Rostov is a town in Yaroslavl Oblast, one of the oldest in the country and a tourist center of the Golden Ring. It is located on the shores of Lake Nero, 202 kilometers northeast of Moscow. Population: 31,792 . While the official name of the town is Rostov, it is popularly known to Russians as Rostov Veliky to distinguish it from the much larger city of Rostov-on-Don, the name of the town railway station is Rostov Yaroslavsky, due to its position in Yaroslavl Oblast. Rostov was preceded by Sarskoye Gorodishche, which some scholars interpret as the capital of the Finnic Merya tribe, while others believe it was an important Viking trade enclave and fortress guarding the Volga trade route. Scythians were setteled there, it seems that different ethnics like Vikings, Scyths and Finns are the ancestors of todays people in that region. First mentioned in the year 862 as an important settlement, by the 10th century Rostov became the capital city of one of the most prominent Russian principalities, it was incorporated into Muscovy in 1474.
After it lost its independence, Rostov was still an ecclesiastic center of utmost importance. In the 14th century, the bishops of Rostov became archbishops, late in the 16th century, metropolitans. One of those metropolitans, Iona Sysoyevich, commissioned the town's main landmark: the kremlin that many regard as the finest outside of Moscow. Ravaged by the Mongols in the 13th and 14th centuries and the Poles in 1608, Rostov became a medium-sized town; the metropolitan see. Apart from its history, Rostov is renowned for its enamels. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Rostov serves as the administrative center of Rostovsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the town of oblast significance of Rostov—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Rostov is incorporated within Rostovsky Municipal District as Rostov Urban Settlement; the central square of Rostov is occupied by the Assumption Cathedral.
It is unknown when the present building was erected, the mid-16th century being the most date. Lower parts of the cathedral walls are dated to the 12th century; the ponderous bell-tower was constructed in the 17th century. Its bells are among the largest and most famous in Russia - each has its own name; the largest bell, cast in 1688, weighs 32,000 kilograms. It is named Sysoy to honor the city's founding father. An area situated between the cathedral square and the lake was chosen by Iona Sysoevich as a place for his fairy-tale residence. All the construction works were carried out between 1667 and 1694. Major buildings include the ornate Savior Church-na-Senyakh, the sombre Church of St. Gregory, the barbican churches of St. John the Apostle and of the Resurrection of Christ; the residence erroneously called kremlin includes eleven ornate tower bells, numerous palaces, several small belfries, the diminutive baroque Church of Our Lady of Smolensk. All the churches are decorated; the cathedral and four tall kremlin churches with their silver "blind" domes were imitated throughout the city.
This is evident in the Savior-on-the-Market church and the cathedral church of the Nativity convent, both dating from the 17th century and situated near the kremlin walls. The oldest church within the town center was consecrated to St. Isidore the Blessed in 1565, they say that Ivan the Terrible had the architect executed, because his church was so much smaller than its predecessor. The kremlin is flanked by two monasteries. To the right from the kremlin stands the Abraham monastery, founded in the 11th century and one of the oldest in Russia, its cathedral, commissioned by Ivan the Terrible in 1553 to commemorate the conquest of Kazan, inspired numerous churches in the region in Yaroslavl. Spaso-Yakovlevsky Monastery, situated to the left from the Kremlin on the town's outskirts, has been venerated as the shrine of St. Dmitry of Rostov. Most of the monastery structures were built in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the fine neoclassical style. There are two 17th-century churches: the Conception of St. Anna, the Transfiguration of Our Savior.
