Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery-grey, malleable transition metal; the elemental metal is found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer somewhat stabilizes the free metal against further oxidation. Andrés Manuel del Río discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801 in Mexico by analyzing a new lead-bearing mineral he called "brown lead", presumed its qualities were due to the presence of a new element, which he named erythronium since, upon heating, most of the salts turned red. Four years however, he was convinced by other scientists that erythronium was identical to chromium. Chlorides of vanadium were generated in 1830 by Nils Gabriel Sefström who thereby proved that a new element was involved, which he named "vanadium" after the Scandinavian goddess of beauty and fertility, Vanadís. Both names were attributed to the wide range of colors found in vanadium compounds. Del Rio's lead mineral was renamed vanadinite for its vanadium content.
In 1867 Henry Enfield Roscoe obtained the pure element. Vanadium occurs in about 65 minerals and in fossil fuel deposits, it is produced in Russia from steel smelter slag. It is used to produce specialty steel alloys such as high-speed tool steels; the most important industrial vanadium compound, vanadium pentoxide, is used as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. The vanadium redox battery for energy storage may be an important application in the future. Large amounts of vanadium ions are found in a few organisms as a toxin; the oxide and some other salts of vanadium have moderate toxicity. In the ocean, vanadium is used by some life forms as an active center of enzymes, such as the vanadium bromoperoxidase of some ocean algae. Vanadium was discovered by Andrés Manuel del Río, a Spanish-Mexican mineralogist, in 1801. Del Río extracted the element from a sample of Mexican "brown lead" ore named vanadinite, he found that its salts exhibit a wide variety of colors, as a result he named the element panchromium.
Del Río renamed the element erythronium because most of the salts turned red upon heating. In 1805, the French chemist Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils, backed by del Río's friend Baron Alexander von Humboldt, incorrectly declared that del Río's new element was only an impure sample of chromium. Del Río retracted his claim. In 1831, the Swedish chemist Nils Gabriel Sefström rediscovered the element in a new oxide he found while working with iron ores; that same year, Friedrich Wöhler confirmed del Río's earlier work. Sefström chose a name beginning with V, he called the element vanadium after Old Norse Vanadís, because of the many beautifully colored chemical compounds it produces. In 1831, the geologist George William Featherstonhaugh suggested that vanadium should be renamed "rionium" after del Río, but this suggestion was not followed; the isolation of vanadium metal proved difficult. In 1831, Berzelius reported the production of the metal, but Henry Enfield Roscoe showed that Berzelius had in fact produced the nitride, vanadium nitride.
Roscoe produced the metal in 1867 by reduction of vanadium chloride, VCl2, with hydrogen. In 1927, pure vanadium was produced by reducing vanadium pentoxide with calcium; the first large-scale industrial use of vanadium was in the steel alloy chassis of the Ford Model T, inspired by French race cars. Vanadium steel allowed for reduced weight while increasing tensile strength. For the first decade of the 20th century, most vanadium ore was mined by American Vanadium Company from the Minas Ragra in Peru; the demand for uranium rose, leading to increased mining of that metal's ores. One major uranium ore was carnotite, which contains vanadium. Uranium mining began to supply a large share of the demand for vanadium. German chemist Martin Henze discovered vanadium in the hemovanadin proteins found in blood cells of Ascidiacea in 1911. Vanadium is a medium-hard, steel-blue metal, it is electrically thermally insulating. Some sources describe vanadium as "soft" because it is ductile and not brittle. Vanadium steels.
