Kingdom of Tonga (1900–70)
From 1900 to 1970, the Kingdom of Tonga was a Protected State of the United Kingdom. Tonga became a British protected state under a Treaty of Friendship on May 18, 1900, when European settlers and rival Tongan chiefs tried to oust the second king; the Treaty of Friendship and protected state status ended in 1970 under arrangements established prior to her death by the third monarch, Queen Sālote. An unspoken agreement of the treaty, common in British Protectorate states was a new British monopoly on Tonga's thriving vanilla industry, their small deposits of minerals. On 18 May 1900, to discourage German advances, the Kingdom of Tonga became a Protected State with the United Kingdom under a Treaty of Friendship signed by George Tupou II after European settlers and rival Tongan chiefs attempted to overthrow him. Foreign affairs of the Kingdom of Tonga were conducted though the British Consul; the United Kingdom had veto power over foreign finances of the Kingdom of Tonga. Tonga was affected by the 1918 flu pandemic, with 1,800 Tongans killed, around eight per cent of the residents.
For most of the 20th century Tonga was quiet, inward-looking, somewhat isolated from developments elsewhere in the world. Tonga's complex social structure is broken into three tiers: the king, the nobles, the commoners. Between the nobles and commoners are Matapule, sometimes called "talking chiefs," who are associated with the king or a noble and who may or may not hold estates. Obligations and responsibilities are reciprocal, although the nobility are able to extract favors from people living on their estates, they must extend favors to their people. Status and rank play a powerful role in personal relationships within families. On 4 June 1970, protected state status of the Kingdom of Tonga ended; the end of the Kingdom of Tonga protected state status was arraigned by Salote Tupou III prior to her death in 1965
Niue is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, 2,400 kilometres northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, west of the Cook Islands. Niue's land area is about 261 square kilometres and its population, predominantly Polynesian, was about 1,600 in 2016; the island is referred to as "The Rock", which comes from the traditional name "Rock of Polynesia". Niue is one of the world's largest coral islands; the terrain of the island has two noticeable levels. The higher level is made up of a limestone cliff running along the coast, with a plateau in the centre of the island reaching 60 metres high above sea level; the lower level is a coastal terrace 0.5 km wide and about 25–27 metres high, which slopes down and meets the sea in small cliffs. A coral reef surrounds the island, with the only major break in the reef being in the central western coast, close to the capital, Alofi. A notable feature are the many limestone caves near the coast. Niue is a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand.
Niueans are citizens of New Zealand, Queen Elizabeth II is head of state in her capacity as Queen of New Zealand. Between 90% and 95% of Niuean people live in New Zealand, along with about 70% of the speakers of the Niuean language. Niue is a bilingual country, with 30% of the population speaking both Niuean and English, though the percentage of monolingual English-speaking people is only 11%, while 46% are monolingual Niuean speakers. Niue is not a member of the United Nations, but UN organisations have accepted its status as a freely-associated state as equivalent to independence for the purposes of international law; as such, Niue is a member of some UN specialised agencies, is invited, alongside the other non-UN member state, the Cook Islands, to attend United Nations conferences open to "all states". Niue has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1980. Niue is subdivided into 14 villages; each village has a village council. The villages are at the same time electoral districts. A small and democratic nation, Niueans hold legislative elections every 3 years.
The Niue Integrated Strategic Plan, adopted in 2003, is the national development plan, setting national priorities for development in areas such as financial sustainability. Since the late 20th century Niue has become a leader in green growth. In January 2004, Niue was hit by Cyclone Heta, which caused extensive damage to the island, including wiping out most of South Alofi; the disaster set the island back about two years from its planned timeline to implement the NISP, since national efforts concentrated on recovery. Polynesians from Samoa settled Niue around 900 AD. Further settlers arrived from Tonga in the 16th century; until the beginning of the 18th century, Niue appears to have had no national government or national leader. Around 1700 the concept and practice of kingship appears to have originated through contact with the Tongans who settled around the 1600s. A succession of patu-iki ruled. Tui-toga, who reigned from 1875 to 1887, was the first Christian king; the first Europeans to sight Niue sailed under Captain James Cook in 1774.