Unlike most other churches in the town, the monastery belongs to the Russian Orthodoxy and houses a theological seminary. The vicinity of Rostov is rich in old architecture. For example, an old wooden church may be seen in Ishnya. One of the best preserved monasteries in Russia, named after the saints Boris and Gleb, is situated in Borisoglebsky, about 20 kilometers west of the town; the monastery was favored by Ivan the Terrible, who supervised the construction of towered walls and bell-tower around an more ancient cathedral. The only addition made to the monastery after Ivan's death is a barbican church, commissioned by the metropolitan Iona Sysoyevich. Jämsä, Finland Stevens Point, Wisconsin, USA Peter I, by Vladimir Petov Ivan Vasilievich: Back to the Future, by Leonid Gaidai Dmitry Borisovich, Russian nobleman Konstantin of Rostov, the eldest son of Vsevolod the Big Nest and Maria Shvarnovna Vasilko Konstantinovich, the first Prince of Rostov Lev
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, some have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, edible in the raw state, such as apples, grapes, lemons and strawberries. On the other hand, in botanical usage, "fruit" includes many structures that are not called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels and wheat grains; the section of a fungus that produces spores is called a fruiting body. Many common terms for seeds and fruit do not correspond to the botanical classifications. In culinary terminology, a fruit is any sweet-tasting plant part a botanical fruit.
However, in botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary or carpel that contains seeds, a nut is a type of fruit and not a seed, a seed is a ripened ovule. Examples of culinary "vegetables" and nuts that are botanically fruit include corn, eggplant, sweet pepper, tomato. In addition, some spices, such as allspice and chili pepper, are fruits. In contrast, rhubarb is referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole of the rhubarb plant is edible, edible gymnosperm seeds are given fruit names, e.g. ginkgo nuts and pine nuts. Botanically, a cereal grain, such as corn, rice, or wheat, is a kind of fruit, termed a caryopsis. However, the fruit wall is thin and is fused to the seed coat, so all of the edible grain is a seed; the outer edible layer, is the pericarp, formed from the ovary and surrounding the seeds, although in some species other tissues contribute to or form the edible portion. The pericarp may be described in three layers from outer to inner, the epicarp and endocarp.
Fruit that bears a prominent pointed terminal projection is said to be beaked. A fruit results from maturation of one or more flowers, the gynoecium of the flower forms all or part of the fruit. Inside the ovary/ovaries are one or more ovules where the megagametophyte contains the egg cell. After double fertilization, these ovules will become seeds; the ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with pollination, which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers. After pollination, a tube grows from the pollen through the stigma into the ovary to the ovule and two sperm are transferred from the pollen to the megagametophyte. Within the megagametophyte one of the two sperm unites with the egg, forming a zygote, the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process; the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, the endosperm mother cell will give rise to endosperm, a nutritive tissue used by the embryo.
As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy, or form a hard outer covering. In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules; the pericarp is differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp and endocarp. In some fruits simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower, fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. In other cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off; when such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms. There are three general modes of fruit development: Apocarpous fruits develop from a single flower having one or more separate carpels, they are the simplest fruits. Syncarpous fruits develop from a single gynoecium having two or more carpels fused together.
Multiple fruits form from many different flowers. Plant scientists have grouped fruits into three main groups, simple fruits, aggregate fruits, composite or multiple fruits; the groupings are not evolutionarily relevant, since many diverse plant taxa may be in the same group, but reflect how the flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop. Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy, result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary in a flower with only one pistil. Dry fruits may be either dehiscent, or indehiscent. Types of dry, simple fruits, examples of each, include: achene – most seen in aggregate fruits capsule – caryopsis – cypsela – an achene-like fruit derived from the individual florets in a capitulum. Fibrous drupe – follicle – is formed from a single carpel, opens by one suture
Rostov Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, located in the Southern Federal District. The oblast has an area of 100,800 square kilometers and a population of 4,277,976, making it the sixth most populous federal subject in Russia, its administrative center is the city of Rostov-on-Don, which became the administrative center of the Southern Federal District in 2002. Rostov Oblast borders Ukraine and Volgograd and Voronezh Oblasts in the north and Stavropol Krais in the south, the Republic of Kalmykia in the east, it is within the Russian Southern Federal District. The Don River, one of Europe's largest rivers, flows through the oblast for part of its course. Lakes cover only 0.4% of the oblast's area. It was formed in 1937 out of the Azov-Black Sea Krai. Population: 4,277,976 . Vital statistics for 2012Births: 49 715 Deaths: 59 376 Total fertility rate:2009 - 1.38 | 2010 - 1.38 | 2011 - 1.39 | 2012 - 1.51 | 2013 - 1.52 | 2014 - 1.61 | 2015 - 1.63 | 2016 - 1.60 Ethnic groups: Residents identified themselves as belonging to 157 different ethnic groups, including twenty-seven of more than two thousand persons each.