It has good resistance to corrosion and it is stable against alkalis and sulfuric and hydrochloric acids. It is oxidized in air at about 933 K, although an oxide passivation layer forms at room temperature. Occurring vanadium is composed of one stable isotope, 51V, one radioactive isotope, 50V; the latter has a half-life of 1.5×1017 years and a natural abundance of 0.25%. 51V has a nuclear spin of 7⁄2, useful for NMR spectroscopy. Twenty-four artificial radioisotopes have been characterized, ranging in mass number from 40 to 65; the most stable of these isotopes are 49V with a half-life of 330 days, 48V with a half-life of 16.0 days. The remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives shorter than an hour, most below 10 seconds. At least four isotopes have metastable excited states. Electron capture is the main decay mode for isotopes lighter than 51V. For the heavier ones, the most common mode is beta decay; the electron capture reactions lead
Grossular is a calcium-aluminium species of the garnet group of minerals. It has the chemical formula of Ca3Al23 but the calcium may, in part, be replaced by ferrous iron and the aluminium by ferric iron; the name grossular is derived from the botanical name for the gooseberry, grossularia, in reference to the green garnet of this composition, found in Siberia. Other shades include cinnamon brown and yellow. Grossular is a gemstone, its streak is brownish white In geological literature, grossular has been called grossularite. Since 1971, use of the term grossularite for the mineral has been discouraged by the International Mineralogical Association. Hessonite or "cinnamon stone" is a common variety of grossular with the general formula: Ca3Al2Si3O12; the name comes from the Ancient Greek: ἣσσων, meaning inferior. It has a characteristic red color, much like that of zircon, it was shown many years ago, by Sir Arthur Herbert Church, that many gemstones engraved gems, were hessonite. The difference is detected by the specific gravity, that of hessonite being 3.64 to 3.69, while that of zircon is about 4.6.
Hessonite has a similar hardness to that of quartz, while the hardness of most garnet species is nearer 7.5. Hessonite comes chiefly from Sri Lanka and India, where it is found in placer deposits, though its occurrence in its native matrix is not unknown, it is found in Brazil and California. Grossular is found in contact metamorphosed limestones with vesuvianite, diopside and wernerite. A sought after variety of gem garnet is the fine green Grossular garnet from Kenya and Tanzania called tsavorite; this garnet was discovered in the 1960s in the Tsavo area of Kenya, from which the gem takes its name. Viluite is a variety name of grossular, not a recognized mineral species, it is olive green though sometimes brownish or reddish, brought about by impurities in the crystal. Viluite is found associated with and is similar in appearance to vesuvianite, there is confusion in terminology as viluite has long been used as a synonym for wiluite, a sorosilicate of the vesuvianite group; this confusion in nomenclature dates back to James Dwight Dana.
It comes from the Vilyuy river area in Siberia. Grossular is known by many other names, some misnomers. Misnomers include South African jade, garnet jade, Transvaal jade, African jade. Vermont has grossular garnet as its state gemstone. Hydrogrossular Webmineral data Mineral Data Publishing
Madagascar the Republic of Madagascar, known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean 400 kilometres off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from the Indian subcontinent around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; the island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the growing human population and other environmental threats. The first archaeological evidence for human foraging on Madagascar may have occurred as much as 10,000 years ago. Human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and 550 AD by Austronesian peoples, arriving on outrigger canoes from Borneo; these were joined around the 9th century AD by Bantu migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa. Other groups continued to settle on Madagascar over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life.
The Malagasy ethnic group is divided into 18 or more subgroups, of which the largest are the Merina of the central highlands. Until the late 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by a fragmented assortment of shifting sociopolitical alliances. Beginning in the early 19th century, most of the island was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar by a series of Merina nobles; the monarchy ended in 1897 when the island was absorbed into the French colonial empire, from which the island gained independence in 1960. The autonomous state of Madagascar has since undergone four major constitutional periods, termed republics. Since 1992, the nation has been governed as a constitutional democracy from its capital at Antananarivo. However, in a popular uprising in 2009, president Marc Ravalomanana was made to resign and presidential power was transferred in March 2009 to Andry Rajoelina. Constitutional governance was restored in January 2014, when Hery Rajaonarimampianina was named president following a 2013 election deemed fair and transparent by the international community.
Madagascar is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Madagascar belongs according to the United Nations. Malagasy and French are both official languages of the state; the majority of the population adheres to traditional beliefs, Christianity, or an amalgamation of both. Ecotourism and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education and private enterprise, are key elements of Madagascar's development strategy. Under Ravalomanana, these investments produced substantial economic growth, but the benefits were not evenly spread throughout the population, producing tensions over the increasing cost of living and declining living standards among the poor and some segments of the middle class; as of 2017, the economy has been weakened by the 2009–2013 political crisis, quality of life remains low for the majority of the Malagasy population. In the Malagasy language, the island of Madagascar is called Madagasikara and its people are referred to as Malagasy.