Cook made three attempts to land. He named the island "Savage Island" because, as legend has it, the natives who "greeted" him were painted in what appeared to be blood; the substance on their teeth was a native red fe'i banana. For the next couple of centuries, Niue was known as Savage Island until its original name, Niuē, which translates as "behold the coconut", regained use; the next notable European visitors represented the London Missionary Society. After many years of trying to land a European missionary, a Niuean named Nukai Peniamina went with his friend, Niumaga, to Samoa and trained as a pastor at the Malua Theological College. Peniamina returned in 1846 on the John Williams as a missionary with the help of Toimata Fakafitifonua, he was allowed to land in Uluvehi Mutalau after a number of attempts in other villages had failed. The chiefs of Mutalau village allowed him to land and assigned over 60 warriors to protect him day and night at the fort in Fupiu. In July 1849 Captain John Erskine visited the island in HMS Havannah.
Christianity was first taught to the Mutalau people. Other major villages opposed the introduction of Christianity and had sought to kill Peniamina; the people from the village of Hakupu, although the last village to receive Christianity and asked for a "word of God". In 1889 the chiefs and rulers of Niue, in a letter to Queen Victoria, asked her "to stretch out towards us your mighty hand, that Niue may hide herself in it and be safe". After expressing anxiety lest some other nation should take possession of the island, the letter continued: "We leave it with you to do as seems best to you. If you send the flag of Britain, well; the British did not take up the offer. In 1900 a petition by the Cook Islanders asking for annexation included Niue "if possible". In a document dated 19 October 1901, the "King" and Chiefs of Niue consented to "Queen Victoria taking
Fiji the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, Tuvalu to the north. Fiji consists of an archipelago of more than 330 islands—of which 110 are permanently inhabited—and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of about 18,300 square kilometres; the most outlying island is Ono-i-Lau. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the total population of 898,760; the capital, Suva, on Viti Levu, serves as the country's principal cruise-ship port. About three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres such as Nadi—where tourism is the major local industry—or Lautoka, where the sugar-cane industry is paramount.
Due to its terrain, the interior of Viti Levu is sparsely inhabited. The majority of Fiji's islands formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago; some geothermal activity still occurs today, on the islands of Vanua Taveuni. The geothermal systems on Viti Levu are non-volcanic in origin, with low-temperature surface discharges. Sabeto Hot Springs near Nadi is a good example. Humans have lived in Fiji since the second millennium BC—first Austronesians and Melanesians, with some Polynesian influences. Europeans visited Fiji from the 17th century onwards, after a brief period as an independent kingdom, the British established the Colony of Fiji in 1874. Fiji operated as a Crown colony until 1970. A military government declared a Republic in 1987 following a series of coups d'état. In a coup in 2006, Commodore Frank Bainimarama seized power; when the High Court ruled the military leadership unlawful in 2009, President Ratu Josefa Iloilo, whom the military had retained as the nominal Head of State, formally abrogated the 1997 Constitution and re-appointed Bainimarama as interim Prime Minister.
In 2009, Ratu Epeli Nailatikau succeeded Iloilo as President. After years of delays, a democratic election took place on 17 September 2014. Bainimarama's FijiFirst party won 59.2% of the vote, international observers deemed the election credible. Fiji has one of the most developed economies in the Pacific thanks to its abundant forest and fish resources, its currency is the Fijian dollar, its main sources of foreign exchange are its tourist industry, remittances from Fijians working, bottled water exports. The Ministry of Local Government and Urban Development supervises Fiji's local government, which takes the form of city and town councils. Fiji's main island is known as Viti Levu and it is from this that the name "Fiji" is derived, though the common English pronunciation is based on that of their island neighbours in Tonga, its emergence can be described as follows: Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga.