The most important ethnicities are the 3,795,607 ethnic Russians. Other important groups are the 35,902 Turks. There were 76,498 people belonging to other ethno-cultural groupings. 76,735 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. According to a 2012 survey 49.5% of the population of Rostov Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 6% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are either Orthodox Christian believers who don't belong to church or are members of other Orthodox bodies, 1% are Muslims, 1% are adherents of the Slavic native faith movement. In addition, 26% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 12% is atheist, 3.5% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. The Ascension Cathedral is the largest Russian Orthodox church in Novocherkassk, Rostov Oblast, Russia, it used to be one of the largest churches of the Russian Empire and the main church of the Don Host Province.
The five-domed building, which stands 75 meters tall, is a notable example of the Russian Neo-Byzantine architecture. It was erected between 1904 on the site of an earlier church; the first church on the site was built to Luigi Rusca's designs. It collapsed in 1846. A replacement church collapsed 17 years later. Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin ― one of the oldest churches in Rostov-on-Don. For a considerable period of time Intercession Church served as the principal church not only for the fortress of St. Dimitry of Rostov, but for people of local settlements. Since the end of the 18th century Church of Intercession had been considered to be a cathedral; the status changed in 1822, when Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary on the decree of the Holy Synod was declared cathedral. The region is 8057 of objects of archaeological heritage of Federal importance; these include lower-Gnilovskaya a settlement and a necropolis, fragments of the walls of the Genoese fortress of the 14th century, the archaeological Museum-reserve "Tanais", many burial Mounds and necropolises.
Since 2002, in the Rostov region are the country's only racing on tractors "bison-Track-Show". In a unique competition brings together machine operators of agricultural enterprises of Russia and abroad. In the past the race on tractors have become a real sports holiday of workers of agriculture. Rostov academic drama theatre named after Maxim Gorky. Rostov State Musical Theater; the theater opened in September 1999, is the successor to the 1919 Rostov Musical Comedy Theater, one of the best operetta theaters in the Soviet Union. The theater has two stages as well as a music and entertainment center, hosts about 300 performances and concerts annually, as well as various forums and festivals, its repertoire encompasses both musical traditions, as well as experiments in the field of contemporary art. Rostov state puppet theatre. Rostov regional academic youth theatre. Taganrog Theatre; the Taganrog Theater was established in 1827 by governor Alexander Dunaev. The theater was subsidized by the Taganrog's City Council since 1828, its first director was Alexander Gor.
The first group of Russian drama artists was directed by Perovsky and toured around the region, giving performances in Rostov on Don, Bahmut. The repertoire consisted of dramas and vaudevilles. In 1874, the Taganrog Municipality acquired the theater building by the purchase of its stocks. Don theatre of drama and Comedy V. F. Komissarzhevskaya Novocherkassk. Shakhty drama theatre, Shakhty. Novoshakhtinskiy drama theatre, Novoshakhtinsk. Rostov Regional Museum of Local History. Rostov Regional Museum of Fine Arts. Museum of Contemporary Art at Dmitrovskaya. Museum of Russian-Armenian Friendship. Museum of North Caucasus Railway; the first museum of history of North Caucasus Railway opened on 4 November 1960 in a Community Center of railwaymen at Rostov-Glavny station. Permanent exposition includes: information boards about famous North Caucasus railwaymen, model
Volgograd Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, located in the Volga region of Southern Russia. Its administrative center is Volgograd; the population of the oblast was 2,610,161 in the 2010 Census. Known as Stalingrad Oblast, it was given its present name in 1961, when the city of Stalingrad was renamed Volgograd as part of de-Stalinization. Volgograd Oblast borders Rostov Oblast in the southwest, Voronezh Oblast in the northwest, Saratov Oblast in the north, Astrakhan Oblast and the Republic of Kalmykia in the southeast, has an international border with Kazakhstan in the east; the two main rivers in European Russia, the Don and the Volga, run through the oblast and are connected by the Volga–Don Canal. Volgograd Oblast's strategic waterways have made it a popular route for shipping and for the generation of hydroelectricity. Volgograd Oblast is best known as the primary site of the Battle of Stalingrad during World War II regarded as one of the single largest and bloodiest battles in the history of warfare.