The island's appellation "Madagascar" is not of local origin but rather was popularized in the Middle Ages by Europeans. The name Madageiscar was first recorded in the memoirs of 13th-century Venetian explorer Marco Polo as a corrupted transliteration of the name Mogadishu, the Somali port with which Polo had confused the island. On St. Laurence's Day in 1500, Portuguese explorer Diogo Dias landed on the island and named it São Lourenço. Polo's name popularized on Renaissance maps. No single Malagasy-language name predating Madagasikara appears to have been used by the local population to refer to the island, although some communities had their own name for part or all of the land they inhabited. At 592,800 square kilometres, Madagascar is the world's 47th largest country and the fourth-largest island; the country lies between latitudes 12°S and 26°S, longitudes 43°E and 51°E. Neighboring islands include the French territory of Réunion and the country of Mauritius to the east, as well as the state of Comoros and the French territory of Mayotte to the north west.
The nearest mainland state is Mozambique, located to the west. The prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana separated the Madagascar–Antarctica–India landmass from the Africa–South America landmass around 135 million years ago. Madagascar split from India about 88 million years ago during the late Cretaceous period allowing plants and animals on the island to evolve in relative isolation. Along the length of the eastern coast runs a narrow and steep escarpment containing much of the island's remaining tropical lowland forest. To the west of this ridge lies a plateau in the center of the island ranging in altitude from 750 to 1,500 m above sea level; these central highlands, traditionally the homeland of the Merina people and the location of their historic capital at Antananarivo, are the most densely populated part of the island and are characterized by terraced, rice-growing valleys lying between grassy hills and patches of the subhumid forests that covered the highland region. To the west of the highlands, the arid terrain slope
Mohs scale of mineral hardness
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material. Created in 1812 by German geologist and mineralogist Friedrich Mohs, it is one of several definitions of hardness in materials science, some of which are more quantitative; the method of comparing hardness by observing which minerals can scratch others is of great antiquity, having been mentioned by Theophrastus in his treatise On Stones, c. 300 BC, followed by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia, c. 77 AD. While facilitating the identification of minerals in the field, the Mohs scale does not show how well hard materials perform in an industrial setting. Despite its lack of precision, the Mohs scale is relevant for field geologists, who use the scale to identify minerals using scratch kits; the Mohs scale hardness of minerals can be found in reference sheets. Mohs hardness is useful in milling, it allows assessment of.
The scale is used at electronic manufacturers for testing the resilience of flat panel display components. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly; the samples of matter used by Mohs are all different minerals. Minerals are chemically pure solids found in nature. Rocks are made up of one or more minerals; as the hardest known occurring substance when the scale was designed, diamonds are at the top of the scale. The hardness of a material is measured against the scale by finding the hardest material that the given material can scratch, or the softest material that can scratch the given material. For example, if some material is scratched by apatite but not by fluorite, its hardness on the Mohs scale would fall between 4 and 5. "Scratching" a material for the purposes of the Mohs scale means creating non-elastic dislocations visible to the naked eye. Materials that are lower on the Mohs scale can create microscopic, non-elastic dislocations on materials that have a higher Mohs number.
While these microscopic dislocations are permanent and sometimes detrimental to the harder material's structural integrity, they are not considered "scratches" for the determination of a Mohs scale number. The Mohs scale is a purely ordinal scale. For example, corundum is twice as hard as topaz; the table below shows the comparison with the absolute hardness measured by a sclerometer, with pictorial examples. On the Mohs scale, a streak plate has a hardness of 7.0. Using these ordinary materials of known hardness can be a simple way to approximate the position of a mineral on the scale; the table below incorporates additional substances that may fall between levels: Comparison between hardness and hardness: Mohs hardness of elements is taken from G. V. Samsonov in Handbook of the physicochemical properties of the elements, IFI-Plenum, New York, USA, 1968. Cordua, William S. "The Hardness of Minerals and Rocks". Lapidary Digest, c. 1990
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; the chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames; the oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium. Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals; because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, studies continue.