They were described as formidable warriors and ferocious cannibals, builders of the finest vessels in the Pacific, but not great sailors. They inspired awe amongst the Tongans, all their Manufactures bark cloth and clubs, were valued and much in demand, they called their home Viti, but the Tongans called it Fisi, it was by this foreign pronunciation, first promulgated by Captain James Cook, that these islands are now known. "Feejee", the Anglicised spelling of the Tongan pronunciation, was used in accounts and other writings until the late 19th century, by missionaries and other travellers visiting Fiji. Located in the central Pacific Ocean, Fiji's geography has made it both a destination and a crossroads for migrations for many centuries. According to oral tradition, the indigenous Fijians of today are descendants of the chief Lutunasobasoba and those who arrived with him on the Kaunitoni canoe. Landing at what is now Vuda, the settlers moved inland to the Nakauvadra mountains. Though this oral tradition has not been independently substantiated, the Fijian government promotes it, many tribes today claim to be descended from the children of Lutunasobasoba.
Pottery art from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled by Austronesian peoples before or around 3500 to 1000 BC, with Melanesians following around a thousand years although the question of Pacific migration still lingers. It is believed that the Lapita people or the ancestors of the Polynesians settled the islands first but not much is known of what became of them after the Melanesians arrived. Archeological evidence shows signs of settlement on Moturiki Island from 600 BC and as far back as 900 BC. Aspects of Fijian culture are similar to the Melanesian culture of the western Pacific but have a stronger connection to the older Polynesian cultures. Trade between Fiji and neighbouring archipelagos long before European contact is testified by the canoes made from native Fijian trees found in Tonga and Tongan words being part of the language of the Lau group of islands. Pots made in Fiji have been found in Samoa and the Marquesas Islands. In the 10th century, the Tu'i Tonga Empire was established in Tonga, Fiji came within its sphere of influence.
The Tongan influence brought Polynesian cu
George Tupou I
George Tupou I, King of Tonga was known as Tāufaʻāhau I, or Tupou Maeakafa Ngininginiofolanga in modern spelling. He adopted the name Siaosi, the Tongan version of George, after King George III of the United Kingdom, when he was baptized in 1831, his nickname was Lopa-ukamea. George Tupou I was born around 1797 in Tonga. 4 December is a public holiday in Tonga. Tongoleleka and the Niuʻui hospital there are stated as his birthplace, his father was Tupouto'aʻ, who aspired to be the 17th Tuʻi Kanokupolu, but he was not recognized as such by the high chiefs of Tongatapu, as he was viewed as a low ranking usurper from Haʻapai. His mother, felt her life was at risk on Tongatapu, so she fled with her son to Haʻapai within the year of his birth, her history, as well as her son Maeakafa's history, is more reliably tracked to Haʻapai Island. The pregnant Hoamo fale ono felt insecure in Tongatapu as she was about to give birth to a child whose father, Tupouto'a, was the primary adversary of her clan. Tupouto'a was in Ha'apai to kill Tupounia and'Ulukalala in order to avenge the assassination of his father, Tuku'aho.
Tuku'aho was cruel and feared by all, including Ha'a Havea Lahi chiefs, given such acts as the burning of Fangale'ounga, a Vaini colony of Ma'afutuku'i'aulahi. Niukapu, a chief, fled to Ha'apai under the protection of the Ha'atalafale Tu'ipelehake; these chiefs supported Tupou Moheofo, installed as Tu'i Kanokupolu, instead of Tuku'aho's father, Mumui. The retribution by Tuku'aho on Ha'a Havea was regarded, despite the fact Niukapu was not part of the clan, as a demotion in power and a display of disrespect of territorial boundaries. Since Tuku'aho's siblings and descendants have had antagonistic feelings towards those from Ha'a Havea. George Tupou was established as the Tuʻi Haʻapai before the death of his father in 1820, he inherited the conflicts with the overlords of Tongatapu, in particular with Laufilitonga, the last Tuʻi Tonga, who tried to extend his role as spiritual leader into a more political one and contested Tāufaʻāhau in Haʻapai. The culmination of this struggle was the Battle of Velata in 1826, in which Laufilitonga was defeated.