Borders length: 2,221.9 kilometers Volgograd Oblast borders with Saratov, Rostov and Voronezh Oblasts, as well as with Kalmykia of Russia and with Kazakhstan. Volgograd streams; the major ones include: The Volga River The Don River The Medveditsa River The Khopyor River Stalingrad Oblast was established on December 5, 1936 on the territory of former Stalingrad Krai. The oblast was given its present name on November 10, 1961. During the Soviet period, three people exercised oblast-level authority: the first secretary of the Volgograd CPSU Committee the chairman of the oblast Soviet the chairman of the oblast Executive Committee In 1991 the CPSU lost de facto power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament; the Charter of Volgograd Oblast provides the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Volgograd Oblast is the province's standing legislative body; the Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it.
The highest executive body, the Oblast Government, includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day-to-day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia. Population: 2,610,161 . Vital statistics for 2012Births: 30,252 Deaths: 35,021 Total fertility rate:2009 - 1.46 | 2010 - 1.45 | 2011 - 1.44 | 2012 - 1.54 | 2013 - 1.53 | 2014 - 1.57 | 2015 1.59 | 2016 1.57 44,541 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. According to a 2012 survey 54.5% of the population of Volgograd Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% are Orthodox Christian believers who don't belong to any church or are members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, 3% are Muslims.
In addition, 18% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 12% is atheist, 6.5% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Governor of Volgograd Oblast is Anatoliy Brovko Both the flag and the coat of arms of Volgograd Oblast include an image of The Motherland Calls, an 85 meter tall statue located in Volgograd. Primary branches of economics are agriculture, food production, heavy industry and petroleum refining; the Volga Hydroelectric Station operates on the Volga River. The largest companies in the region include Volzhsky Pipe Plant, Volgogradenergosbyt, OJSC Kaustik, Volzhsky Orgsintez. List of Chairmen of the Volgograd Oblast Duma Volgograd floating landing Волгоградская областная Дума. №1-ОД 24 февраля 2012 г. «Устав Волгоградской области», в ред. Закона №90-ОД от 10 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в статью 2 Устава Волгоградской области от 24 февраля 2012 г. №1-ОД». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №35, 29 февраля 2012 г.. Исполнительный комитет Волгоградского областного Совета депутатов трудящихся. "Волгоградская область. Административно-территориальное деление на 1 июля 1968 года". Нижне-Волжское книжное издательство. Волгоград, 1969. Official website of Volgograd Oblast Central Eurasian Information Resource: Images of Volgograd Oblast - University of Washington Digital Collections
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, juice, grape seed extract, raisins and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit occurring in clusters; the cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs on the skins of grapes, leading to the discovery of alcoholic drinks such as wine; the earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia. The oldest known winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC. By the 9th century AD the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East, thus it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, history attests to the ancient Greeks and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production.
The growing of grapes would spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, in North America. In North America, native grapes belonging to various species of the genus Vitis proliferate in the wild across the continent, were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by early European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. In the 19th century, Ephraim Bull of Concord, cultivated seeds from wild Vitis labrusca vines to create the Concord grape which would become an important agricultural crop in the United States. Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, can be crimson, dark blue, green and pink. "White" grapes are green in color, are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines.