Of aluminium isotopes, only 27Al is stable. This is consistent with aluminium having an odd atomic number, it is the only aluminium isotope that has existed on Earth in its current form since the creation of the planet. Nearly all the element on Earth is present as this isotope, which makes aluminium a mononuclidic element and means that its standard atomic weight equates to that of the isotope; the standard atomic weight of aluminium is low in comparison with many other metals, which has consequences for the element's properties. All other isotopes of aluminium are radioactive; the most stable of these is 26Al and therefore could not have survived since the formation of the planet. However, 26Al is produced from argon in the atmosphere by spallation caused by cosmic ray protons; the ratio of 26Al to 10Be has been used for radiodating of geological processes over 105 to 106 year time scales, in particular transport, sediment storage, burial times, erosion. Most meteorite scientists believe that the energy released by the decay of 26Al was responsible for the melting and differentiation of some asteroids after their formation 4.55 billion years ago.
The remaining isotopes of aluminium, with mass numbers ranging from 21 to 43, all have half-lives well under an hour. Three metastable states are known, all with half-lives under a minute. An aluminium atom has 13 electrons, arranged in an electron configuration of 3s23p1, with three electrons beyond a stable noble gas configuration. Accordingly, the combined first three ionization energies of aluminium are far lower than the fourth ionization energy alone. Aluminium can easily surrender its three outermost electrons in many chemical reactions; the electronegativity of aluminium is 1.61. A free aluminium atom has a radius of 143 pm. With the three outermost electrons removed, the radius shrinks to 39 pm for a 4-coordinated atom or 53.5 pm for a 6-coordinated atom. At standard temperature and pressure, aluminium atoms form a face-centered cubic crystal system bound by metallic bonding provided by atoms' outermost electrons; this crystal system is shared by some other metals, such as copper. Aluminium metal, when in quantity, is shiny and resembles silver because it preferentially absorbs far ultraviolet radiation while reflecting all visible light so it does not impart any color to reflected light, unlike the reflectance spectra of copper and gold.
Another important characteristic of aluminium is its low density, 2.70 g/cm3. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight and malleable with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness, it is nonmagnetic and does not ignite. A fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation; the yield strength of pure aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has stiffness of steel, it is machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a face-centered cubic structure. Aluminium has a stacking-fault energy of 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a good thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper, both thermal and electrical, while having only 30% of copper's density. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a superconducting critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin and a critical magnetic field of about 100 gauss.
Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits. Aluminium's corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the bare metal is exposed to air preventing further oxidation, in a process termed passivation; the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts in the presence of dissimilar metals. In acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, in alkaline ones to form aluminates—protective passivation under these conditions is negligible; because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium. However, because
Tsavo East National Park
Tsavo East National Park is one of the oldest and largest parks in Kenya at 13,747 square kilometres. Situated in a semi-arid area known as the Taru Desert it opened in April 1948, is located near the town of Voi in the Taita-Taveta County of the former Coast Province; the park is divided into west sections by the A109 road and a railway. Named for the Tsavo River, which flows west to east through the national park, it borders the Chyulu Hills National Park, the Mkomazi Game Reserve in Tanzania. Inside Tsavo East National Park, the Athi and Tsavo rivers converge to form the Galana River. Most of the park consists of semi-arid grasslands and savanna, it is considered one of the world's biodiversity strongholds, its popularity is due to the vast amounts of diverse wildlife that can be seen, including the famous'big five' consisting of lion, black rhino, cape buffalo and leopard. The park is home to a great variety of bird life such as the black kite, crowned crane and the sacred ibis. Tsavo East National Park is flat, with dry plains across which the Galana River flows.