An important ally at that battle was the chief of Haʻafeva. It was now clear that Tāufaʻāhau was ambitious and wanted more than only Haʻapai. To stop him, in 1827, the chiefs of Tongatapu made Laufilitonga the Tuʻi Tonga, made Tāufa's uncle Aleamotuʻa a Tuʻi Kanokupolu, preventing an island invasion, as fighting against family members was seen as a Tongan disgrace. In spite of this, at his baptism in 1831, Tāufa declared himself King George of Tonga, his next conquest resulted from his relationships with the ruler of Vavaʻu. He became the Tuʻi Vavaʻu after Finau's death in 1833, he dedicated Tonga to God in 1839. During the 1830s, he resided in Vavaʻu, in Veitatalo, now ʻUlukālala's residence. Vavaʻu was at peace and it prospered. Tongatapu, on the other hand, suffered from a cruel civil war with the local chiefs fighting each other. Tāufaʻāhau launched raids on Tongatapu with his fierce warriors from Haʻapai and Vavaʻu, the Tautahi. However, it was not until Aleamotuʻa's death that year; the chiefs were forced to obey him, he was installed as Tuʻi Kanokupolu in Kolovai on 4 December.
Niuafoʻou and Niuatoputapu would follow later.'Eua was never conquered by Tāufaʻāhau. However, they provided Tāufaʻāhau with guns and ammunition for his wars throughout Tonga. In 1852, the last independent chief, Takai Mo Fa'e, fell and Tāufa became the undisputed leader of the whole of Tonga, his rule saw many changes in Tongan politics. He abolished serfdom in Vavaʻu in 1835, published the Vavaʻu Code in 1838, the first written laws in Tonga. However, he would not abolished serfdom everywhere in Tonga, he opened the first parliament until 4 June 1862, still a public holiday called Emancipation Day, in Tonga. He made Pangai Ha'apai the first capital of his realm in 1845, he moved the capital to Nukuʻalofa in 1851. On 4 November 1875, the constitution was promulgated and Tonga became a kingdom. Siaosi took the name George Tupou I, King of Tonga. For this reason, both 1845 and 1875 are quoted as the beginning of his reign, he died in 1893 after a swim in the sea near his palace. He was buried in the New Royal Cemetery in Malaʻekula.
His children had predeceased him, so he was succeeded by his great-grandson twice over George Tupou II – the son of the daughter of his son and the son of his daughter. Due to the leadership of King Siaosi I, the history of Tonga is quite different from that of other Polynesian islands, he was a man. During his trip to Australia and New Zealand in 1853, when asking about the beggars he saw, he was told that they were unable to work since they had no land; this led to the constitution stating that land in Tonga could only be given to natural-born Tongans and not sold to outsiders, as is still the case today. Lātūkefu, S.. King George Tupo
Malietoa King is a state dynasty and chiefly title in Samoa. Translated as "great warrior," the title's origin comes from the final words of the Tongan warriors as they were fleeing on the beach to their boats, "Malie To`a, Malo e tau".. Great warrior, thank you for the war. In early Polynesian history Tongan king Tu'i Tonga Talakaifaiki of the Tu'i Tonga dynasty ruled, around 1250 to 1300, over several western Polynesian polities including Lau group of islands, Niue,'Uvea, Futuna,'Upolu, Savai'i). Tu'i Tonga Talakaifaiki established a long-term residence at Safotu, Savai'i, Samoa and installed his brother, Lautivunia, as governor of Western Samoa islands. Samoan lore suggests that Talakaifaiki's reign was one of tyranny and oppression, resented by his Samoan subjects; the seeds of rebellion were planted, according to legend, to the "sons" of Atiogie, namely Savea, Tuna and Ulumasui. The three brothers and their nephew lead a wide-scale campaign of civil disobedience which escalated into the military overthrow of Talakaifaiki.
Driven westward from Aleipata,'Upolu to the coast of Mulifanua, the king and his bodyguards were cornered against the sea. There was fierce fighting all the way to the sea whereon the Tu'i Tonga reached his superior navy vessels and called out to those on the land. Upon his departure, the aged monarch delivered a short speech which praised the brave fighting qualities of the Samoan warriors and conceded victory to his once-subjects; the Malietoa title is taken from the opening phrase of that speech: "Mālie toa, mālie tau," meaning "great warriors, well fought." It is said that the brothers Tuna and Fata both took a fancy to the honor spoken by the deposed Tu'i Tonga and a quarrel between the two ensued. Legend tells that one brother was struck dead by the other and chaos was averted by their eldest brother, who resuscitated and placated both contenders; the political vacuum left by the ousting of Talakaifaiki was filled by Savea, unanimously nominated as paramount ruler. King Savea was bestowed the title Malietoa which his brothers had fought over and was hence honored in Samoan oratory as King Malietoa Savea-ali'i, Na-fa'alogo-iai-Samoa, Savea Tu-vae-lua, Savea-matua.
