a number of teams that engage in exploration and whitewater kayaking; the river has been called the “Everest of Rivers” because of the extreme conditions of the river. The first attempt to run was made in 1993 by a Japanese group. In October 1998, a kayaking expedition sponsored by the National Geographic Society attempted to navigate the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon.
Troubled by unanticipated high water levels, the expedition ended in tragedy when expert kayaker Doug Gordon lost his life. In January–February, 2002, an international group consisting of Scott Lindgren, Steve Fisher, Mike Abbott, Allan Ellard, Dustin Knapp, Johnnie and Willie Kern, completed the first descent of the upper Tsangpo gorge section. River from Heaven Documentary film by CNTV
The Sun Kosi called Sun Koshi, is a trans-boundary river that originates in the Tibet and it is part of the Koshi or Saptkoshi River system in Nepal. The Sun Kosi's headwaters are located in the Zhangzangbo Glacier in Tibet, its upper course, the Bhote Koshi, is known as Poiqu in Tibet. Both river courses together form one basin that covers an area of about 3,394 km2; the Indravati meets the Sun Kosi at Dolaghat, up to. From there, the Sun Kosi flows eastwards through the valley formed between the Mahabharat Range and the Himalayas. Tamakosi, Dudhkosi and Tamor are its left tributaries and Indravati is the right tributary; the average annual flow is 22 x 109 m3. The average sediment load is 54 x 106 m3; the Tamur and the Arun rivers join the Sun Kosi at Tribenighat to form the Saptkoshi, which flows through the Chatra Gorge across the Mahabharat Range on to the Gangetic plain. There are few more smaller tributaries of the Sun Kosi such as Rosi Khola, Junga Khola,and Sapsu Khola. Nepali: सुनकोशी In Nepali language, the word "sun" means gold and golden.
The Koshi River drains eastern Nepal. It is known as Saptkoshi River because of the seven rivers joining in east-central Nepal to form this river; the main rivers forming the Koshi River system are Sun Koshi, Tamba Koshi, Bhote Koshi, Dudh Kosi and Tamur Rivers. The Saptkoshi River flows through the Chatra Gorge in a southerly direction into northern Bihar and joins the Ganges; the Sun Koshi contributes about 44% of the total water of the Saptakoshi, the Arun 37% and the Tamur 19%. The Sun Kosi has a 90% reliable flow of 126 cubic metres per second, it has been proposed that water be diverted from a small weir across the river near Kurule through a 16.6 kilometres tunnel and a 61.4 MW associated power house to the Kamala River, flowing through central Nepal. Some 72 cubic metres per second of water would be transferred to the Kamala River for the purposes of irrigation and further generation of power. In July 1981, a sudden ice avalanche caused a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood in the moraine-dammed Zhangzangbu-Cho Lake in the headwaters of the Poiqu in Tibet.
The ensuing debris flow destroyed bridges, sections of both the Arniko and the Nepal–China highways. On 2 August 2014, a landslide blocked the river downstream from Barabise and created a large lake that submerged a hydropower station; the collapsed river bed buried more than 30 people died. The area has been declared a flood crisis zone, local communities are evacuated. Power supply is interrupted, the Arniko Highway blocked. See 2014 Sunkoshi blockage The Sun Kosi is used for both rafting and intermediate kayaking, it has grade III-IV rapids. The most common put in point of a Sun Kosi river trip is Dolalghat, at a height of 620 m and it ends at the Chatra Gorge at 115 m, a distance of around 272 km; the first successful descent of the Sun Kosi was made in late September 1970 by Daniel C. Taylor, Terry Bech, Cheri Bremer-Kamp, Carl Schiffler, they exited at the Nepal/India border. Their expedition took four days. Prior to this successful trip, there are four known unsuccessful attempts to descend the river, one unsuccessful attempt to ascend the river in a jet boat under the leadership of Sir Edmund Hillary
The Trishuli River is one of the major tributaries of the Narayani River basin in central Nepal. It enters Nepal at Gyirong Town; the Trishuli is named after the trishula or trident of Shiva, a powerful god in the Hindu pantheon, There is a legend that says high in the Himalayas at Gosaikunda, Shiva drove his trident into the ground to create three springs – the source of the river and hence its name Trisuli. The stream in Tibet crosses the Nepalese border at Gyirong Town, with the Kyirong gorge opens out at Ragma. Thereafter, it flows through Nepal and joins at Devghat the Narayani River, which at a lower stage flows into India and joins the Ganges. More than 60 per cent of the total drainage basin of the Trishuli lies in Tibet with about 9 per cent being covered by snow and glaciers. 85 per cent of its catchment area of 4,640 square kilometres lies above 3,000 metres out of which 11 per cent lies above 6,000 metres. It has been gauged at Betrawati at an elevation of 600 metres; the average lowest and the melt season discharges of this river are close to average discharges recorded on the Narayani River.
Trisuli is Nepal’s most popular rafting river with impressive gorges, exciting rapids, some easier sections and easy accessibility from Kathmandu and Pokhara. Rafting in Trisuli is one of the most popular outdoor activities in Nepal. Trishuli River is made up of snow melt of Langtang Himal. Easy access to the Prithivi Highway makes “breaking off” the journey easy. Chitwan National Park is easily accessible
The Bhote Koshi is the upper river course of the Sun Kosi, known as Poiqu in Tibet. It is part of the Koshi River system in Nepal. A western tributary of the upper Dudh Koshi is called Bhote Koshi; the headwaters of Poiqu and Bhote-Sun Koshi River are located at the Zhangzangbo Glacier in Tibet. The river flows out of the Lumi Chimi lake; when entering Nepal, it is called Bhote Koshi. Further downstream, from the village of Bahrabise onwards, it is called Sun Koshi. In July 1981, a sudden ice avalanche caused a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood in the moraine-dammed Zhangzangbu-Cho Lake in the headwaters of the Bhote Koshi; the ensuing debris flow destroyed bridges, sections of both the Arniko and the Nepal–China highways. Nepali: भोटे कोशी; the Bhote Kosi is used for both kayaking. It is the steepest river rafted with a gradient of 15 m per km. Bungee jumping or swinging over the Bhote Kosi has been described as the ‘ultimate experience’; the river carves a steep and direct drop at the top that eases to more placid streams and calmer pools with a 46-km run at the Lamosunga dam.
The rapids are class IV-V at high flow, III at lower levels. The river is steep and continuous with one rapid leading into another