Other features include the Yatta Lugard Falls. Tsavo West National Park is more mountainous and wetter, with swamps, Lake Jipe and the Mzima Springs, it is known for its large mammals. It is home to a black rhino sanctuary. Although a few Early Stone Age and Middle Stone Age archaeological sites are recorded from ground surface finds in Tsavo, there is much evidence for thriving Late Stone Age economy from 6,000 to 1,300 years ago. Research has shown that Late Stone Age archaeological sites are found close to the Galana River in high numbers; the inhabitants of these sites hunted wild animals and kept domesticated animals. Because of the sparse availability of water away from the Galana River, human settlement in Tsavo focused on the riparian areas and in rock shelters as one moves west. Swahili merchants traded with the inhabitants of Tsavo for ivory and slaves as early as 700 AD. There is no evidence for direct Swahili "colonization" of Tsavo. Instead, trade was accomplished by moving goods to and from the Swahili Coast via extended kin-networks.
Trade goods such as cowry shells and beads have been recovered from archaeological sites dating to the early Swahili period.19th century British and German explorers document people we now refer to as Orma and Watha during their travels through the "nyika" and viewed them as hostile toward their interests. Beginning in the late 19th/early 20th century, the British began a concerted effort to colonise the interior of Kenya and built a railway through Tsavo in 1898. Two "man-eating lions" terrorised the construction crews led by Lt. Col Patterson who shot the pair not before they had killed one hundred and thirty five Indians and local workers; the railway was completed through to Kisumu on Lake Victoria. Tsavo remained the homeland for Orma pastoralists and Watha hunter-gatherers until 1948, when it was gazetted a national park. At that time, the Orma with their livestock were driven off and the aboriginal population of the Watha people was forcefully relocated to Voi and Mtito Andei as well as other locations within the nearby Taita Hills.
Following Kenyan independence in 1963, hunting was banned in the park and management of Tsavo was turned over to the authority that became the Kenya Wildlife Service. Tsavo attracts photo-tourists from all over the world interested in experiencing the vastness of the wilderness and incredible terrain; the Mudanda Rock is a 1.6 km inselberg of stratified rock that acts as a water catchment that supplies a natural dam below. It offers an excellent vantage point for the hundreds of elephants and other wildlife that come to drink during the dry season; the Yatta Plateau, the world's longest lava flow, runs along the western boundary of the park above the Athi River. Its 290 km length was formed by lava from Ol Doinyo Sabuk Mountain. Lugard Falls, named after Frederick Lugard, is a series of white water rapids on the Galana River. Aruba Dam was built in 1952 across the Voi River; the reservoir created by the dam attracts many animals and water birds. Tsavo East National Park is one of the world's largest game reserves, providing undeveloped wilderness homes to vast numbers of animals.
Famous are the Tsavo lions, a population whose adult males lack manes entirely. In total there are about 675 lions in the Amboseli-Tsavo ecosystem. A comprehensive list of the animal types found in Tsavo East Park includes the aardwolf, yellow baboon, Cape buffalo, bushbuck, African wildcat, civet, dik-dik, African hunting dog, African dormouse, blue duiker, bush duiker, red duiker, African bush elephant, bat-eared fox, greater galago, large-spotted genet, small-spotted genet, giraffe, African hare, Coke's hartebeest, East African hedgehog, spotted hyena, striped hyena, rock hyrax, tree hyrax, black-backed jackal, side-striped jackal, lesser kudu, lion, banded mongoose, dwarf mongoose, Egyptian mongoose, marsh mongoose, slender mongoose, white-tailed mongoose, vervet monkey, Sykes' monkey, fringe-eared oryx, clawless otter, ground pangolin, crested porcupine, cane rat, giant rat, naked mole rat, bohor reedbuck, black rhinoceros, spectacled elephant shrew, bush squirrel, East African red squirrel, striped ground squirrel, unstriped ground squirrel, warthog, plains zebra and Grevy's zebra.
