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Tuareg rebellion (2012)

The Tuareg Rebellion of 2012 was an early stage of the Northern Mali conflict. It was led by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad and was part of a series of insurgencies by traditionally nomadic Tuaregs which date back at least to 1916; the MNLA was formed by former insurgents and a significant number of armed Tuaregs who fought in the Libyan Civil War. On 22 March, President Amadou Toumani Touré was ousted in a coup d'état over his handling of the crisis, a month before a presidential election was to have taken place. Mutineering soldiers, under the banner of the National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State, suspended the constitution of Mali, although this move was reversed on 1 April; the Islamist group Ansar Dine, began fighting the government in stages of the conflict, claiming control of vast swathes of territory, albeit disputed by the MNLA. As a consequence of the instability following the coup, Northern Mali's three largest cities—Kidal and Timbuktu—were overrun by the rebels on three consecutive days.

On 5 April, after the capture of Douentza, the MNLA said that it had accomplished its goals and called off its offensive. The following day, it proclaimed Azawad's independence from Mali. After the end of hostilities with the Malian Army, Tuareg nationalists and Islamists struggled to reconcile their conflicting visions for the intended new state. On 27 June, Islamists from the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa clashed with the MNLA in the Battle of Gao, wounding MNLA secretary-general Bilal Ag Acherif and taking control of the city. By 17 July, Ansar Dine had pushed the MNLA out of all the major cities. On 14 February 2013 the MNLA renounced their claim of independence for Azawad and asked the Malian government to start negotiations on its future status. For decades prior to the 2012 rebellion, Tuareg political leaders had asserted that the nomadic Tuareg people were marginalized and impoverished in both Mali and Niger, that mining projects had damaged important pastoral areas. Issues such as climate change and a rooted background of forced modernization onto the northern Nomadic areas of Mali have caused much tension between the Tuareg peoples and the Malian government.

Tuareg separatist groups had staged previous unsuccessful rebellions in 1990 and in 2007. Many of the Tuaregs fighting in the rebellion have received training from Gaddafi's Islamic Legion during his tenure in Libya. Hence many of the combatants are experienced with a variety of warfare techniques that have posed major problems to the national governments of Mali and Niger; the MNLA is an offshoot of a Tuareg political movement known as the National Movement for Azawad prior to the 2012 insurgency. After the end of the Libyan Civil War, an influx of weaponry led to the arming of the Tuareg in their demand for independence for Azawad. Many of the returnees from Libya were said to have come back for financial reasons such as losing their savings, as well as due to the alleged racism of the NTC's fighters and militias. Another commentator described the US as a catalyst for the rebellion, citing the training of Tuareg rebels by the U. S. and the overthrow of Libya's government in 2011. The strength of this uprising and the use of heavy weapons, which were not present in the previous conflicts, were said to have "surprised" Malian officials and observers.

Such issues arise from an illicit weapons trade around the Sahel region, linked to a variety of factors, including the funneling of weapons from Libya. Though dominated by Tuaregs, the MNLA claimed to represent other ethnic groups as well, was joined by some Arab leaders; the MNLA's leader Bilal Ag Acherif said that the onus was on Mali to either give the Saharan peoples their self-determination or they would take it themselves. Another Tuareg-dominated group, the Islamist Ansar Dine fought against the government. However, unlike the MNLA it does not seek independence but rather the impositions of sharia across united Mali; the movement's leader Iyad Ag Ghaly, part of the early 1990s rebellion, is believed to be linked to an offshoot of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, led by his cousin Hamada Ag Hama. Iyad Ag Ghaly was said to have been affiliated with Algeria's Département du Renseignement et de la Sécurité since 2003. There were reports of an Algerian military presence in the area on 20 December 2011.

Though Mali said they were in coordination against AQIM, there were no reported attacks in the region at the time. Locals believed that the presence was due to the MNLA's promise to root out AQIM, involved in drug trafficking with the connivance of high-ranking officers and threatened to turn Mali into a narcostate. According to Stratfor, the first attacks took place in Ménaka on 16 and 17 January, which left 2 Malian soldiers and 1 rebel dead On 17 January attacks in Aguelhok and Tessalit were reported; the Mali government claimed to have regained control of all three towns the next day. On 21 January, a Malian convoy bringing army reinforcements and an arsenal of weapons to the garrison in liberated Aguelhok was ambushed near the village of In-Esmal, killing between 50 and 101 Malian soldiers including several captains. On 24 January the rebels retook Aguelhok after the Malian army ran out of ammunition. On 24 January, after the rebels captured Aguelhok the Islamists group AQIM summarily executed 97 Malian soldiers after they surrendered.