Grapes are an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid. Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: Vitis amurensis, the most important Asian species Vitis labrusca, the North American table and grape juice grapevines, sometimes used for wine, are native to the Eastern United States and Canada. Vitis mustangensis, found in Mississippi, Louisiana and Oklahoma Vitis riparia, a wild vine of North America, is sometimes used for winemaking and for jam, it is native to the entire Eastern U. S. and north to Quebec. Vitis rotundifolia used for jams and wine, are native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, 75,866 square kilometers of the world are dedicated to grapes. 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural".
The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year. There are no reliable statistics, it is believed that the most planted variety is Sultana known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 km2 dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Franc, Grenache, Tempranillo and Chardonnay. Commercially cultivated grapes can be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw or used to make wine. While all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit with thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller seeded, have thick skins. Wine grapes tend to be sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes, is around 15% sugar by weight.
Seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction, it is an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques. There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Benjamin Gunnels's Prime seedless grapes and Venus, have been cultivated for hardiness and quality in the cold climates of northeastern United States and southern Ontario. An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical conten
Volgodonsk is a city in Rostov Oblast, located in the east of the oblast on the west bank of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir. Population: 170,841 . Volgodonsk was founded on July 27, 1950 as a small settlement for the Tsimlyansk hydroelectric dam maintenance personnel, it grew in size due to the construction of the Volga–Don Canal. Town status was granted to it in 1956. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Volgodonsk Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban okrug status. Volgodonsk is one of the economic leaders of Rostov Oblast; the city became the largest energy center of southern Russia with the launch of the Volgodonsk Nuclear Power Plant in March 2001. The power plant, along with the two thermal power stations, are the city's main employers. Atommash, Russia's biggest nuclear engineering enterprise, is located in the city; the city is a regional transport hub on the Volga–Don Canal.
A railway and M4 highway pass nearby. Bus routes were launched in 1954. There are presently thirty bus routes. Trolleybuses have been running since 1977. There are six trolleybus routes in the city. Volgodonsk port has a strategic importance as access to major ports of different countries. Volgodonsk is one of the major cultural centers of Rostov Oblast. There are six art schools, two museums, seventeen historical and cultural sites, three buildings recognized as architectural monuments of regional importance; the Cathedral of the Nativity is situated in Volgodonsk. Vitali Kazantsev, Russian football coach and former player Aleksei Germashov, Russian professional football player Aleksandr Omelchenko, Russian professional footballer Olga Beliaeva, Russian water polo player Nikita Borisoglebsky, Russian violinist Dmitry Kudryashov, Russian professional boxer and the current WBA International cruiserweight champion Anna Grineva, Russian water polo player Aleksandr Yegurnev, Russian professional football player Anna Ustyukhina, Russian water polo goalkeeper Ekaterina Prokofyeva, Russian water polo player Законодательное Собрание Ростовской области.
Закон №340-ЗС от 25 июля 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области», в ред. Закона №270-ЗС от 27 ноября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в областной Закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Наше время", №187–190, 28 июля 2005 г.. Законодательное Собрание Ростовской области. Закон №186-ЗС от 9 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границы и наделении статусом городского округа муниципального образования "Город Волгодонск"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Наше время", №275, 10 ноября 2004 г
The Volga is the longest river in Europe with a catchment area of 1,350,000 square kilometres. It is Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and drainage basin; the river flows through central Russia and into the Caspian Sea, is regarded as the national river of Russia. Eleven of the twenty largest cities of Russia, including the capital, are located in the Volga's drainage basin; some of the largest reservoirs in the world are located along the Volga. The river has a symbolic meaning in Russian culture and is referred to as Волга-матушка Volga-Matushka in Russian literature and folklore; the Russian hydronym Volga derives from Proto-Slavic *vòlga "wetness, moisture", preserved in many Slavic languages, including Ukrainian volóha "moisture", Russian vlaga "moisture", Bulgarian vlaga "moisture", Czech vláha "dampness", Serbian vlaga "moisture", Croatian vlaga "moisture" and Slovene vlaga "moisture" among others. The Slavic name is a loan translation of earlier Scythian Rā "Volga" "wetness", cognate with Avestan Raŋhā "mythical stream" and Vedic Sanskrit rasā́ "dew, juice.
