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Tsou people

The Tsou are an indigenous people of central southern Taiwan. They are an Austronesian ethnic group, they are spread across two administrative entities of the Republic of China — Nantou County and Chiayi County. They are sometimes confused with the Thao people of Sun Moon Lake. In the year 2018 the Tsou numbered 6,641; this was 1.19% of Taiwan's total Indigenous population, making them the seventh-largest indigenous group. The Tsou are traditionally based in the Alishan area, their rich oral histories describe migrations of each ancient clans' ancestors into the area between Yushan and the Chianan Plain. Each clan had its own settlement, with the first multi-clan town, forming 1600 CE; the earliest written record of the Tsou dates from the Dutch occupation, which describes the multi-clan settlement Tfuya as having 300 people in 1647. Ethnologists have attempted to reconstruct the development of Tfuya, proposing that each stage of clan migration could be equivalent to three or four generations of family.

Another Formosan group of Bunun origin called the Takopulan lived in the same area, but were absorbed by the Tsou. Their largest settlement had 450 people in 1647. During the Japanese colonial period, four Tsou groups were recorded: Tfuya, Tapangᵾ, Imucu and Luhtu. Francesca Kao, actress and television host, her native name is Paicʉ Yatauyungana. Tang Lanhua, Taiwanese singer and actress, her native name is Yurunana Daniiv. Tibusungu'e Vayayana, Deputy Minister of the Council of Indigenous Peoples Tsou language Taiwanese aborigines

Henry Horne, 1st Baron Horne

General Henry Sinclair Horne, 1st Baron Horne, was a military officer in the British Army, most notable for his generalship during the First World War. He was the only British artillery officer. Horne was born on 19 Feb 1861 in the parish of Wick in Caithness, the third son of Major James Horne and Constance Mary Shewell, he was first educated at Harrow, receiving an artillery commission from the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich in May 1880, when he was appointed a lieutenant in the Royal Field Artillery. Promotion to captain followed on 17 August 1888, to major on 23 February 1898. From 1899 to 1902 Horne fought with the cavalry in the Second Boer War in South Africa under Sir John French, he received the brevet promotion to lieutenant colonel on 29 November 1900, in the latter stages of the war served as a remount officer and was mentioned in despatches. Following the end of hostilities in June 1902 he returned to England, leaving Cape Town in the SS Norman which arrived in Southampton in late August that year.

In 1905 he received the substantive promotion to lieutenant colonel and served with the Royal Horse Artillery under Douglas Haig. His military career was unremarkable until 1912 when he was promoted to brigadier and appointed Inspector of Artillery. War broke out two years and Horne was appointed to command a force of artillery under Lieutenant-General Douglas Haig, who commanded I Corps. At the Battle of Mons, Horne distinguished himself with a rearguard action that allowed Haig's I Corps to retreat effortlessly. Horne fought with distinction in the British Expeditionary Force's actions throughout 1914. A few months he was given command of the 2nd Division. In May 1915, Horne's division participated in the first British night attack of the war, distinguishing itself at the Battle of Festubert; the media launched vicious attacks on the Secretary of State for Lord Kitchener. The artillery were reorganised after this fiasco at Horne's suggestion. In November 1915, Horne accompanied Lord Kitchener to the Dardanelles, where they organised and executed the evacuation of Gallipoli.

For several months, Horne was placed in charge of the Suez Canal defences. March 1916 saw him return to the Western Front, he was allotted to the Fourth Army, preparing for an attack in the Somme area. In the pre-battle plans, Horne advocated and became an architect of the "creeping barrage", a tactic, used for the rest of the war. On 1 July 1916, Horne's XV Corps participated in the costliest battle of the First World War, his force consisted of the 21st Divisions. They attacked the villages of Fricourt and Mametz, capturing both on the first day although suffering 7,500 casualties in the process; the divisions bypassed Mametz Wood, a position the Germans had entrenched and needed to be captured to allow XV to carry on the advance. As the 7th Division had suffered heavy casualties, the 38th Division was assigned to the Corps and ordered to take the wood. Horne interfered in the division's efforts to attack the wood, issuing conflicting orders and going as far as to ordering a single platoon into action.

Due to the miscommunication between Horne and the division's commander, Ivor Philipps was fired and replaced by the commander of the 7th Division. Horne wrote a "self-serving" account of this event that did no justice to men of the division or the difficulties they had faced. On July 9, the Welsh cleared it by the following day. During their 6 days on the Somme, the Welsh division suffered 3,993 casualties. Historian Don Farr wrote that the reputation of the Welsh division suffered due to the repeated interference by Horne in matters best left to the divisional or brigade staff and his "inexperience of battlefield command at this level". With the wood cleared, Horne would lead his Corps during the Bazentin Ridge, the Battle of Delville Wood, the Battle of Flers–Courcelette. In September 1916, Horne was created a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath. After the successful capture of Flers, he was promoted to temporary General and succeeded Sir Charles Monro as commander of the First Army. On 1 January 1917, he was promoted to the substantive rank of Lieutenant-General "for distinguished service in the field".

His first trial occurred in April 1917, when his troops were sent on a diversionary attack on the fearsome Vimy Ridge, which rose hundreds of feet over the surrounding landscape. French Army commander Robert Nivelle was critical of Horne's plan; the attack on Vimy Ridge was spearheaded by the First Army's "shock troops". The ensuing Battle of Vimy Ridge, the first of a series of actions known as the Battle of Arras was successful: supported by Horne's 1,000-odd artillery pieces, the Canadian forces took the ridge in four days, with 10,000 casualties; the capture of Vimy Ridge would prove essential to the British Army: it served as the backbone of the British def

St Austell Clay Pits

St Austell Clay Pits, are a group of locations within active china clay quarries that form a single Site of Special Scientific Interest and Special Area of Conservation, noted for its biological characteristics. In particular, the site is known for the rare western rustwort, a plant that grows only at two other sites in the UK; the 0.6-hectare SSSI, notified in 2000, comprises three separate sites that are all about 4 miles north of the town of St Austell. They all lie within china clay workings which are still active and are situated on either pits, spoil tips or vegetation-covered granitic debris; the combined site is designated a Special Areas of Conservation. The SSSI owes its importance to a rare liverwort, the western rustwort, which in the UK can be found only at this site and at two others: Lower Bostraze and Leswidden and Tregonning Hill SSSIs, both within Cornwall, to the west, it is found growing in moist conditions on micaceous or clay waste substrates with no or little sloping, as well as on soft or crumbling granite rocks.

Owing to the presence of the rare western rustwort, Plantlife has designated a large area of active and disused mine workings in the St Austell area as an Important Plant Area, with the same name as the SSSI. This area includes all the SSSI sites, as well as many others, it is thought that the protected areas will act as a source for colonisation for the western rustwort to other locations in the surrounding china clay area. St Austell and Clay Country Eco-town