The following is one of the common lists of the Malietoa paramount King. A handful of other versions are recorded, however the overall consistency of chronology and nomenclature is impressive given the oral nature of Samoan genealogy transmission. Malietoa Savea - the first King Malietoa and first central monarch of Samoa following the Tongan occupation of'Upolu, Savai'i, he married 3 times. His first wife was Luafatasane and their son was Malietoa Faiga Uilematutu, his second wife was Amaamaula and their sons were Malietoa Gagasavaea and Umusavea. His third wife was Solosolouta and their son was Poluleuligaga. Malietoa Uilematutu - known as King Malietoa Faiga or Malietoa Faisautele. Well known in Samoan mythology as a tyrant cannibal, he married Lealainuanua, a daughter of the Tu'i Tonga, resided at Foga'a on the north coast of'Upolu island. His half brothers Leupolusavea and Gagasavea may have ruled as Malietoa either in succession or simultaneously. Malietoa Galoa'itofo Malietoa Sona'ilepule Malietoa Seali'itele Malietoa Uilematutu Malietoa Fetoloa'i Malietoa'Ula - known as Malietoa Vaetui or Malietoa Valaletimu.
Said to have been a cruel cannibal king who lived at Leoneuta, near the village of Amoa on'Upolu island. Malietoa Lepalealai - a "scholar chief" known for his wit and love of complicated riddles Malietoa Uitualagi - son of Malietoa Uilematutu Faiga and Alainuanua Tuitoga, his position in the genealogy is debatable. But the truth is, he was Maleitoa Uitualagi's son with daughter of Tuitoga. Malietoa La'auli - known as Malietoa La'ailepouliuli. Adopted son of Malietoa Uitualagi; this is what some genealogies suggested but the truth is Malietoa Savea had 3 marriages which one of the lineage is where the current Malietoa's are descendant from. There was no break of the Malietoa blood from the first Maleitoa. Malietoa Uitualagi married Gatoloaiaoolelagi and their sons were Malietoa Laauli, Malietoa Fuaoleto'elau and a sister named Saotialeu. Malietoa Fuaoleto'elau - son of Uitualagi who opposed his brother La'auli by setting up a rival government at Si'umu,'Upolu. Tohu'ia Limapo, the Samoan ancestress of the Tu'i Kanokupolu dynasty of Tonga was a member of the'Ama family of Safata which descends from Fuaoleto'elau.
Malietoa Falefatu - son of Malietoa La'auli with his third wife Nuuilematuli of Maagiagi. Malietoa Taulapapa - A descendant of Malietoa La'auli. Malietoa Taulapapa is famous for his Mavaega or Decrees to his children; as a result of his decrees, he is why we now have the famous group of Matais called'FALEUPOLU O TOFIGA'. Malietoa Taia'opo - Daughter of Malietoa Taulapapa from one of his 4 wives, or usugas; the only female Malietoa known to history. Her husband was a ranking Tongan chief named Anava'o. Legend m
Niuafoʻou is the most northerly island in the kingdom of Tonga. It is a volcanic rim island with an area of 15 km2 and a population of 650 in 2006; the Niuafoʻou language is spoken on the island. The island is located in the southern Pacific Ocean between Fiji and Samoa, 574 km north of Tongatapu island group and 337 km northwest of Vavaʻu, it is still an active volcano. Other names for the island are Good Hope Tin Can island; the latter name originated from the fact that, since the island has neither a natural harbor nor a wharf, mail was delivered and picked up by strong swimmers who would retrieve packages, "sealed up in a biscuit tin" and thrown overboard from passing ships. Established in the nineteenth century, Tin Can Mail was developed by a trader named Charles Ramsey and commercialised by a competitor, Walter George Quensell, who festooned the mail with many colourful cachets that have become a collectors' item; the Tongan government took over this tradition with special Niuafoʻou stamps since 1983.