The Scythian name survives in modern Mordvin Rav "Volga". The Turkic peoples living along the river referred to it as Itil or Atil "big river". In modern Turkic languages, the Volga is known as İdel in Tatar, Атăл in Chuvash, Idhel in Bashkir, Edil in Kazakh, İdil in Turkish; the Turkic peoples associated the Itil's origin with the Kama. Thus, a left tributary to the Kama was named the Aq Itil "White Itil" which unites with the Kara Itil "Black Itil" at the modern city of Ufa; the name Indyl is used in Adyge language. Among Asians, the river was known by its other Turkic name Sarı-su "yellow water", but the Oirats used their own name, Ijil mörön or "adaptation river". Presently the Mari, another Uralic group, call the river Jul, they called the river Volgydo, a borrowing from Old East Slavic. The Volga is the longest river in Europe, its catchment area is entirely inside Russia, though the longest river in Russia is the Ob–Irtysh river system, it belongs to the closed basin of the Caspian Sea, being the longest river to flow into a closed basin.
Rising in the Valdai Hills 225 meters above sea level northwest of Moscow and about 320 kilometers southeast of Saint Petersburg, the Volga heads east past Lake Sterzh, Dubna, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan. From there it turns south, flows past Ulyanovsk, Samara and Volgograd, discharges into the Caspian Sea below Astrakhan at 28 meters below sea level. At its most strategic point, it bends toward the Don. Volgograd Stalingrad, is located there; the Volga has many tributaries, most the rivers Kama, the Oka, the Vetluga, the Sura. The Volga and its tributaries form the Volga river system, which flows through an area of about 1,350,000 square kilometres in the most populated part of Russia; the Volga Delta has a length of about 160 kilometres and includes as many as 500 channels and smaller rivers. The largest estuary in Europe, it is the only place in Russia where pelicans and lotuses may be found; the Volga freezes for most of its length for three months each year. The Volga drains most of Western Russia.
Its many large reservoirs provide hydroelectric power. The Moscow Canal, the Volga–Don Canal, the Volga–Baltic Waterway form navigable waterways connecting Moscow to the White Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. High levels of chemical pollution have adversely affected its habitats; the fertile river valley provides large quantities of wheat, has many mineral riches. A substantial petroleum industry centers on the Volga valley. Other resources include natural gas and potash; the Volga Delta and the nearby Caspian Sea offer superb fishing grounds. Astrakhan, at the delta, is the center of the caviar industry. A number of large hydroelectric reservoirs were constructed on the Volga during the Soviet era, they are: Volgograd Reservoir Saratov Reservoir Kuybyshev Reservoir – the largest in Europe by surface Cheboksary Reservoir Gorky Reservoir Rybinsk Reservoir Uglich Reservoir Ivankovo Reservoir Volgograd Nizhny Novgorod Kazan Samara Saratov Tolyatti Yaroslavl Astrakhan Ulyanovsk Cheboksary Tver The area downstream of the Volga believed to have been a cradle of the Proto-Indo-European civilization, was settled by Slavs and other Turkic peoples in the first millennium AD, replacing the Scythians.
The ancient scholar Ptolemy of Alexandria mentions the lower Volga in his Geography. He calls it the Rha, the Scythian name for the river. Ptolemy believed the Don and the Volga shared the same upper branch, which flowed from the Hyperborean Mountains; the Russian ethnicity in Western Russia and around the Volga river evolved among other tribes, out of the East Slavic tribe of the Buzhans. Several localities in Russia are connected to the Buzhans, like for example Sredniy Buzhan in the Orenburg Oblast and the Buzan river in the Astrakhan Oblast. Buzhan is a village in Nishapur, Iran. Subsequently, the river basin played an important role in the movements of peoples from Asia to Europe. A powerful polity of Volga Bulgaria once flourished where the Kama jo