International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Later Stone Age
The Later Stone Age is a period in African prehistory that follows the Early Stone Age and Middle Stone Age. All three periods are often confused with the Lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic, and Upper Paleolithic, in the 1920s, it became clear to archaeologists that the existing chronological system of Upper and Lower Paleolithic was not a suitable correlate to the prehistoric past in Africa. The terms Early and Later Stone Age were developed to address this issue, some scholars, still view these two chronologies as parallel, arguing that they both represent the development of behavioral modernity. The Later Stone Age is associated with the advent of human behavior in Africa, although definitions of this concept. The transition from the Middle Stone Age to the Later Stone Age is thought to have occurred first in eastern Africa between 50,000 and 39,000 years ago. It is thought that Later Stone Age peoples and/or their technologies spread out of Africa over the several thousand years. LSA peoples were linked with biologically and behaviorally modern populations of hunter/gatherers.
This definition has changed since its creation with the discovery of ostrich eggshell beads, the Later Stone Age was long distinguished from the earlier Middle Stone Age as the time in which modern human behavior developed in Africa. This definition has become more tenuous as evidence for modern human behaviors is found in sites which predate the LSA significantly. The LSA follows the Middle Stone Age and begins about 50,000 years ago, the LSA is characterized by a wider variety in stone artifacts than in the previous MSA period. These artifacts vary with time and location, unlike Middle Stone Age technology which appeared to have been unchanged for several hundreds of thousands of years. LSA technology is characterized by the use of bone tools. The LSA was associated with human behavior, but this view was modified after discoveries in MSA sites such as Blombos Cave. LSA sites greatly outnumber MSA sites in Africa, a trend that could indicate an increase in population numbers, the greater number of LSA sites could result from bias towards better preservation of younger sites which have had fewer chances to be destroyed.
Differences in stone tool technologies are used to distinguish between the Middle Stone Age and the Later Stone Age. They have been broken into four stages within the LSA. Microlithic industries with bladelets dated between ca.18,000 and ca.12,000 B. P, bladelet-poor industries dating between 12,000 and 8000 B. P. The end of the Later Stone Age took place when groups adopted technologies such as metallurgy to replace the use of stone tools, Upper Paleolithic Middle Stone Age Enkapune Ya Muto Mumba Cave Mumbwa Cave Deacon, Hilary
The mongongo tree, mongongo nut or manketti tree is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae and of the monotypic genus Schinziophyton. A large, spreading tree, the mongongo reaches 15–20 metres tall and it is found on wooded hills and among sand dunes, and is associated with the Kalahari sand soil-types. The leaves are a distinctive hand-shape, and the yellow wood is similar in characteristics to balsa. The yellowish flowers occur in slender, loose sprays, the fruit are known as mongongo fruit, mongongo nuts, manketti nuts or nongongo. The egg-shaped, velvety fruit ripen and fall between March and May each year, and contain a layer of edible flesh around a thick, hard. Inside this shell is a highly nutritious nut, the mongongo is distributed widely through subtropical southern Africa. There are several distinct belts of distribution, the largest of which reaches from northern Namibia into northern Botswana, south-western Zambia, another belt is found in eastern Malawi, and yet another in eastern Mozambique.
Mongongo nuts are a staple diet in some areas, most notably among the San bushmen of northern Botswana, archaeological evidence has shown that they have been consumed by the San communities for over 7,000 years. Their popularity stems in part from their flavour, and in part from the fact that they store well, dry fruits are first steamed to soften the skins. After peeling, the fruits are cooked in water until the maroon-coloured flesh separates from the hard inner nuts. The pulp is eaten, and the nuts are saved to be roasted later, nuts are collected from elephant dung, the hard nut survives intact through the digestive process and the elephant does the hard work of collecting the nuts. During roasting of the nuts, direct contact with the fire is avoided, once dry, the outer shell cracks easily, revealing the nut, encased within a soft, inner shell. The nuts are either eaten intact, or pounded as ingredients in other dishes. The oil from the nuts has traditionally used as a body rub in the dry winter months, to clean and moisten the skin, while the hard.