Niuafoʻou is a volcano located on an underwater ridge 190 kilometres west of the line of all the other volcanoes of Tonga. The island contains a steep-sided caldera; the coastline is steep with only a few stony black sand beaches. The only landing place on the island is the end of a lava flow at Futu, in the west. All the villages are in the north and east. Public places—like the post office, telecommunications station and airport —are in Angahā in the north, while a high school is located in Muʻa; the island ring encloses two lakes. The larger, Vai Lahi, is a crater lake 23 m above sea level, four km wide, 84 m deep; the lake contains a submerged island that appears when the water level drops. Vai Lahi is separated from the smaller Vai Siʻi by a desolate landscape of sand hills; the island is covered by forest on the inner walls of the crater lake, on the island's eastern and western slopes. Niuafoʻou has been an active volcano for thousands of years. In 1853, the village of ʻAhau was destroyed. Lava flows from eruptions in 1912 and 1929 destroyed the village of Futu, cut off the harbor, killed all the vegetation on the western slopes of the island.
Other eruptions occurred in 1935, 1936, 1943, 1946. The 1946 eruption was a violent one and in December 1946 Niuafoʻou's inhabitants were evacuated and resettled on the island of ʻEua. ʻEua and Niuafoʻou share many place names. The first groups of inhabitants were allowed to return to the island in 1958. According to the myths, Niuafoʻou had a mountain, rather than a lake in the middle, but the mountain became Tafahi. Niuafoʻou was put on the European maps by Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire during their famous circumnavigation of the globe in 1616. After their not so successful encounter with the islanders of Niuatoputapu, they approached this island with some more hope to find refreshments, so it was called Goede Hoop island, they found black cliffs, green on top, plenty of coconut trees, some houses along the seaside and a whole village near a landing place. But the ship the Eendracht could not anchor and they had to limit themselves with some trade with the Indians who came along in their swift canoes.
That went on fine for a short while. But when the islanders tried to get away with the small sounding boat, the Dutch had to use fire force again. After this they proceeded with their trip to the west, but veering towards the north and so happened to reach Futuna and Alofi. Between 1946 and 1947, the island was evacuated by the Tongan government following a volcanic eruption. In 1958 about half of the population returned to Niuafo'ou, the rest remained in'Eua. In January 2002, the island was devastated by Cyclone Waka which destroyed hundreds of homes and killed one person. List of volcanoes in Tonga Niuafoʻou language France–Tonga Maritime Delimitation Convention "Niuafo'ou". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Douglas and Ngaire. Niuafoʻou & Niuatoputapu:Tonga a Guide Retrieved July 29, 2005. Kerr, Robert Voyage round the world, in 1615-1617, by William Cornelison Schouten and Jacques le Maire, going round Cape Horn. Beware that the notes added by the editor are incorrect. Stanley, D.
South Pacific Handbook Ramsay, Charles Stuart, Plumb, Charles P. Tin Can Island: A Story of Tonga and the Swimming Mail Man of the South Seas, London: Hurst & Blackett. Scenery add-on for Microsoft Flight Simulator
Muʻa is a small town in the Hahake district on the island of Tongatapu, it was for centuries the ancient capital of Tonga. It is divided in the villages Lapaha and Tatakamotonga, is close to Talasiu and famous for the ancient langi. Muʻa is situated along the eastern side of the lagoon of Tongatapu. Except for a 50-to-200-metre-wide zone along the shore, low-lying mud, the remainder of the village is on high-lying red volcanic soil of high fertility. Lapaha is the home of the Tu'itonga Empire. Lapaha is the first capital of Tonga before the Tu'i Kanokupolu move it to Nukualofa. According to the 1996 census there were 3900 people living Muʻa, a number expected to rise to 4900 if confirmed by the November 2006 census. Most people of Lapaha are Roman Catholic, while Tatakamotonga is Wesleyan, although both see an increasing number of Mormons; this has a historical reason: the last Tuʻi Tonga was Roman Catholic and lived in Lapaha. Tatakamotonga has a government primary school in the northwestern part of the village and a high school run by the Wesleyan church in the north-east.