Over 500 bird species have been recorded in the area, including ostriches, buzzards, weaver birds, hornbills, secretary birds and herons. Between 2001 and 2006 more than 100 l
Toliara is a city in Madagascar. It is the capital of the Atsimo-Andrefana region, located 936 km southwest of national capital Antananarivo; the current spelling of the name was adopted in the 1970s, reflecting the orthography of the Malagasy language. Many geographic place names, assigned French spellings during the colonial period, were altered following Malagasy independence in 1960; the city has a population of 156,710 in 2013. As a port town it acts as a major import/export hub for commodities such as sisal, hemp, cotton and peanuts. In the 17th century, French buccaneers landed in the bay of St. Augustine near the Tropic of Capricorn, founded the city to maintain commercial relations, it was not until the colonial period, after 1897, when the city grew: with the efforts of Joseph Gallieni to install French administrative services isolated on the island of Nosy Ve, to form the regional capital. Tulear grew with wide avenues and public monuments. Toliara has seen a population boom over the last two decades, due to a rural exodus that has brought over 200,000 citizens into urban centers in the region.
The Vezo, nomadic fishermen, are the indigenous ethnic group. Today they are being dominated by migrants from the South which make up more than half of the urban population. To these are added migrants from other urban regions, occupying positions in government and the private sector. Toliara's cathedral is the archiepiscopal seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toliara, one of five in the country the Diocese of Tuléar since 1957, renamed with the city in 1989, promoted in 2003 to Metropolitan archbishopric. Regional cultural highlights include: The Ifaty beach near Tulear is famous for its water and sands; the Museum of Arts and Traditions of the South of Madagascar presents the life and funerary art of the people in the area. The Regional Museum of the University of Toliara: this museum has a small ethnological collection and a huge egg of Aepyornis; the Museum of the Sea, founded by Professor Rabesandratana, is hosted by the Oceanographic Institute and covers the local aquatic flora and fauna, including a coelacanth caught in 1995 near Anakao.
The Antsokay Arboretum: Established in 1980 at the initiative of the Swiss amateur botanist Petignat Hermann. This arboretum covers an area of 52 hectares, with more than 920 plant species, radiated tortoises and chameleons. A locally known shell market, on the waterfront, behind the French Alliance, sells shells and various handicraft products; the University of Toliara is the oldest center for higher education, founded in 1971 after the decentralization of the University of Madagascar center. The university campus is located in Maninday 5 km east of the city, teaches Humanities and Social Science, Science and Management; the University of Toliara's Faculty for Teacher Training and Institute of Agriculture and Hydrology is working with the NGO Big Red Earth to explore educational innovations in the areas of agriculture, civic engagement, sustainable development. The Fisheries and Marine Sciences Institute welcomes students from diverse backgrounds, offers advanced training in fisheries and the marine and coastal environment.
In 2000 it set up the National Oceanographic Data Centre. Toliara has a Technical School and two grammar schools and religious schools such as Sacred Heart College, Tsianaloke Mahavatse, the School of Notre Dame, a French international school, Collège Etienne de Flacourt, which serves école primaire and collège. Fiherena no maha-Toliara "the Fiherena is the soul of Toliara" Toliara tsy miroro "Toliara never sleeps" The port played a key role during the "boom corn" years in the 1980s and 90s. Today, the arrival of migrants contributing to agricultural production and livestock supplying the city markets with food, has contributed to the development of small informal businesses: among the Mahafale and Masikoro communities; the city specializes in the import and export of various products including sisal, rice and soap. Production of sea salt thrives, from landscaped places in coastal areas; the Bay of Toliara houses one of Madagascar's oil exploration sites. The sea floor is rich in ground salt.
More Canadian companies begin operation of the ilmenite in the region of Tolanaro. Beyond this mining and production, the industrial sector has declined in recent decades, Tourism is a promising sector, thanks to the climate and natural assets of the hinterland. Calm shallow seas and shallow support scuba diving, Toliara remains a main destination for tours to southern Madagascar. Toliara is located on a broad coastal plain, surrounded by dunes and mangroves, near the Tropic of Capricorn in the Mozambique Channel. A nearby barrier reef is 3 km wide; the beach area is extended by an underwater beach along the continental shelf that slopes seaward. To the north lies the Delta Fiherenana. Toliara is nicknamed the "City of the Sun" because it has a hot climate and is semi-arid, with less than 400 mm annual rainfall; the city is swept by a strong prevailing wind, the Tsio Katimo. The colonial legacy is still vi