The wood, being strong and light, makes excellent fishing floats, insulating material and drawing boards. More recently, it has used to make dart-boards and packing cases. Per 100 grams shelled nuts,57 g fat, 44% polyunsaturated 17% saturated 18% monounsaturated 24 g protein 193 mg calcium 527 mg magnesium 4 mg zinc 2, the Original Affluent Society--Marshall Sahlins Original affluent society Post-scarcity economy
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
Middle Stone Age
The Middle Stone Age was a period of African prehistory between the Early Stone Age and the Later Stone Age. It is generally considered to have begun around 280,000 years ago, the beginnings of particular MSA stone tools have their origins as far back as 550–500,000 years ago and as such some researchers consider this to be the beginnings of the MSA. The MSA is associated with anatomically modern humans as well as archaic Homo sapiens, sometimes referred to as Homo helmei. Early physical evidence comes from the Gademotta Formation in Ethiopia, the Kapthurin Formation in Kenya and it is difficult to discuss the MSA of Africa without first considering the immense size of the continent. Preservation in these two regions are alternately superb and lamentable, yet the sites that have been uncovered document the adaptive nature of early hominins to climatically unstable environments. Eastern Africa represents some of the most reliable dates, due to the use of radiocarbon dating on volcanic ash deposits, faunal preservation, however, is not spectacular, and standardization in site excavation and lithic classification was, until recently, lacking.
Central Africa reflects similar patterning to eastern Africa, yet more archaeological research of the region is certainly required, southern Africa consists of many cave sites, most of which show very punctuated starts and stops in stone tool technology. Research in southern Africa has been continuous and quite standardized, allowing for reliable comparisons between sites in the region. Much of the evidence for the origins of modern human behavior is traced back to sites in this region, including Blombos Cave, Howiesons Poort, Still Bay. The origins of the MSA are characterized in most regions by the Acheulian to MSA transition and this transition is considered to be a gradual process, rather than a singular event wherein hominin technologies advanced rapidly. Although the dates for this vary widely, the oldest reliably dated MSA site is Gademotta in Ethiopia at greater than 276 thousand years ago. The Middle Awash valley of Ethiopia and the Central Rift Valley of Kenya constituted a major center for behavioural innovation and this suggests a possible overlap of 100-150 thousand years.
The Cave of Hearths and Montague Cave in South Africa contain evidence of Acheulian technologies, as well as MSA technologies, Early blades have been documented as far back as 550-500,000 years in the Kapthurin Formation in Kenya and Kathu Pan in South Africa. Backed pieces from the Twin Rivers and Kalambo Falls sites in Zambia, a high level of technical competence is indicated for the c.280 ka blades recovered from the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. The stone tool technology in use during the Middle Stone Age shows a mosaic of techniques, the use of blades is seen at many sites as well. In Africa, blades may have used during the transition from the Early Stone Age to the Middle Stone Age onwards. Artifact technology during the Middle Stone Age shows a pattern of innovation followed by disappearance and this occurs with technology such as the manufacture of shell beads and hide working tools including needles, and gluing technology. These pieces of evidence provide a counterpoint to the classic Out of Africa scenario in which increasing complexity accumulated during the Middle Stone Age, perhaps only in small numbers initially, but by 30 ka they had replaced Neanderthals and H. erectus
North-West District (Botswana)
North-West District Council is one of the local authorities of Botswana. It was established in 1966, overlapping the administrative districts of Chobe, since 2006, when the Chobe District Council was established, it only administers Ngamiland. As of 2011, the population of the district was 175,631 compared to 142,970 in 2001. The growth rate of population during the decade was 2.08, the total number of workers constituted 32,471 with 16,852 males and 15,621 females, with a majority of them involved in agriculture. The district is administered by an administration and district council which are responsible for local administration. Maun, Tsodilo Hills, Moremi Game Reserve, Gchwihaba Caves, Aha Hills, Nhabe Museum, domestically, it borders Central District in southeast, Ghanzi District in southwest and Chobe District in the east. Most part of Botswana has tableland slopes sliding from east to west, the region has an average elevation of around 915 m above the mean sea level. The vegetation type is Savannah, with grasses, bushes.