Lapaha has a government primary school and a high school run by the Roman Catholic Church at the eastern end of the village. Muʻa was at one time the center of Lapita culture in Tonga and the capital of the Tuʻi Tonga Empire. After the disintegration of the empire it remained the capital of the Tuʻi Tonga, up to the nineteenth century, but was rather a spiritual centre and no longer a source of political power; the Tuʻi Tonga and his retinue stayed in Lapaha, his residence being Olotele and ʻAhofakasiu, while Takuilau was for his wives. Subchiefs and servants on the other hand lived in Tatakamotonga. When, around 1470, the Tuʻi Tonga line started to lose power to the Tuʻi Haʻatakalaua, another century to the Tuʻi Kanokupolu, chiefs belonging to these lines were not welcome in Muʻa, had to stay on the low-lying coastal areas, separated from the'real' chiefs by the Hala Fonuamoa; the former became known as the kauhalalalo and the latter as the kauhalaʻuta, which nowadays are still two important moieties in Tonga.
Whatever political power the Tuʻi Tonga yielded to their rivals, they gained in spiritual power, as a kind of high priest they were even more awesome than as kings. When a Tuʻi Tonga died he was buried in one of the huge tomb hills, known as langi, of which there are still at least two dozen in Lapaha; the Tuʻi Haʻatakalaua were buried in such tombs, but they are called fale instead. The langi are big, artificial hills surrounded by huge slabs of coral rock in three or more tiered layers; these slabs were quarried from several places along the coast of Tongatapu or neighbouring minor islands. The waves of the sea made them over the centuries, by compacting coral sand into layers of 10 to 20 centimetres thick, they were only to be dug out and transported by boat to the building site. The accuracy by which the slabs were cut to shape so that they fit along each other with any space to spare is remarkable. One of the best-preserved langi is the Paepae-o-Teleʻa, more remarkable as the slabs along the corner have an'L' shape.
The story that the slabs were moved by magic means from ʻUvea to Tonga is just a myth. ʻUvea has not got the proper geology. This fact has always been known, as shown, for example by a stanza of the poem named Laveofo from around the 18th century by Tufui; the last Tuʻi Tonga, Laufiltonga was buried in langi Tuʻofefafa. His grave is still marked with a huge cross; the langi are still used nowadays as burial sites. When the Kalaniuvalu chief died in 1999 he was buried in the Paepae o Teleʻa; when the Tuʻi Pelehake chief, ʻUluvalu and his wife Kaimana died in 2006, they were buried in langi Nā Moala. Worthwhile visiting are the remaining groundworks of an old, deserted fort on the border of Talasiu and Lapaha. According to the matāpule Makalangahiva Langi Tuʻo teau Langi Kātoa Langi Fanakava ki langi Langi Tuʻo fefafa Langi Tau ʻa tonga Langi Malu ʻa tonga Langi Leka Langi Sinai Langi Taetaea Langi Faʻapite Langi Tōfā ua Langi Nukulau ʻuluaki Langi Nukulau ua Langi Foʻou Langi Hahake Langi ʻo Luani Langi Tauhala Langi Paepae ʻo Teleʻa Langi Nā Moala Langi Hēhēa Langi ʻEsi ʻa e kona Langi Malomaloaʻa Langi Nakuli ki langi Fale Loʻāmanu Fale Fakauō Fale Tuipapai Fale Pulemālō Fale Tauhakeleva The nickname of Lapaha is Paki mo e toʻi, referring to the many sweet smelling flowers which were to be picked to be made into kahoa, for the lords.
Tatakamotonga is known as Kolokakala and other variants of this name. An important tree with beautiful red flowers grew on the coastal marshland, its name is Fāʻonelua and it is a unique species of mangrove. Only the Tuʻi Tonga was allowed to wear its flowers as a garland, as such the name has become a symbol for his reign. E. W. Gifford, Tongan placenames, BPB 111, 1923