The next day the Mali gov

Mode for Mabes

Mode for Mabes is an album by tenor saxophonist Eric Alexander. It was released by Delmark Records; the album was recorded in May 1997. The sextet contains tenor saxophonist Eric Alexander, trumpeter Jim Rotondi, trombonist Steve Davis, pianist Harold Mabern, bassist John Webber, drummer George Fludas. Mode for Mabes was released by Delmark Records; the AllMusic reviewer described it as "modern mainstream post-to-hard bop at its finest". "Mode for Mabes" – 8:39 "Sugar Ray" – 8:02 "For Heaven's Sake" – 10:07 "Erik the Red" – 8:49 "Love Thy Neighbor" – 8:33 "Stay Straight" – 6:16 "Stairway to the Stars" – 8:40 "Naima" – 11:17 Eric Alexander – tenor saxophone Jim Rotondi – trumpet Steve Davis – trombone Harold Mabern – piano John Webber – bass George Fludas – drums


The Schlüchtsee is a little, artificial lake in the Southern Black Forest near Grafenhausen in the county of Waldshut in Germany, through which the River Schlücht flows. In 1791, St. Blaise Abbey needed an ice pond for the nearby brewery in Rothaus and so the Schlücht was impounded. A textile dyers' was soon added; the meadows were used for the lake water for dying. Bathing was not introduced until the 20th century and it is from this time that the little wooden bathing hut comes. With the development of the lake by Swiss nobleman, Ernest of Adelsheim, around 1920 the value of conservation water lilies was established; this was continued by the former tenant of Erich Gold. Today the water lilies is separated from the bathing area by logs. Today, the bathing beach has a kiosk; the area of the lake, which lies at a height of 914 metres above sea level north of the Schlüchtsee farm between Grafenhausen and Rothaus, is about 6 ha and it has a shoreline just under 0.73 kilometres long. It is 260 metres across from north to south and 230 metres from east to west.

It is up to 5 metres deep. The lake is popular for angling. A path runs past the lake to the Hüsli, named after Klausjürgen Wussow; the lake is part of a nature reserve, no. 3,032 covering 8.5 ha and known as the "Schlüchtsee", established on 11 October 1940. Christian Neumann, Die Seen des Schwarzwaldes, 1978, ISBN 3-921340-34-9 Rudolf Metz, Geologische Landeskunde des Hotzenwaldes, 1987 ISBN 3-7946-01742 Regierungspräsidium Freiburg: Die Naturschutzgebiete im Regierungsbezirk Freiburg. Thorbecke, Stuttgart, 2011, ISBN 978-3-7995-5177-9 Fact file of the Nature Reserve in the index of protected areas published by the Baden-Württemberg Office for the Environment and Conservation

Wilhelm Hegeler

Wilhelm Hegeler was a German novelist. He studied law at the universities of Munich and Berlin, traveled extensively, returned to Munich in 1895 to settle down to literary work, he moved to Berlin in 1897 and to Weimar in 1906. He engaged in the production, at first, of naturalistic novels dealing with the life of the population along the river Rhine of humorous satires, their popularity in Germany was great, Hegeler's books appeared among the lists of best sellers for certain years. His works include: Sonnige Tage Ingenieur Horstmann Das Ärgernis His stories were at first characterized by a rather sharp and painful naturalism, but assumed a convincing and powerful realism; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Hegeler, Wilhelm". Encyclopedia Americana. Works by or about Wilhelm Hegeler at Internet Archive

Guyton, Georgia

Guyton is a city in Effingham County, United States. The population was 1,684 at the 2010 census, up from 917 in 2000. Guyton is part of the Savannah Metropolitan Statistical Area and is located 28 miles northwest of that city's center. While some of the early settlers came from the Savannah area, it seems that most came from North and South Carolina. In 1792 a tract of 250 acres of land in the form of a land warrant from Effingham County was issued to Squire Zachariah White; the community became known as "Whitesville". The Squire was not married and left no heir when he died in 1838. White had granted a right-of-way to the new Central of Georgia Railway Co. prior to his death. He was buried on his own land, his grave is in the rear of the present New Providence Church. Years a local controversy was started when some of this community tried to have Squire White's grave moved to the new local cemetery, it was never moved. Shortly after White's death, the Effingham County Commissioners took over his land for unpaid taxes.