The annual precipitation is around 65 cm, most of which is received during the season from November to May. Most of the rivers in the region are seasonal, with Limpopo River, Tsodilo Hills, Moremi Game Reserve, Gchwihaba Caves, Aha Hills, Nhabe Museum and Maun Educational Park are the major tourist attractions in the district. As of 2011, the population of the district was 175,631 compared to 142,970 in 2001. The growth rate of population during the decade was 2.08, the population in the district was 8.67 per cent of the total population in the country. The sex ratio stood at 95.11 for every 100 males, the average house hold size was 3.27 in 2011 compared to 4.49 in 2001. As of 2011, there were a total of 071 schools in the district, the total number of students in the Council schools was 28,101, while it was 940 in private schools. The total number of enrolled in the district was 29,041,14,190 girls and 14,851 boys. The total number of qualified teachers was 1,070,658 female and 412 male, there were around 27 temporary teachers,13 male and 40 female.
There were 6 untrained teachers in the district, the total number of workers was 32,471,16,852 male and 15,621 female. By far the largest settlement in the district is Maun, which had a population of 43,776 in 2001 census, the following is the list of villages noted separately in the 2001 census in each census region
The Tsodilo Hills are a UNESCO World Heritage Site, consisting of rock art, rock shelters and caves. It gained its WHS listing in 2001 because of its religious and spiritual significance to local peoples. UNESCO estimates that there are over 4500 rock paintings at the site, the site consists of a few main hills known as the Child Hill, the Female Hill, and the Male Hill. These hills are of cultural and spiritual significance to the San People of the Kalahari. The highest is 1,400 metres AMSL and this is one of the highest points in Botswana. The four hills are described as the Male, this is the highest, the Female, Child. There is a campsite between the two largest hills, with showers and toilets. The hills can be reached via a graded dirt road and are about 40 km from Shakawe. Also by the campsite is a small museum, People have used the Tsodilo Hills for painting and ritual for thousands of years. UNESCO estimates that the hills contain 500 individual sites representing thousands of years of human habitation, the hills rock art has been linked to the local hunter gatherers.
It is believed that ancestors of the San created some of the paintings at Tsodilo, there is evidence that Bantu peoples were responsible for some of the artworks at the hills. Some of the paintings have been dated to be as early as 24,000 years before present, Rhino Cave is located at the North end of the Female Hill and has two main walls where paintings are located. The white rhino painting which the cave is named for is located on the north wall, excavations of the cave floor turned up many lithic materials from. While the cave lacks ostrich egg shell, bone artifacts, pottery or iron, charcoal found during excavations has been dated to the African Iron Age, the Later Stone Age, and the Middle Stone Age. Artifacts, mostly stone, from the LSA were made from materials such as quartz. MSA artifacts from the cave are mostly prepared projectile points, the points are typically found in various stages of production, some have been abandoned and some are finished. The paintings at Rhino Cave are mostly located on the North wall, around the rhino and the giraffe are various paintings, mostly in red, of geometrics.
On the opposite wall, the cave is host to grooves and they may have been created using hammer stones or grindstones from the LSA period, which have been found at Tsodilo
Bantu peoples is used as a general label for the 300–600 ethnic groups in Africa who speak Bantu languages. They inhabit an area stretching east and southward from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes region down to Southern Africa. Bantu is a branch of the Niger-Congo language family spoken by most populations in Africa. There are about 650 Bantu languages by the criterion of mutual intelligibility and this Bantu expansion first introduced Bantu peoples to central and southeastern Africa, regions they had previously been absent from. They encountered some Afro-Asiatic outlier groups in the southeast, who had there for centuries migrating from Northeast Africa. Individual Bantu groups today often include millions of people, among these are the Shona of Zimbabwe with 14.2 million people, the Luba of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with over 13. Swahili serves as one of the languages of the African Union. The word Bantu, and its variations, means people or humans, the root in Proto-Bantu is reconstructed as *-ntu.
This view represents a resolution of debates in the 1960s over competing theories advanced by Joseph Greenberg and Malcolm Guthrie and he proposed that Bantu languages had spread east and south from there, to secondary centers of further dispersion, over hundreds of years. Subsequent research on loanwords for adaptations in agriculture and animal husbandry and it is unclear exactly when the spread of Bantu-speakers began from their core area as hypothesized c.5,000 years ago. Another stream of migration, moving east, by 3,000 years ago was creating a new population center near the Great Lakes of East Africa. Pioneering groups had reached modern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa by A. D.300 along the coast, before the expansion of farming and herding peoples, including those speaking Bantu languages, Africa south of the equator was populated by neolithic hunting and foraging peoples. Some of them were ancestral to proto-Khoisan-speaking peoples, whose modern hunter-forager and linguistic descendants, the Hadza and Sandawe populations in Tanzania comprise the other modern hunter-forager remnant in Africa of these proto-Khoisan-speaking peoples.
After their movements from their homeland in West Africa, Bantus encountered in East Africa peoples of Afro-Asiatic. As cattle terminology in use amongst the few modern Bantu pastoralist groups suggests, linguistic evidence indicates that Bantus likely borrowed the custom of milking cattle directly from Cushitic peoples in the area. On the coastal section of East Africa, another mixed Bantu community developed through contact with Muslim Arab, the Swahili culture that emerged from these exchanges evinces many Arab and Islamic influences not seen in traditional Bantu culture, as do the many Afro-Arab members of the Bantu Swahili people. Between the 14th and 15th centuries, Bantu-speaking states began to emerge in the Great Lakes region in the south of the Central African rain forest. On the Zambezi river, the Monomatapa kings built the famous Great Zimbabwe complex, from the 16th century onward, the processes of state formation amongst Bantu peoples increased in frequency
Sydney Adventist Hospital
Sydney Adventist Hospital, commonly known as the San, is a large private hospital in Sydney, located on Fox Valley Road in Wahroonga. Established on 1 January 1903, as an organisation, it was originally named the Sydney Sanitarium from which its colloquial name was derived. The hospital is operated by the Seventh-day Adventist Church, whose South Pacific Division headquarters are located in the vicinity of the San. The hospital offers a range of acute medical, diagnostic, outpatient and wellness services. As a not-for-profit health care facility,2,200 staff and 700 accredited medical officers provide services for more than 50,000 inpatients, the hospital is the base for the nursing course offered by Avondale College. Sydney Sanitarium opened in Wahroonga on 1 January 1903 with a bed capacity of 70 and was known as a ‘home of health’, the original Hospital building was designed by Dr Merritt Kellogg, brother of Dr John Harvey Kellogg. The Sanitarium became widely known as the ‘San’, and today, many years after its 1973 official name change to Sydney Adventist Hospital, the Hospital was rebuilt in 1973 and became an acute care institution.
Since almost 100 HCO trips to 13 countries have made with over 2,850 surgeries performed. In 2007 the 21st anniversary of the first trip was celebrated, surgeries have now been expanded to cover cleft palate defect repair, orthopaedic surgery, burns scar contracture repair, and uterine prolapse. In 2005 the Hospital in the Home program commenced at the San, in 2006 the San won the prestigious national Australian Private Hospital Award for Clinical Excellence. The San become home to the Southern Hemisphere’s first Dual Source Computerised Tomography Scanner in the same year, Sydney Adventist Hospital offers acute surgical and obstetric care. On-site accommodation is available at Jacaranda Lodge for outpatients, family members who live far from the hospital, Jacaranda Lodge houses the extensive Cancer Support Centre and services. The San Clinic opened in 2003 adjacent to the hospital, Sydney Adventist Hospital owns two other hospitals. The San Day Surgery Hornsby is a day surgery facility located near Hornsby Hospital.
In July 2010, Dalcross Adventist Hospital was purchased in nearby Killara, Dalcross has over 50 beds and offers ophthalmic, vascular and other surgical services
University of Oslo
The University of Oslo, until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University, is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo. Until 1 January 2016 it was the largest Norwegian institution of education in terms of size, now surpassed only by the Norwegian University of Science. The Academic Ranking of World Universities has ranked it the 58th best university in the world, in 2015, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked it the 135th best university in the world and the seventh best in the Nordics. While in its 2016, Top 200 Rankings of European universities, the university has approximately 27,700 students and employs around 6,000 people. Its faculties include Theology, Medicine, Mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences, the universitys original neoclassical campus is located in the centre of Oslo, it is currently occupied by the Faculty of Law. Most of the other faculties are located at the newer Blindern campus in the suburban West End. The Faculty of Medicine is split between several university hospitals in the Oslo area, the university was founded in 1811 and was modeled after the University of Copenhagen and the recently established University of Berlin.