They had a survey made, laid off lots and streets just as they still are today, sold it all at public auction as payment of his taxes. Many lots were bought by affluent Savannah residents as a place for a summer home. At this time, the fever was bad in Savannah; when the Central of Georgia Railroad Company, having a charter to build and operate a railroad from Savannah to Macon and on to Marthasville, laid their track through Whitesville in 1837 or 1838, they referred to this place as Station Number 30. After a short time, locals asked the railroad company to give this place a name so they could request the federal government to place a post office here. Since there was another town in the state named Whitesville, Mr. W. W. Gordon, President of the Central Railroad, named this location "Guyton", after Archibald Guyton, a prominent local citizen; the U. S. Post Office established a post office at Guyton, December 31, 1851. Guyton was an affluent town by the time of the Civil War. During the Civil War, the Confederacy built a hospital in Guyton.

There are 26 Confederate soldiers buried in the local cemetery. When General Sherman marched from Atlanta to Savannah on his burn and destroy mission, he came through Guyton with his main body of troops, it took five days for his army to pass through, with some of his troops looting and stealing. The depot and tracks were destroyed, which could explain why some records of this period are not complete. In 1887, Guyton was issued a town charter by the State of Georgia; the local member of the Georgia Legislature who had the bill introduced and passed was Colonel Clarance Guyton, a grandson of Archibald Guyton. The Guyton City Hall has had many requests for information about the family of Guytons. However, little is known about their background, they were rumored to have come from England to North Carolina. Archibald Guyton came to this area from North Carolina in 1825, he was married twice. His first wife was the widow Tondee of Savannah. There is a Tondee farm or plantation listed in Effingham County near Guyton during this period, so she may have had connections there.

The Georgia census of 1850 shows Archibald came to Georgia in 1825. He was in the timber business, his first wife, widow Tondee is buried in the old Providence Baptist Cemetery. His second wife was Harriet Patterson, of this area. Archibald had a son, Charles, by his second wife. There were several girls as are listed in his cemetery plot. Archibald's grandson, was an attorney and maintained a law office in Savannah. Everyone called him Colonel Guyton, he was a member of the Georgia Legislature and was prominent. There are no families named Guyton living in the community today; the last Guyton family home, occupied by Clarance, his sister Belle Hendry, his sister Tallullah and her husband Fred Seckinger is still in excellent condition. It is located on Highway 17, just north of the Guyton city limits; every December, the spirit of Christmas is highlighted in Guyton with an annual tour of homes. This community-sponsored event will host around three to four thousand visitors every year. Visitors will tour about a dozen homes, nearly all of the churches are open for the tour.

Many homes in the historic district will have lighted doors. The festivities begin with a country supper and tour of the historical city; as visitors drive down main street in Guyton, they can view the lighted trees that line the old railroad median for one-mile. The Guyton Volunteer Fire Department illuminates the nearly 7,000 lights each year on the Saturday following Thanksgiving. Today, Guyton is still one with much history; as visitors drive through its narrow lanes and streets in December of each year, they see a Georgia town pretty much the way it was nearly a century ago. Guyton is located in west-central Effingham County at 32°20′11″N 81°23′38″W. State Routes 119 cross in the southwest part of town. GA 17 leads northwest 15 miles to Oliver and south 16 miles to Bloomingdale, west of Savannah, while GA 119 leads northeast 5 miles to Springfield, the Effingham County seat, southwest 14 miles to Interstate 16 in Bulloch County. According to the United States Census Bureau, Guyton has a total area of 3.2 square miles, of which 0.02 square miles, or 0.48%, is water.

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,684 people living in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 60.3% White, 35.7% Black, 0.1% Native American, 0.4% Asian and 1.4% from two or more races. 2.2 % were Latino of any race. As of the census o

Tropical Storm Dean (1995)

Tropical Storm Dean was a short-lived storm that formed in late July 1995 and lasted into early August. It was the fourth named storm of the 1995 Atlantic hurricane season, it spent most of its life as a tropical depression, gained tropical storm status before its landfall on the Texas coast on July 30. After landfall, it dissipated over central Texas on August 2; the impacts from Dean were minimal due to heavy rain in Oklahoma and Texas that caused localized coastal and inland flooding. Two F0 Tornadoes touched down in Texas as a result of Dean's landfall. Twenty families had to be evacuated in Chambers County, due to flooding in the area. One fatality was recorded as a result of flooding in Oklahoma. Several highways were flooded out in Oklahoma. In addition $500,000 worth of damage was recorded in the aftermath of Dean; the precursor system that would form Dean was a stationary front situated in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico in the last week of July. On July 27, it developed a weak upper-level circulation indicated by reports from buoys in the Gulf, its structure was disorganized but was in the process of organizing.