It was originally named for King Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway, the university is informally known as Universitetet, having been the only university in Norway, until 1946 and was commonly referred to as The Royal Fredericks, prior to the name change. The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in the universitys Atrium, from 1947 to 1989, since 2003, the Abel Prize is awarded in the Atrium. Five researchers affiliated with the university have been Nobel laureates, in 1813, The Royal Frederiks University was founded in Christiania, a small city at that time. Circumstances changed dramatically one year into the commencement of the university, independence was somewhat restricted, as Norway was obliged to enter into a legislative union with Sweden based on the outcome of the War of 1814. Norway retained its own constitution and independent state institutions, although royal power, at a time when Norwegians feared political domination by the Swedes, the new university became a key institution that contributed to Norwegian political and cultural independence.
The main initial function of The Royal Frederick University was to educate a new class of civil servants, as well as parliamentary representatives. The university became the centre for a survey of the survey of culture, history. The staff of the university strove to undertake a range of tasks necessary for developing a modern society. Throughout the 1800s, the academic disciplines gradually became more specialised. Classical education came under increasing pressure, health services and public administration were among those fields that recruited personnel from the universitys graduates. Research changed qualitatively around the turn of the century as new methods, scientific theories and it was decided that teachers should arrive at their posts as highly qualified academics and continue academic research alongside their role as teachers
Radiocarbon dating is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon. The method was developed by Willard Libby in the late 1940s, Libby received the Nobel Prize for his work in 1960. The radiocarbon dating method is based on the fact that radiocarbon is constantly being created in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen. The resulting radiocarbon combines with oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide. When the animal or plant dies, it stops exchanging carbon with its environment, and from that point onwards the amount of 14C it contains begins to decrease as the 14C undergoes radioactive decay. Measuring the amount of 14C in a sample from a plant or animal such as a piece of wood or a fragment of bone provides information that can be used to calculate when the animal or plant died. The idea behind radiocarbon dating is straightforward, but years of work were required to develop the technique to the point where accurate dates could be obtained.
Research has been ongoing since the 1960s to determine what the proportion of 14C in the atmosphere has been over the past fifty thousand years. The resulting data, in the form of a curve, is now used to convert a given measurement of radiocarbon in a sample into an estimate of the samples calendar age. Other corrections must be made to account for the proportion of 14C in different types of organisms, additional complications come from the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil, and from the above-ground nuclear tests done in the 1950s and 1960s. Conversely, nuclear testing increased the amount of 14C in the atmosphere, measurement of radiocarbon was originally done by beta-counting devices, which counted the amount of beta radiation emitted by decaying 14C atoms in a sample. The development of dating has had a profound impact on archaeology. In addition to permitting more accurate dating within archaeological sites than previous methods, histories of archaeology often refer to its impact as the radiocarbon revolution.
Radiocarbon dating has allowed key transitions in prehistory to be dated, such as the end of the last ice age, and they synthesized 14C using the laboratorys cyclotron accelerator and soon discovered that the atoms half-life was far longer than had been previously thought. This was followed by a prediction by Serge A. Korff, employed at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and it had previously been thought that 14C would be more likely to be created by deuterons interacting with 13C. At some time during World War II, Willard Libby, who was at Berkeley, learned of Korffs research, in 1945, Libby moved to the University of Chicago where he began his work on radiocarbon dating. He published a paper in 1946 in which he proposed that the carbon in living matter might include 14C as well as non-radioactive carbon, by contrast, methane created from petroleum showed no radiocarbon activity because of its age. The results were summarized in a paper in Science in 1947, Libby and James Arnold proceeded to test the radiocarbon dating theory by analyzing samples with known ages