The system continued to organize early on July 28, that afternoon it developed a surface circulation. The tropical depression that spawned Dean was thought to have formed at around 1800 UTC, July 28, it was declared Tropical Depression Four that same day with the center located about 345 miles southeast of New Orleans. At first, the depression tracked westward because it was blocked by a ridge of high pressure to the north; the system was under frequent reconnaissance surveillance, the depression remained poorly organized and continued to be at tropical depression status well into 29 July. The organization of the system hindered further development despite favorable conditions with low wind shear and warm sea surface temperatures. Late on July 29, the system began to execute a turn to the northwest with an increase in forward speed, it still remained a poorly organized tropical depression south of Louisiana. On July 30, the system's circulation began to organize and the first reports of tropical storm-force squalls were reported as it moved closer to the Texas coast.

Based on this the National Hurricane Center issued tropical storm warnings for much of the Texas and Louisiana coast, from Intracoastal City, Louisiana to Corpus Christi, Texas. That afternoon it strengthened into Tropical Storm Dean while located just 70 mi off the coast; the Hurricane Hunters confirmed that Dean strengthened in the final hours before its landfall on the Texas coast to a 45 mph storm, made landfall near Freeport, Texas at 8:30 pm CDT July 31. Shortly after its landfall, Dean weakened back to tropical depression strength as it tracked further northwest into Texas; the depression stalled in central Texas on August 1 and remained there for 36 hours until the next day, dropping heavy rain over parts of the state. Late on August 2, it dissipated; the remnants of Dean moved up into Oklahoma, where it caused heavy rainfall, forcing roads to close and rescues to be made. Dean dropped heavy rain across the Midwest states as well; some areas in Kansas received more than seven inches of rain.

Illinois and Indiana each had areas that received more than 5 inches of rain from Dean. Because of Dean's proximity to land upon formation, there was little warning in advance of the storm. Tropical storm warnings were issued at 0300 UTC on July 30 from Intracoastal City, Louisiana to Corpus Christi, Texas; the warnings were up for 23 hours before landfall, were allowed to expire at 0300 UTC July 31. Most of the damage from Dean was concentrated in the states of Oklahoma; the damage, if any, was due to the heavy rain across both states. The total cost of the damage totaled to $500,000. In Texas, most of the damage was due to inland flooding. Heavy rainfall of 6 to 18 inches was reported across a large swath of Texas; the heaviest measured amount was 17.4 inches near Texas. Rainfall amounts of two to six inches were common throughout the eastern part of the state. In total, 38 houses were flooded in southeast Texas; the freshwater flooding resulted in the evacuation of 20 families in Chambers County.

250 people had to evacuate from their homes near Abilene, Texas due to floodwater. The storm surge impacts were minor, ranging from 3 to 5 feet above mean sea level. A portion of State Highway 87 was flooded from the storm surge, although no significant property damage was reported as a result of it. Minor beach erosion and street flooding was reported on Galveston Island; the highest wind gust on land was 51 mph at Scholes Field. There were two tornadoes confirmed as a result of Dean. One touched down on High Island in Galveston County, the other touched down near Anahuac. Both tornadoes were rated as F0 with minor damage. Oklahoma saw heavy rain as well from the remnants of Dean. Over 5 inches of rain fell in the town of Stillwater, the highest amount, 12.07 inches, was recorded at Great Salt Plains Dam, Oklahoma. Over 40 homes were flooded in the area by the heavy rain, about 24 cars were found stranded in high water. Thunderstorms, associated with Dean's remnants, dumped heavy rain across the state, resulting in flash flooding in many areas.

The flooding, in many areas, made travel near impossible. U. S Highway 62 in Jackson County and Highway 5 in Harmon County were both closed due to flash flooding covering their roadways. State Highway 51 was under 1.5 feet of water at times. Several oth